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Journal Articles

Good practices of the online training on physical protection of nuclear materials and facility

Noro, Naoko; Scharmer, C.*; Kawakubo, Yoko; Sekine, Megumi; Okuda, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

In the amid of COVID-19 pandemic, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) developed and conducted regional training course on physical protection of nuclear materials and facility (PP RTC) for Asian countries in October 19-30, 2020 as an online course. Maintaining the quality of in-person two-week training through online platforms was a big challenge. For effective learning, ISCN combined e-learning (self-study) and interactive learning (virtual classroom) for its online PP RTC, and engaged participants through group exercise via Zoom meeting. The paper will describe efforts of ISCN and SNL to develop the online curriculum of PP RTC and share lessons learned and good practices for course development and course implementation. The paper will also explore future application of online contents in nuclear security capacity building even after the pandemic.

Journal Articles

Conducting an online workshop on the supply chain risk in nuclear security; A Case study of designing an online event using recorded theater scene and integrating its findings for professional development

Okuda, Masahiro; Van Dassen, L.*; Lock, B.*; Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Sekine, Megumi

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/08

Journal Articles

Development and implementation of online trainings at ISCN/JAEA

Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Sekine, Megumi; Okuda, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Nobuhiko*; Naoi, Yosuke

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) celebrated its 10th anniversary in December 2020. One of its pillars is capacity building support mainly to Asian countries. 183 trainings were implemented with more than 4,600 participants since its establishment, however, the COVID-19 pandemic impacted in the implementation of the trainings. ISCN/JAEA has started to develop the online trainings since April 2020, and implemented two regional trainings, Physical Protection and State System of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) for IAEA Safeguards in October and November 2020, respectively. The efforts continue in further development of trainings/workshops, including the regional training on Additional Protocol for IAEA Safeguards Agreement Commodity Identification Training, and other two national workshops with foreign instructors. Online training can provide not only training opportunities for those who have difficulty in traveling for security and safety reasons including under the travel restriction by COVID-19 pandemic, but also could serve in making them more effective and efficient, especially by the combination with in-person trainings. The pandemic, as a result, accelerate ISCN/JAEA to develop and implement the online trainings, which key is the international collaboration with the partners including IAEA, DOE/NNSA and Sandia National Laboratories and International Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security Academy (INSA) of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). This paper will provide the efforts of ISCN/JAEA how to address the online training development and implementation, current status, lesson learned, and future plan.

Journal Articles

ISCN/JAEA-IAEA online SSAC training development

Kawakubo, Yoko; Stevens, R.*; Pickett, S.*; Sekine, Megumi; Noro, Naoko; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Journal Articles

Application of virtual tour for online training safeguards exercises

Sekine, Megumi; Sukegawa, Hidetoshi; Ishikuro, Yasuhiro; Oyama, Koji; Obata, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) developed the virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility. The developed virtual tour was applied to the Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) workshop exercise for the online SSAC course held in November 2020 in connection with the IAEA safeguards-related regional training course. Also, it was applied to the Complementary Access (CA) exercise for the online workshop of the Nuclear Security and Safeguards Project under the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), held in February 2021. The workshop exercises have been implemented for in-person format however due to COVID-19 pandemic, a virtual tour was applied. The virtual tour was found to be a strong tool not only for online training as an alternative for a facility tour, but also considered to be more advantageous even for the in-person training. The developed virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility, going to shut down, can find potentially varied applications. The paper describes how to create a virtual tour of a reference research reactor facility for the DIQ and CA exercises respectively which have different learning objectives. It emphasizes how the features of the reference facility were captured and the challenges encountered to convey to the training participants the importance of providing the required design information while not being physically present at the facility. It also show the advantage of using the same virtual tour to describe the safeguards-related verification activities of a complementary access. Virtual tours can be applied to a variety of training.

