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Atmospheric resuspension of insoluble radioactive cesium bearing particles found in the difficult-to-return area in Fukushima

Tang, P.*; 北 和之*; 五十嵐 康人*; 佐藤 志彦; 畑中 恒太郎*; 足立 光司*; 木名瀬 健*; 二宮 和彦*; 篠原 厚*

Progress in Earth and Planetary Science (Internet), 9(1), p.17_1 - 17_15, 2022/03

The deposition of insoluble radiocesium bearing microparticles (CsMPs), which were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident in March 2011, has resulted in the widespread contamination of eastern Japan. Obviously, these deposited insoluble CsMPs may become the secondary contamination sources by atmospheric migration or other environmental transferring process, however, the understanding of the transport mechanism remains non-elucidation, and the relevant evidence has not been directly provided. This study, for the first time, provides the direct evidence for the resuspension of these insoluble CsMPs to the atmosphere from (1) proximity of $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity and resemblance of the morphology and the elemental compositions of CsMPs in the samples of soil and aerosol derived from the same sampling site, (2) the special characteristics of the resuspended CsMPs of which the ratios of Na/Si, K/Si and/or Cs/Si were smaller than those from the initially released CsMPs collected at either long distance or near F1NPP, which can be ascribed to the slowly natural corrosion of CsMPs by the loss of the small amount of soluble contents in CsMPs, and (3) high CsMPs concentration of 10 granules/gram in the surface soil of our sampling site, and high resuspension frequency of CsMPs in spring when predominant suspended particles were soil dust.


Deposition and dispersion of radio-cesium released due to the Fukushima Nuclear accident, 2; Sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties of Cs-bearing microparticles (CsMPs)

梶野 瑞王*; 足立 光司*; 五十嵐 康人*; 佐藤 志彦; 澤田 壮弘*; 関山 剛*; 財前 祐二*; 佐谷 茜*; 鶴田 治雄*; 森口 祐一*

Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 126(1), 23 Pages, 2021/01

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:87.32(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)

The dispersion and deposition of radio-cesium ($$^{137}$$Cs) carried by the two types (type A and type B) of water-insoluble Cs-bearing solid microparticles (CsMPs) released due to the Fukushima nuclear accident were simulated for the first time. The presence of type B CsMPs (70-400 $$mu$$m found in soil and 1-5 $$mu$$m found in air), associated with the hydrogen explosion of Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, could partly explain the simulated underestimation of total deposition over land by assuming that 100% of the Cs carriers were water-soluble submicron particles (WSPs). Type A CsMPs (0.1-10 $$mu$$m), released from Units 2 or 3 in the midnight between March 14 and 15, travelled over the Kanto Plain, the most populated plain in Japan. Differences in the size distribution of type A CsMPs altered the surface air concentration over Kanto substantially, by up to more than one order of magnitude. The major deposition mechanisms varied among dry, wet, and fog depositions depending on the size distribution. The simulated activity fractions due to the CsMPs in the total deposition were compared to those observed in surface soil for the first time. The observations could be explained by the simulations for the locations under the influence of type B CsMPs. However, the simulations were substantially underestimated for the locations influenced by type A CsMPs. There could be more fractions of type A CsMPs emission in the source term and/or the simulated deposition rates of type A CsMPs were underestimated.


Role of advection in atmospheric ammonia; A Case study at a Japanese lake basin influenced by agricultural ammonia sources

久保田 智大; 黒田 久雄*; 渡邊 未来*; 高橋 晃子*; 中里 亮治*; 樽井 美香*; 松本 俊一*; 中川 圭太*; 沼田 康子*; 大内 孝雄*; et al.

