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JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima (FY2018) (Translated document)

Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.

JAEA-Research 2020-007, 249 Pages, 2020/10

JAEA-Research-2020-007.pdf:15.83MB

The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in the Environment of Fukushima" concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Key factors controlling radiocesium sorption and fixation in river sediments around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, 1; Insights from sediment properties and radiocesium distributions

Tachi, Yukio; Sato, Tomofumi*; Akagi, Yosuke*; Kawamura, Makoto*; Nakane, Hideji*; Terashima, Motoki; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki

Science of the Total Environment, 724, p.138098_1 - 138098_11, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:33.52(Environmental Sciences)

To understand and predict radiocesium transport behaviors in the environment, highly contaminated sediments from Ukedo and Odaka rivers around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were investigated systematically focusing on key factors controlling radiocesium sorption and fixation, including particle size, clay mineralogy and organic matter.

Journal Articles

Key factors controlling radiocesium sorption and fixation in river sediments around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, 2; Sorption and fixation behaviors and their relationship to sediment properties

Tachi, Yukio; Sato, Tomofumi*; Takeda, Chizuko*; Ishidera, Takamitsu; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki

Science of the Total Environment, 724, p.138097_1 - 138097_10, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

To understand and predict radiocesium transport behaviors in the environment, sorption and fixation behaviors of radiocesium on river sediments from Ukedo and Odaka rivers around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were investigated systematically focusing on Cs sorption and fixation mechanisms and their relationship with Cs concentrations and sediment properties including clay mineralogy and organic matter.

Journal Articles

Mineral composition characteristics of radiocesium sorbed and transported sediments within the Tomioka river basin in Fukushima Prefecture

Hagiwara, Hiroki; Konishi, Hiromi*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki; Kitamura, Akihiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 211, p.106042_1 - 106042_10, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Temporal decrease in air dose rate in the sub-urban area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident during four years after decontamination works

Nakama, Shigeo; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Kenso; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Iijima, Kazuki

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106013_1 - 106013_8, 2019/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:42.3(Environmental Sciences)

Trends of air dose rate decrease after decontamination works and factors which affect them constitute essential information for radiation protection, such as prediction of external exposure to the public and implementation of measures to reduce such exposure. This study investigated the decrease of air dose rate (ambient dose rate at 1 m above the ground) at 163 points across sub-urban areas in the evacuation zone around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the period of four years following the decontamination works carried out in November 2012. The air dose rate on the asphalt pavement decreased faster than on soil surfaces. In addition, air dose rates near the forest decreased at a slower pace than in open fields. These results suggest that the air dose rate in urbanized areas can decrease faster than in other types of land, even after decontamination. Based on comparisons with decrease rates obtained in other studies, the air dose rate tends to decrease faster outside the evacuation zone than inside it. The decrease in air dose rate after decontamination was slower than before decontamination. The contribution of the weathering effect and human activity was estimated to be about 80% and 20% of the ecological decrease rate, respectively.

Journal Articles

Radiation dose distribution in a mountainous area nearby the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and data analysis

Dohi, Terumi; Muto, Kotomi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kanaizuka, Seiichi*; Iijima, Kazuki

KEK Proceedings 2019-2, p.14 - 19, 2019/11

In order to investigate the effect of topography, meteorological condition, etc., on the spatial distribution of air dose rate on the main plume path, we evaluated walking survey data of air dose rates on Mt. Koutaishi and Mt. Juman, directed in northwest of and approximately 33 km and 11 km from the FDNPP. Measurements were performed on two orbital routs with different constant altitudes and general mountain trails in each mountain. The measurement data were compared with airborne monitoring results to investigate the relation between the dose rate distribution and elevation and orientation. At Mt. Koutaishi, the air dose rate was particularly high on the east side of the mountain, and the significant dependence of direction on the dose rate distribution was observed. Furthermore, high dose rate near the mountain foot indicates possibility of large deposition of $$^{137}$$Cs due to the plume passage from the FDNPP. At Mt. Juman, uniformly distribution of air dose rate was observed, and effect of wet deposition was considered. These results suggest the possibility of different deposition mechanisms in mountain range unit.