Journal Articles

Refresh project of virtual reality system for education and training

Numata, Masaaki; Ogura, Yuichi*; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Inoue, Naoko

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2020/11

JAEA/ISCN is actively using a virtual reality (VR) system for training in nuclear non-proliferation safeguards and nuclear security. The VR system allows participants to experience the environment of a nuclear power plant and a research reactor in a cyber space. It is beneficial for the participants who have never been in a nuclear power plant to see how they are even virtually, in order to learn their physical protection system. Workstations of OS for VR use Windows7 and the warrantee protection period expired in March 2020. For that reason, it was decided to renew those workstations over 2019-2020. This paper will describe its planning called "Refresh Project", which aims to minimize impacts on training and visitors, as well as first year achievement.

Journal Articles

A Prospect of development and use of the virtual tour of the physical protection exercise field

Nakagawa, Yosuke; Sukegawa, Hidetoshi; Naoi, Yosuke; Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Okuda, Masahiro

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/11

The physical protection exercise field, a facility equipped with various types of equipment such as sensors, cameras and fences that are used at nuclear facilities, is an effective tool for training on nuclear security at ISCN/JAEA, if it is carried out in-person. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the virtual tour of the facility is developed for the online training courses so that they could be more effective. The article explains the initial development of the virtual tour with some improvement inspired by using it on some occasions as well as a prospect of effective use of the virtual tour based on its characteristics.

Journal Articles

Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.229 - 237, 2017/04

 Times Cited Count:27 Percentile:97.79(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were carried out to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions; temperatures ranged from room temperature to 1400$$^{circ}$$C which is near the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at the ultra-high temperatures between 900 and 1200$$^{circ}$$C, but that there was significant degradation in tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200$$^{circ}$$C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with $$gamma$$/$$delta$$ transformation, which was associated with reduced ductility. On the other hand, tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 $$^{circ}$$C unlike the other tested materials. Present study includes the result of "R&D of ODS ferritic steel fuel cladding for maintaining fuel integrity at the high temperature accident condition" entrusted to Hokkaido University by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

JAEA Reports

JAEA's efforts for regional transparency in the area of nuclear nonproliferation

Hoffheins, B.; Kawakubo, Yoko; Inoue, Naoko

JAEA-Review 2013-006, 47 Pages, 2014/03

JAEA-Review-2013-006.pdf:2.65MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has undertaken a joint R&D project entitled "Development of an Information Sharing Framework for Regional Nonproliferation Cooperation" with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under the arrangement with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). This project is carried out as an informal, multilateral cooperation among JAEA, KINAC, KAERI and SNL to develop requirements for an ISF that will ensure nonproliferation transparency success and sustainability. The project partners have identified the compelling reason for establishing an ISF, needs and particular audience, and developed and refined requirements through discussions at workshops, face-to-face meetings, and regular teleconferences. Project activities have included drafting and conducting a survey to identify stakeholder information needs and requirements for an ISF, launching a website to practice information sharing concepts, and presenting papers at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Institute for Nuclear Material Management (INMM) and other venues. This paper provides the historical context of the current project, and reports the progress to date and speculates on future directions.

JAEA Reports

PR&PP evaluation; ESFR full system case study final report (Tentative translation)

Sagara, Hiroshi; Kawakubo, Yoko; Inoue, Naoko

JAEA-Review 2013-011, 54 Pages, 2014/01

JAEA-Review-2013-011.pdf:3.05MB

The Generation IV (GEN IV) International Forum Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR & PP) Working Group is in charge of developing a methodology for evaluating PR & PP of potential GEN IV options. The present report, published in Oct. 2009, was used as a supporting study for development of the evaluation methodology for PR & PP, summarizing the case study of the PR & PP evaluation of Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) co located with a dry fuel storage facility and a pyrochemical spent-fuel reprocessing facility, a hypothetical nuclear energy system, consisting of nine main system elements, and it provides for designers the practical experience of applying the PR&PP evaluation methodology to a nuclear energy system. The development of the future nuclear fuel cycle system with sufficient PR & PP features is a crucial task in Japan. With the usefulness the report, it was translated and published here as a Japanese-language edition with the concurrence of the OECD-NEA.

