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Journal Articles

Great achievements of M. Salvatores for nuclear data adjustment study with use of integral experiments

Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 154, p.108100_1 - 108100_11, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:25.87(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the design of innovative nuclear reactors such as fast reactors, the improvement of the prediction accuracies for neutronics properties is an important task. The nuclear data adjustment is a promising methodology for this issue. The idea of the nuclear data adjustment was first proposed in 1964. Toward its practical application, however, a great deal of study has been conducted over a long time. While it took about 10 years to establish the theoretical formulation, the research and development for its practical application has been conducted for more than half a century. Researches in this field are still active, and the fact suggests that the improvement of the prediction accuracies is indispensable for the development of new types of nuclear reactors. Massimo Salvatores, who passed away in March 2020, was one of the first proposers to develop the nuclear data adjustment technique, as well as one of the great contributors to its practical application. Reviewing his long-time works in this area is almost the same as reviewing the history of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. The authors intend that this review would suggest what should be done in the future toward the next development in this area. The present review consists of two parts: a) the establishment of the nuclear data adjustment methodology and b) the achievements related to practical applications. Furthermore, the former is divided into two aspects: the study on the nuclear data adjustment theory and the numerical solution for sensitivity coefficient that is requisite for the nuclear data adjustment. The latter is separated to three categories: the use of integral experimental data, the uncertainty quantification and design target accuracy evaluation, and the promotion of nuclear data covariance development.

Journal Articles

Experimental study of the $$Gamma_{p1}/Gamma_{p0}$$ ratios of resonance states in $$^{8}$$Be for deducing the $$^{7}$$Be($$n$$,$$p_{1}$$)$$^{7}$$Li$$^{*}$$ reaction rate relevant to the cosmological lithium problem

Iwasa, Naohito*; Ishikawa, Shunki*; Kubono, Shigeru*; Sakakibara, T.*; Kominato, Kazuya*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Matsuda, Makoto; Hirose, Kentaro; Makii, Hiroyuki; Orlandi, R.; et al.

Physical Review C, 103(1), p.015801_1 - 015801_5, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:28.01(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Cross-section-induced uncertainty evaluation of MA sample irradiation test calculations with consideration of dosimeter data

Sugino, Kazuteru; Numata, Kazuyuki*; Ishikawa, Makoto; Takeda, Toshikazu*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 130, p.118 - 123, 2019/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In MA sample irradiation test data calculations, the neutron fluence during irradiation period is generally scaled by using dosimetry data in order to improve calculation accuracy. In such a case, appropriate correction is required to burnup sensitivity coefficients obtained by the conventional generalized perturbation theory because some cancellations occur in the burnup sensitivity coefficients. Therefore, a new formula for the burnup sensitivity coefficient has been derived with the consideration of the neutron fluence scaling effect (NFS). In addition, the cross-section-induced uncertainty is evaluated by using the obtained burnup sensitivity coefficients and the covariance data based on the JENDL-4.0.

JAEA Reports

Development of the Unified Cross-section Set ADJ2017

Yokoyama, Kenji; Sugino, Kazuteru; Ishikawa, Makoto; Maruyama, Shuhei; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Numata, Kazuyuki*; Jin, Tomoyuki*

JAEA-Research 2018-011, 556 Pages, 2019/03


We have developed a new unified cross-section set ADJ2017, which is an improved version of the unified cross-section set ADJ2010 for fast reactors. The unified cross-section set is used for reflecting information of C/E values (analysis / experiment values) obtained by integral experiment analyses; the values are stored in the standard database for FBR core design via the cross-section adjustment methodology, which integrates with the information such as uncertainty (covariance) of nuclear data, uncertainty of integral experiment / analysis, sensitivity of integral experiment with respect to nuclear data. The ADJ2017 is based on Japan's latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 as in the previous version of ADJ2010, and it incorporates more information on integral experimental data sets related to minor actinides (MAs) and degraded plutonium (Pu). In the creation of ADJ2010, a total of 643 integral experimental data sets were analyzed and evaluated, and 488 of the integral experimental data sets were finally selected to be used for the cross-section adjustment. In contrast, we have evaluated a total of 719 data sets, and eventually adopted 620 integral experimental data sets to create ADJ2017. ADJ2017 shows almost the same performance as ADJ2010 for the main neutronic characteristics of conventional sodium-cooled MOX-fuel fast reactors. In addition, for the neutronic characteristics related to MA and degraded Pu, ADJ2017 improves the C/E values of the integral experimental data sets, and reduces the uncertainty induced by the nuclear data. ADJ2017 is expected to be widely used in the analysis and design research of fast reactors. Moreover, it is expected that the integral experimental data sets used for ADJ2017 can be utilized as a standard database of FBR core design.