Atmospheric Environment, 243, p.117856_1 - 117856_9, 2020/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Environmental Sciences)



Project IPAD; A Database to catalogue the analysis of Fukushima Daiichi accident fragmental release material

Martin, P.*; Alhaddad, O.*; Verbelen, Y.*; 佐藤 志彦; 五十嵐 康人*; Scott, T. B.*

Scientific Data (Internet), 7, p.282_1 - 282_8, 2020/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.91(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant released a considerable inventory of radioactive material into the local and global environments. While the vast majority of this contamination was in the form of gaseous and aerosol species, of which a large component was distributed out over the neighbouring Pacific Ocean (where is was subsequently deposited), a substantial portion of the radioactive release was in particulate form and was deposited across Fukushima Prefecture. To provide an underpinning understanding of the dynamics of this catastrophic accident, alongside assisting in the off-site remediation and eventual reactor decommissioning activities, the "International Particle Analysis Database", or "IPAD", was established to serve as an interactive repository for the continually expanding analysis dataset of the sub-mm ejecta particulate. In addition to a fully interrogatable database of analysis results for registered users (exploiting multiple search methods), the database also comprises an open-access front-end for members of the public to engage with the multi-national analysis activities by exploring a streamlined version of the data.


A Review of Cs-bearing microparticles in the environment emitted by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

五十嵐 康人*; 小暮 敏博*; 栗原 雄一; 三浦 輝*; 奥村 大河*; 佐藤 志彦; 高橋 嘉夫*; 山口 紀子*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 205-206, p.101 - 118, 2019/09

 被引用回数:29 パーセンタイル:76.47(Environmental Sciences)

福島第一原子力発電所事故ではチェルノブイリ原発事故と異なるケイ素,酸素,鉄,亜鉛を含む放射性微粒子が発見された。この放射性微粒子は高濃度のセシウムを含むことからセシウムマイクロパーティクル(CsMP)と呼ばれることもある。またこの粒子は少なくとも2種類が見つかっており、発見された順番に、2, 3号機(放出源未確定)と1号機由来をそれぞれTypeA, TypeBと呼んでおり、Cs同位体比, 形態, 採取場所で分類されている。本レビューではこれらの背景を含むCsMPの全体像を紹介する。


Analysis of two forms of radioactive particles emitted during the early stages of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident

佐藤 志彦; 末木 啓介*; 笹 公和*; 吉川 英樹; 中間 茂雄; 箕輪 はるか*; 阿部 善也*; 中井 泉*; 小野 貴大*; 足立 光司*; et al.

Geochemical Journal, 52(2), p.137 - 143, 2018/00

 被引用回数:44 パーセンタイル:98.16(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Two types of radioactive particles have been isolated from environmental samples collected at various distances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. "Type A" particles are 2-10 $$mu$$m in diameter and display characteristic Cs X-ray emissions when analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). "Type B" particles are considerably larger, up to 400 $$mu$$m in diameter, with Cs concentrations too low to be detectable by EDS. These larger particles were isolated from the region to the north of the nuclear reactor site, which was contaminated on March 12, 2011. The specific activity of Type B particles is much lower than Type A, and the mean $$^{134}$$Cs$$/^{137}$$Cs ratios are $$sim$$0.93 and 1.04, respectively. The Type B ratio indicates power station Unit 1 as the source, implying that these larger radioactive particles were discharged on March 12. This study found that different type of radioactive particle was released not only on March 15 but also on March 12.



小野 貴大*; 飯澤 勇信*; 阿部 善也*; 中井 泉*; 寺田 靖子*; 佐藤 志彦; 末木 啓介*; 足立 光司*; 五十嵐 康人*

分析化学, 66(4), p.251 - 261, 2017/04

 被引用回数:26 パーセンタイル:84.26(Chemistry, Analytical)




梶野 瑞王*; 出牛 真*; 眞木 貴史*; 青柳 曉典*; 五十嵐 康人*; 三上 正男*; 猪股 弥生*; 堅田 元喜

no journal, , 

気象研究所環境・応用気象研究部では、オフライン型の化学輸送モデル(MRI Integrated Passive-tracers Model)を開発している。このモデルは、扱う物質によってPM/c, PM/p, PM/rの3つに分かれている。PM/cは対流圏エアロゾル化学輸送モデルであり、58種の気体と39種のエアロゾルを扱う。PM/pは、残留性有機化合物の輸送モデルであり、16種のPAH(多環芳香族炭化水素)と1種のN-PAH(ニトロPAH)を考慮している。従来のPOPsモデルでは、POPs種ごとに輸送特性を与えてモデル化するが、PM/cで予測されたエアロゾルとの相互作用を考慮することにより、PM/pではPOPsの輸送特性をより現実的に考慮することができる。PM/rは、人工放射性核種の輸送モデルであり、原発事故で放出されるガス態のXe, I$$_{2}$$, CH$$_{3}$$Iと粒子態のI, Csを考慮している。本発表では、モデルの概要とそのパフォーマンスを示す。