Journal Articles

Information sharing framework among nuclear nonproliferation experts for enhancing nuclear transparency

Kawakubo, Yoko; Inoue, Naoko; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nihon Shibu Dai-34-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2013/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is carrying out R&D to design and establish an Information-Sharing Framework (ISF) for supporting and promoting nuclear transparency in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Korean Institute for Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC), and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Partner organizations have agreed on starting by establishing ISF with a focus on nuclear nonproliferation experts in Track II as primary information providers/receivers. Thus far, requirements for ISF have been developed for providing clear steps to design and establish ISF and ensuring its sustainability. As the next step, ISF is to be established following the requirements and demonstration of information sharing will be carried out. In the long-term, ISF could be expanded to invite other interested organizations and include other information. This paper describes the effort to design and establish ISF by focusing on the requirements which has been developed under the joint R&D.

Journal Articles

Information sharing framework among experts for facilitating development of fast reactors and fuel cycles

Kawakubo, Yoko; Hoffheins, B.; Inoue, Naoko; Mongiello, R.*; Baldwin, G.*; Lee, N. Y.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR-13) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2013/03

Transparency in the peaceful use of nuclear energy is important as a measure to complement and reinforce International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and promote international/ regional confidence building. Moreover, information sharing, a key component of confidence building, is essential for promoting the development of fast reactors and associated fuel cycles by enhancing transparency and encouraging understanding among non-proliferation experts. Currently, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is carrying out a joint project to design and establish an Information-Sharing Framework (ISF) for supporting and promoting nuclear transparency in the Asia Pacific region, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Korean Institute for Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC), and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). At present, requirements for planning and implementing ISF are under discussion to address inherent challenges that are recognized among project partners. This paper describes the current status of the development of requirements for ISF. The effort of the development is still underway, however; the requirements will be determined and demonstrated in the near future by project partners.

Journal Articles

Role of safeguards in proliferation resistance for the future nuclear fuel cycle systems

Kuno, Yusuke; Senzaki, Masao; Seya, Michio; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR 2009) (CD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2012/00

A large amount of plutonium as well as high $$^{239}$$Pu should be handled in the future fast reactor nuclear fuel cycle (FR-NFC), where very robust measures for nuclear proliferation-resistance (PR) may have to be taken to prevent nuclear proliferation. To find a good balance of extrinsic barrier and intrinsic one will come to be essential for NFC designers to optimize civilian nuclear technology with nuclear non-proliferation. International Safeguards including Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol is the most effective institutional barrier among other institutional measures in non-proliferation regime. The advanced Safeguards with high detectability can play a dominant role for PR in the states complying with full institutional controls. In this context, a new concept of differentiation in the intrinsic measures depending upon the level of Safeguards could be applied from the viewpoint of plant design rationalization.

JAEA Reports

Introduction to the Revision 5 of Evaluation Methodology for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

Kawakubo, Yoko; Inoue, Naoko; Senzaki, Masao

JAEA-Review 2011-024, 75 Pages, 2011/12

JAEA-Review-2011-024.pdf:3.61MB

Revision 5 of the "Evaluation Methodology for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems" is also known as the Rev. 5 report. The Rev. 5 report provides an important evaluation framework that was developed with consensus-based discussions, and published by the OECD-NEA in November, 2006. The activities of PR&PP WG has contributed to establish PR&PP culture. Japan has to develop the future nuclear cycle system with sufficient proliferation resistance and physical protection features and demonstrate and explain about its effectiveness to the domestic and international society. For these reasons, and recognizing the usefulness of the Revision-5 Report, it was translated and published here as a Japanese-language edition with the concurrence of the OECD-NEA. The original report in English language can be downloaded at the OECD-NEA website.