Journal Articles

CIELO collaboration summary results; International evaluations of neutron reactions on uranium, plutonium, iron, oxygen and hydrogen

Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Talou, P.*; Plompen, A. J.*; Schillebeeckx, P.*; et al.

Nuclear Data Sheets, 148, p.189 - 213, 2018/02

 Times Cited Count:60 Percentile:98.41(Physics, Nuclear)

The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides that significantly impact criticality in nuclear facilities - $$^{235}$$U, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{239}$$Pu, $$^{56}$$Fe, $$^{16}$$O and $$^{1}$$H - with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality. This report summarizes our results and outlines plans for the next phase of this collaboration.

Journal Articles

The CIELO collaboration; Progress in international evaluations of neutron reactions on Oxygen, Iron, Uranium and Plutonium

Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Pigni, M.*; Dunn, M.*; Leal, L.*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 146, p.02001_1 - 02001_9, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:96.25

The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides ($$^{16}$$O, $$^{56}$$Fe, $$^{235,238}$$U and $$^{239}$$Pu) that significantly impact criticality in nuclear technologies with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality.

Journal Articles

Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files

Palmiotti, G.*; Salvatores, M.*; Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto

NEA/NSC/R(2016)6 (Internet), 42 Pages, 2017/05

Journal Articles

Model verification and validation procedure for a neutronics design methodology of next generation fast reactors

Ohgama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Kazumi*; Ishikawa, Makoto; Kan, Taro*; Maruyama, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Kenji; Sugino, Kazuteru; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Oki, Shigeo

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2017/04

JAEA Reports

Summary of instructor training program in FY2014 aiming at Asian countries introducing nuclear technologies for peaceful use (Contract program)

Hidaka, Akihide; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Yoko; Arai, Nobuyoshi; Sawada, Makoto; Kanaizuka, Seiichi*; Katogi, Aki; Shimada, Mayuka*; Ishikawa, Tomomi*; Ebine, Masako*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2016-011, 208 Pages, 2016/07


JAEA has been conducting the Instructor Training Program (ITP) since 1996 under the auspices of MEXT to contribute to human resource development in currently 11 Asian countries in the field of radiation utilization for seeking peaceful use of nuclear energy. ITP consists of Instructor Training Course (ITC), Follow-up Training Course (FTC) and Nuclear Technology Seminars. In the ITP, trainings or seminars relating to technology for nuclear utilization are held in Japan by inviting nuclear related people from Asian countries to Japan and after that, the past trainees are supported during FTC by dispatching Japanese specialists to Asian countries. News Letter is also prepared to provide the broad range of information obtained through the trainings for local people near NPPs in Japan. The present report describes the activities of FY2014 ITP and future challenges for improving ITP more effectively.

Journal Articles

Development of a fast reactor for minor actinides transmutation; Improvement of prediction accuracy for MA-related integral parameters based on cross-section adjustment technique

Yokoyama, Kenji; Maruyama, Shuhei; Numata, Kazuyuki; Ishikawa, Makoto; Takeda, Toshikazu*

Proceedings of International Conference on the Physics of Reactors; Unifying Theory and Experiments in the 21st Century (PHYSOR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.1906 - 1915, 2016/05

JAEA Reports

Basic Radiation Knowledge for School Education Course; Nuclear Technology Seminar 2014 (Contract program)

Watanabe, Yoko; Arai, Nobuyoshi; Sawada, Makoto; Kanaizuka, Seiichi; Shimada, Mayuka*; Ishikawa, Tomomi*; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

JAEA-Review 2015-026, 38 Pages, 2015/11


JAEA has conducted Nuclear Technology Seminar for Asian countries which plan to introduce NPP, in order to increase the number of engineers and specialists. The Nuclear Technology Seminar on the Basic Radiation Knowledge for School Education Course was launched in 2012 due to increased recognition of the dissemination of the basic knowledge of radiation in public and education sectors as an important issue in the aftermath of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accident. In response to the requests of past participants, a new exercise "Joint experiment with high school students" was introduced from 2014 to provide an international learning experience for the course participants and the local Japanese students. A new learning material was also developed to help participants to study the basics of radiation in English. All the course activities including the details of preparatory process and course evaluation were described in this report.