Journal Articles

Electron microscopic analysis of radiocaesium-bearing microparticles in lichens collected within 3 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

Dohi, Terumi; Tagomori, Hisaya; Omura, Yoshihito*; Fujiwara, Kenso; Kanaizuka, Seiichi*; Iijima, Kazuki

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI, p.58 - 70, 2019/09

In this study we established a separation method for radiocaesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs) from lichens using electron microscopic analysis. Lichens were first digested within hydrogen peroxide and then an automatic particle analyser system based on FE-EPMA was used for detecting CsMPs within lots of mineral-like and metallic particles quickly. The elemental composition and radiocaesium activities of the separated CsMPs were measured, and the results show that the digestion treatment did not influence the CsMPs characteristics. An inhomogeneous elemental distribution was found in some CsMPs by two-dimensional elemental analysis using FE-EMPA. Our methods for separation of CsMPs and analysing their elemental composition are expected to be useful for grasping the chemical composition trends of CsMPs statistically.

Journal Articles

Rapid determination of Sr-90 in environmental matrices by SPE-ICP-MS for emergency monitoring

Fujiwara, Kenso; Yanagisawa, Kayo*; Iijima, Kazuki

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI, p.89 - 96, 2019/09

Since Strontium-90 (Sr-90) is one of the high yield and hazardous fission products, accurate and low-level detection of Sr-90 is essential for environmental samples. Especially, in case of nuclear power plant accidents, rapid and precise assessment of Sr-90 for environmental monitoring and health physics is required. In order to evaluate the migration of radionuclides in the environment, not only Sr-90 in water but also those in soil and biological samples should be measured. A new method for rapid quantification of Sr-90 by online solid phase extraction coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SPE-ICP-MS) has been developed. In this method, it is unavoidable to eliminate the interference by polyatomic ion (e.g., ArCa, Ca$$_{2}$$) induced by isotopes and matrices in fishes and soil. In this study, SPE-ICP-MS method was applied to the measurement of Sr-90 in fishes, and the influence of the Sr isotopes and coexisting ions such as Ca was evaluated.

JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima (FY2018)

Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.

JAEA-Research 2019-002, 235 Pages, 2019/08

JAEA-Research-2019-002.pdf:21.04MB

The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (hereinafter referred to 1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, JAEA has been conducting Long-term Environmental Dynamics Research concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Inner structure and inclusions in radiocesium-bearing microparticles emitted in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Okumura, Taiga*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Dohi, Terumi; Iijima, Kazuki; Kogure, Toshihiro*

Microscopy, 68(3), p.234 - 242, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:18.46(Microscopy)

Radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs), consisting substantially of silicate glass, were released to the environment during the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. We investigated a total of nine CsMPs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inferred the atmosphere in the reactors during the accident. From elemental mapping using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fe and Zn showing radial inhomogeneities were found in the CsMPs, in addition to the Cs that had been previously reported. Four of the CsMPs included submicron crystals, which were identified as chromite, franklinite, acanthite, molybdenite, and hessite. The chromium-containing spinels, chromite and franklinite, indicated the presence of ferrous iron (Fe$$^{2+}$$), suggesting that the inside of the reactors was reductive to some extent. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy also confirmed that the CsMPs did not contain boron, and therefore the atmosphere in which they were formed might be boron-free.

JAEA Reports

Separation of radiocaesium-bearing micro particle from environmental samples; Application to litter samples

Tagomori, Hisaya; Dohi, Terumi; Ishii, Yasuo; Kanaizuka, Seiichi*; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki

JAEA-Technology 2019-001, 37 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Technology-2019-001.pdf:26.85MB

An efficient methodology for separating the radiocaesium-bearing micro particles (CsMPs) released by the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident is required to investigate their spatial distribution and physicochemical properties. In this report we developed an efficiency separation method for CsMP from litters since the radiocaesium in litter may affect the radiocaesium cycling in forest ecosystem. One CsMP separation from litter containing lots of soil particles was attained within three days using electron microscopic analysis with digestion treatment of organic matter. This methodology is expected as CsMPs efficient separation method for not only forest floor litter but also barks and leaves of living tree, and other organic materials in the forested environment.