Journal Articles

Report and analysis on "PR&PP Evaluation; Example Sodium Fast Reactor Full System Case Study"

Sagara, Hiroshi; Inoue, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Watahiki, Masaru

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nihon Shibu Dai-32-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2011/11

The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PRPP WG) was established in December 2002 in order to develop the PR&PP evaluation methodology for GEN IV nuclear energy systems. In the final report of "PR&PP Evaluation; Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) Full System Case Study," issued in October 2009, the demonstration study of PR&PP evaluation with the qualitative approach are summarized using ESFR with four scenario threats. The present paper reviews and analyzes some results of the ESFR case study, and identifies the challenges and direction for the PR&PP evaluation methodology with quantitative approach.

Journal Articles

The Status of proliferation resistance evaluation methodology development in GEN IV International Forum

Inoue, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Seya, Michio; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Senzaki, Masao

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nihon Shibu Dai-31-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2010/12

The GIF Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) evaluation methodology has been developed for GEN IV nuclear energy systems under the international consensus. The PR&PP WG activities include development of the measures and metrics; establishment of the framework of PR&PP evaluation, the demonstration study using Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR), which included the development of three evaluation approaches; the Case study using ESFR and four kinds of threat scenarios; the joint study with GIF System Steering Committees (SSCs) of the six reactor design concepts; and the harmonization study with the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). This paper reviews the status of GIF PR&PP studies and identifies the challenges and directions for applying the methodology to evaluate future nuclear energy systems in Japan.

Journal Articles

A Consideration on proliferation resistance of a FBR fuel cycle system

Inoue, Naoko; Kaji, Naoya; Suda, Kazunori; Kawakubo, Yoko; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Koyama, Tomozo; Kuno, Yusuke; Senzaki, Masao

Proceedings of INMM 51st Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2010/07

Journal Articles

Nuclear nonproliferation technology development program for future nuclear energy systems in Japan

Senzaki, Masao; Inoue, Naoko; Kuno, Yusuke; Namba, Takashi

Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Sustainable Options & Industrial Perspectives (Global 2009) (CD-ROM), p.2128 - 2132, 2009/09

The development program of the FR cycle system incorporating nuclear nonproliferation technologies has been conducted in Japan mainly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Four areas which are critical in acquiring international acceptance are identified. They are (1) technology that enhances proliferation resistance, (2) advanced safeguards technology, (3) development of proliferation resistance evaluation methodology, and (4) nuclear security and physical protection technology. In each area, close communication between the nuclear energy system and process designers and experts on nuclear nonproliferation safeguards and proliferation resistance is critical for the developed system to be recognized to be proliferation resistant and robust against proliferation threats.

Journal Articles

Nuclear proliferation resistance in the future nuclear energy systems

Inoue, Naoko; Kuno, Yusuke

Genshiryoku eye, 55(3), p.52 - 55, 2009/03

The major international discussion on the evaluation methodologies of nuclear proliferation resistance was reviewed. Based on the review, the measures and future direction for nuclear nonproliferation including proliferation resistance was discussed.

Journal Articles

Nuclear proliferation-resistance and safeguards for future nuclear fuel cycle

Kuno, Yusuke; Inoue, Naoko; Senzaki, Masao

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 385(1), p.153 - 156, 2009/03

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:26.15(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Corresponding to the world nuclear security concerns, future nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) should have high proliferation-resistance (PR) and Physical Protection (PP), while promotion of the peaceful use of the nuclear energy must not be inhibited. In order to accomplish nuclear non-proliferation from NFC, a few models of the PR systems should be developed so that international community can recognize them as worldwide norms. To find a good balance of safeguard-ability (so-called extrinsic measure or institutional barrier) and impede-ability (intrinsic feature or technical barrier) will come to be essential for NFC designers to optimize civilian nuclear technology with nuclear non-proliferation, although the advanced Safeguards with high detectability can still play a dominant role for PR in the states complying with full institutional controls. Accomplishment of such norms in a good economic efficiency is a future key challenge.

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