Journal Articles

Physical mechanism analysis of burnup actinide composition in light water reactor MOX fuel and its application to uncertainty evaluation

Oizumi, Akito; Jin, Tomoyuki*; Ishikawa, Makoto; Kugo, Teruhiko

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 81, p.117 - 124, 2015/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:27.63(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The uncertainty associated with physical quantities, such as nuclear data, needs to be quantitatively analyzed. The present paper illustrates an analysis methodology to investigate the physical mechanisms of burnup actinide composition with nuclear-data sensitivity based on the generalized depletion perturbation theory. The target in this paper is the MOX fuel of the light water reactor. We start with the discussion of the basic physical mechanisms for burnup actinide compositions using the reaction-rate flow chart on the burnup chain. After that, the physical mechanisms of the productions of $$^{244}$$Cm and $$^{238}$$Pu are analyzed in detail with burnup sensitivity calculation. Conclusively, we can identify the source of actinide productions and evaluate the indirect influence of the nuclear reactions if the physical mechanisms of burnup actinide composition are analyzed using the reaction-rate flow chart on the burnup chain and burnup sensitivity calculation. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the burnup sensitivity coefficients in an application to determine the priority of accuracy improvement in nuclear data in combination with the covariance of the nuclear data. In addition, the target actinides and reactions are categorized into patterns according to a sensitivity trend.

Journal Articles

Stabilization of a high-order harmonic generation seeded extreme ultraviolet free electron laser by time-synchronization control with electro-optic sampling

Tomizawa, Hiromitsu*; Sato, Takahiro*; Ogawa, Kanade*; Togawa, Kazuaki*; Tanaka, Takatsugu*; Hara, Toru*; Yabashi, Makina*; Tanaka, Hitoshi*; Ishikawa, Tetsuya*; Togashi, Tadashi*; et al.

High Power Laser Science and Engineering, 3, p.e14_1 - e14_10, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:36.13(Optics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Use and impact of covariance data in a Japanese latest adjusted library ADJ2010 based on JENDL-4.0

Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto

Nuclear Data Sheets, 123, p.97 - 103, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:56.98(Physics, Nuclear)

The current status of covariance applications to fast reactor analysis and design in Japan is summarized. To improve the accuracy of core design values by adopting the integral data such as the critical experiments and the power reactor operation data, the cross-section adjustment based on the Bayesian theorem is used. After the release of JENDL-4.0, a development project of the new adjusted group-constant set ADJ2010 was started and completed in 2013. In the present paper, the final results of ADJ2010 are briefly described. In addition, the adjustment results of ADJ2010 are discussed from the viewpoint of use and impact of nuclear data covariances. For this purpose, three kind of indices, called "degree of mobility", "adjustment motive force", and "adjustment potential", are newly proposed.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of burnup reactivity coefficients measured in experimental fast reactor JOYO MK-I duty power operation cycles

Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 178(3), p.350 - 362, 2014/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:9.45(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to provide a reactor physics benchmark problem of burnup reactivity coefficients, experimental data of relationship between excess reactivity and accumulated thermal power acquired during experimental fast reactor JOYO MK-I duty power operation in the late 1970s have been evaluated and analyzed. All possible uncertainty factors were evaluated and quantified by utilizing knowledge obtained after the MK-I duty power operation and calculation results based on the latest reactor physics analysis methods. Meanwhile, the present evaluated data have been registered to the International Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments Project (IRPhEP), with the expectation that this data will be widely used. In the present paper, the evaluation of nominal values and uncertainties is described with a focus on the measurement technique uncertainty which is a dominant uncertainty factor of the burnup reactivity coefficient.