Journal Articles

Dissolution behaviour of radiocaesium-bearing microparticles released from the Fukushima nuclear plant

Okumura, Taiga*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Dohi, Terumi; Iijima, Kazuki; Kogure, Toshihiro*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.3520_1 - 3520_9, 2019/03

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:10.66(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs) were released by the FDNPP accident. We conducted dissolution experiments of CsMPs by reaction with pure water absorbing CO $$_{2}$$ from the atmosphere and seawater. The activation energy for the dissolution of CsMPs was estimated to be 67 and 89 kJ/mol, and the dissolution rate at 13$$^{circ}$$C was 0.011 and 0.130 $$mu$$m/y for pure water and seawater, respectively. Probably the faster dissolution rate in seawater than in pure water is mainly owing to the difference in pH. The shapes of CsMPs dissolved in pure water were considerably altered. Tin oxide and iron oxide nanoparticulates were formed on their surfaces. Such features were similar to those observed in a CsMP collected recently in Fukushima Prefecture, indicating that dissolution of CsMPs is also occurring in the environment. In the case of CsMPs dissolved in seawater, a crust of secondary minerals rich in Mg and Fe was formed and the glass matrix became smaller inside the crust.

Journal Articles

Decrease in air dose rate after decontamination relating to difference in the ground surface properties

Nakama, Shigeo; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Kenso; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Iijima, Kazuki

KEK Proceedings 2018-7, p.154 - 158, 2018/11

Decrease in air dose rate in decontaminated area is essential information to estimate external exposure and to facilitate return of local residents, but the factors to control the decrease rate have not been cleared wholly. To clarify the effect of ground surface type (i.e. paved and soil surfaces) on the decrease in air dose rate at 1 m above the ground, surface dose rate at 1 cm above the ground and the air dose rate were monitored for four years since decontamination in 2011, and their decrease rates were compared relating to the ground surface type. Decrease in the air dose rate and the surface dose rate on the asphalt pavement showed faster rates than those on the soil surface. Ratio of decrease in the air dose rate and surface dose rate (decrease rate ratio) was distributed between 0.8 and 1.2 on open place not affected by surrounding environment. Therefore, decrease in the air dose rate was in agreement with the decrease of the surface dose rate, which is greatly affected by the ground surface. It became clear that the decrease rate constant of the air dose rate differs depending on the difference in the ground surface. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that the local soil erosion and sedimentation of the ground surface does not affect the decrease rate of the air dose rate.

Journal Articles

Secondary radiocesium contamination of agricultural products by resuspended matter

Nihei, Naoto*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Okumura, Taiga*; Tanoi, Keitaro*; Iijima, Kazuki; Kogure, Toshihiro*; Nakanishi, Tomoko*

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 318(1), p.341 - 346, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:74.25(Chemistry, Analytical)

Journal Articles

Loss of radioactivity in radiocesium-bearing microparticles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant by heating

Okumura, Taiga*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Dohi, Terumi; Iijima, Kazuki; Kogure, Toshihiro*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 8, p.9707_1 - 9707_8, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:51.46(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsP) substantially made of silicate glass are a novel form of radiocesium (RCs) emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. CsPs have a potential risk of internal radiation exposure caused by inhalation. Radiation-contaminated waste (Rcw) including CsPs is being burned in incinerators; therefore, this study has investigated the responses of CsPs to heating in air. The radioactivity of CsPs gradually decreased from 600 $$^{circ}$$C and was almost lost when the temperature reached 1000 $$^{circ}$$C. The size and spherical morphology of CsPs were almost unchanged after heating, but Cs including RCs, K and Cl were lost, probably diffused away from the CsPs. When the CsPs were heated together with weathered granitic soil that is common in Fukushima, the RCs released from CsPs was sorbed by the surrounding soil. From these results, it is expected that the radioactivity of CsPs will be lost when Rcw including CsPs is burned in incinerators.