佐藤 志彦*; 末木 啓介*; 笹 公和*; 箕輪 はるか*; 吉川 英樹; 藤原 健壮; 中間 茂雄; 足立 光司*; 五十嵐 康人*

no journal, , 



Deposition and dispersion of radio-cesium; Sensitivity to meteorological models and aerosol properties

梶野 瑞王*; 関山 剛*; 五十嵐 康人*; 足立 光司*; 財前 祐二*; 澤田 壮弘*; 佐藤 志彦; 森口 祐一*

no journal, , 

A great number of atmospheric simulations have been conducted to understand the consequences of FDNPP accident. We came to know wet deposition is important but don't know to what extent. We know simulations vary but we don't know why. Meteorological model comparison with a single dispersion model was conducted to evaluate the magnitude of uncertainty in meteorological simulations. Among the deposition processes, rainout by liquid precipitation was the most important process. The fog deposition was the next, which was not considered in any other models but Katata et al., ACP (2015) and this study. Fog deposition is the main cause for the deposition in Gunma and Tochigi prefecture. All the simulation underestimated the airborne observation of Cs deposition, which amounted to 2.6 PBq. The underestimation is approximately 1.5 PBq (1 PBq in Hamadori and 0.4 PBq in Nakadori). It is due to underestimation of deposition process, which is the main finding of the meteorological model ensemble study: Some model overestimated while others underestimated both the precipitation and surface concentration, and therefore the precipitation and source term estimation should be reasonable and not be the cause of underestimation. By considering the A-type (Adachi et al., Sci. Rep., 2014) and S-type (Satou et al., Anthropocene, 2016) of Cs-ball particles, associated with the SRV opening of Unit 2 and Hydrogen explosion of Unit 1, respectively, the underestimation of simulated Cs deposition could be significantly improved. The maximum estimation of the additional deposition due to Cs-ball amounted approximately 1 PBq.



黒澤 景一*; 岩田 歩*; 佐藤 志彦; 阿部 善也*; 五十嵐 康人*; 奥田 知明*

no journal, , 

福島第一原子力発電所事故によって大気中に飛散した放射性物質のうち、放射性Cs微粒子(CsMP: radiocaesium-bearing microparticles)と呼ばれる不溶性の粒子が存在することが知られている。放射性のエアロゾル粒子はその$$beta$$崩壊に起因する電子線放射によって自家帯電することが指摘されているため、CsMPの健康影響を正確に評価するためにはその帯電状態についても明らかにする必要がある。しかしながら、実環境中から採取された粒子個々の詳細な電気的特性を測定する手法は未だ確立されておらず、とりわけ実際の福島第一原子力発電所事故由来の粒子について測定した例はない。そこで本研究ではKPFM (Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy)法を用いて粒子の表面電位を測定する手法を確立し、CsMPの詳細な電気的特性を明らかにすることを目的とした。結果、粒子の基板に対する表面電位の値は+0.3V $$sim$$ -0.3Vの範囲であった。粒子中央付近では負に、粒子外縁付近では正の表面電位を示すというように、同一粒子内での表面電位の偏りが確認された。この様な粒子内での表面電位分布の偏りは放射性Csの分布に起因する可能性が高いと考えられる。



佐藤 志彦; 五十嵐 康人*; Martin, P.*; Alhaddad, O.*; Scott, T.*

no journal, , 



移流の重要性; 農業系アンモニア揮散の影響を受けた霞ヶ浦流域における事例研究

堅田 元喜*; 久保田 智大; 黒田 久雄*; 渡邊 未来*; 高橋 晃子*; 中里 亮治*; 樽井 美香*; 松本 俊一*; 中川 圭太*; 沼田 康子*; et al.

no journal, , 


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