Journal Articles

ZPPR benchmarks for large LMFBR core physics from JUPITER cooperative program between United States and Japan

Ishikawa, Makoto; Ikegami, Tetsuo*; Sanda, Toshio*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 178(3), p.335 - 349, 2014/11

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:32.74(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Under the IRPhEP framework, nine ZPPR critical experimental cores performed as the cooperative JUPITER program between the USA and Japan are established in the benchmarks to study large FBR core physics. These benchmarks cover a wide variety of core concepts including homogeneous and heterogeneous configurations, clean and engineering-mockup cores of 600-1,000 MW(electric)-class sizes, and various kinds of core parameters. Detailed experimental information has recently been dug out from the ANL original documents and scrutinized very carefully to establish the benchmark model and to evaluate the experimental uncertainty quantitatively. The benchmarks supply users with the heterogeneous cell model and three-dimensional core configuration with preserving the important physical features of the ZPPR cores. Further, the benchmark handbook includes the as-built information of the ZPPR cores as a complete set of electrical form, therefore, a user can develop his own benchmark model if necessary. The analysis of the benchmark with the latest method demonstrates the usefulness both for the improvement of analytical methods and for the validation of nuclear data.

JAEA Reports

Workshop of the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator "Heavy Ion Science in Tandem Energy Region"; July 2-3, 2013, Nuclear Science Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Ishii, Tetsuro; Osa, Akihiko; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Asai, Masato; Ishikawa, Norito; Matsuda, Makoto

JAEA-Review 2014-002, 238 Pages, 2014/08


The facility of the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator has been contributing toward advancing heavy ion science researches in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, production of RI for nuclear medicine, atomic physics, radiation effects, and so on. Due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and all that, situation revolving around the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator was greatly-changed. For active discussions of this situation among scientists in the different fields, the workshop "Heavy Ion Science in Tandem Energy Region" was held although there has been no such workshop for many years. The users of the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerators made presentations of their research achievements in the last few years and reviewed the recent research trend of each fields. This workshop was held at Research building No.1 in Nuclear Research Institute on July 2nd and 3rd in 2013, having 20 oral presentations and 28 posters, and successfully carried out with as many as 60 participants and a lot of serious discussions. This review is the collection of slides of oral presentations.

Journal Articles

Benchmark calculations for reflector effect in fast cores by using the latest evaluated nuclear data libraries

Fukushima, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Makoto; Numata, Kazuyuki*; Jin, Tomoyuki*; Kugo, Teruhiko

Nuclear Data Sheets, 118, p.405 - 409, 2014/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

The CIELO Collaboration; Neutron reactions on $$^1$$H, $$^{16}$$O, $$^{56}$$Fe, $$^{235,238}$$U, and $$^{239}$$Pu

Chadwick, M. B.*; Dupont, E.*; Bauge, E.*; Blokhin, A.*; Bouland, O.*; Brown, D. A.*; Capote, R.*; Carlson, A. D.*; Danon, Y.*; De Saint Jean, C.*; et al.

Nuclear Data Sheets, 118, p.1 - 25, 2014/04

 Times Cited Count:104 Percentile:98.61(Physics, Nuclear)

CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. The focus will initially be on a small number of the highest-priority isotopes, namely $$^{1}$$H, $$^{16}$$O, $$^{56}$$Fe, $$^{235,238}$$U, and $$^{239}$$Pu. This paper identifies discrepancies between various evaluations of the highest priority isotopes. The evaluated data for these materials in the existing nuclear data libraries are reviewed, and some integral properties are given. The paper summarizes a program of nuclear science and computational work needed to create the new CIELO nuclear data evaluations.

JAEA Reports

Study to improve recriticality evaluation methodology after severe accident (Joint research)

Kugo, Teruhiko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Yokoyama, Kenji; Fukaya, Yuji; Maruyama, Hiromi*; Ishii, Yoshihiko*; Fujimura, Koji*; Kondo, Takao*; Minato, Hirokazu*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2013-046, 53 Pages, 2014/03


The present report summarizes the results of a 2-year cooperative study between JAEA and Hitachi-GE in order to contribute to the settlement of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants which suffered from the severe accident on March 2011. In the present study, the possible scenarios to reach the recriticality events in Fukushima-Daiichi were investigated first. Then, the analytical methodology to evaluate the time-dependent recriticality events has been developed by modelling the reactivity insertion rate and the possible feedback according to the recriticality scenarios identified in the first step. The methodology developed here has been equipped as a transient simulation tool, PORCAS, which is operated on a multi-purpose platform for reactor analysis, MARBLE. Finally, the radiation exposure rates by the postulated recriticality events in Fukushima-Daiichi were approximately evaluated to estimate the impact to the public environment.

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