Journal Articles

Applicability of $$K_{d}$$ for modelling dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in Fukushima river water; Case study of the upstream Ota River

Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Tsuji, Hideki*; Hayashi, Seiji*; Funaki, Hironori; Malins, A.; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Iijima, Kazuki; Hosomi, Masaaki*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 184-185, p.53 - 62, 2018/04

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:51.46(Environmental Sciences)

A study is presented on the applicability of the distribution coefficient ($$K_{d}$$) absorption/desorption model to simulate dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in Fukushima river water. The simulation results were in good agreement with the observations on water and suspended sediment fluxes, and on particulate bound $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations under both ambient and high flow conditions. By contrast the measured concentrations of dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs in the river water were much harder to reproduce with the simulations. By tuning the $$K_{d}$$ values for large particles, it was possible to reproduce the mean dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations during base flow periods (observation: 0.32 Bq/L, simulation: 0.36 Bq/L). However neither the seasonal variability in the base flow dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations (0.14-0.53 Bq/L), nor the peaks in concentration that occurred during storms (0.18-0.88 Bq/L, mean: 0.55 Bq/L), could be reproduced with realistic simulation parameters.

JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima; As a part of dissemination of evidence-based information

Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Niizato, Tadafumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Dohi, Terumi; Nakama, Shigeo; Funaki, Hironori; Misono, Toshiharu; Oyama, Takuya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Seiji*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2017-018, 86 Pages, 2017/10

JAEA-Review-2017-018.pdf:17.58MB

Since the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake on March 11th, 2011, Fukushima Environmental Safety Center has carried out research on natural mobilization of radionuclide (especially radiocesium) and future forecast from forest to water system and surrounding residential areas. The report summarizes the latest results that have been accumulated from each study field, of our agency together with the other related research organizations. The contents of the report is to be used as evidence-based information for the QA-styled pages in the website of JAEA Sector of Fukushima Research and Development at the time of next renewal.

Journal Articles

Coupling the advection-dispersion equation with fully kinetic reversible/irreversible sorption terms to model radiocesium soil profiles in Fukushima Prefecture

Kurikami, Hiroshi; Malins, A.; Takeishi, Minoru; Saito, Kimiaki; Iijima, Kazuki

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 171, p.99 - 109, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:69.67(Environmental Sciences)

A modified diffusion-sorption-fixation model (mDSF) is proposed to describe the vertical migration of radiocesium in soils following fallout. The model introduces kinetics for reversible sites, meaning that the exponential-shape radiocesium distribution can be reproduced immediately following fallout. The initial relaxation mass depth of the distribution is determined by the diffusion length, which depends on the distribution coefficient, sorption rate and dispersion coefficient. The model captures the long tails of the radiocesium distribution at large depths. These tails are caused by different rates for kinetic sorption and desorption.

Journal Articles

Deposition of radiocesium on the river flood plains around Fukushima

Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Takuya; Iijima, Kazuki; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Hagiwara, Hiroki

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 164, p.36 - 46, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:43.67(Environmental Sciences)

The environments of Fukushima have been contaminated due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accidents caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Released radio-cesium mainly affects radiation dose in the environment of Fukushima. It is concerned that redistribution of the radiation dose due to water discharge will be occurred due to the transportation of radio-cesium. Especially, deposition of the transferred soil particle with radio-cesium at flood plain with downstream area is possible cause of increasing radiation dose. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of deposition behavior of radio-cesium on radiation dose. The paper discusses the deposition behaviors of radio-cesium at river based on the data obtained from the river investigations.

Journal Articles

Radioactivity decontamination in and around school facilities in Fukushima

Saegusa, Jun; Tagawa, Akihiro; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kazuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ishida, Junichiro

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(3), p.15-00609_1 - 15-00609_7, 2016/06

After the Fukushima nuclear accident, JAEA lead off demonstration tests to find out effective decontamination methods for various school facilities in Fukushima. It included (1) dose reduction measures at schoolyards, (2) purification of swimming pool water and (3) removal of surface contamination of playground equipments. Through these tests, they established practical methods suitable for each situation; (1) At school yards, dose rates were drastically reduced by removing topsoil which was then placed in trenches of 1 m deep; (2) For the purification of pool water, the flocculation-coagulation treatment was found to be effective for collecting radiocesium dissolved in the water; (3) Demonstration tests for playground equipments, such as horizontal bars and a sandbox wood frame, suggested that effectiveness of decontamination considerably varied depending on the material, paint or coating condition. This paper reviews these demonstrations.

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