Soler, J. M.*; Neretnieks, I.*; Moreno, L.*; Liu, L.*; Meng, S.*; Svensson, U.*; Iraola, A.*; Ebrahimi, K.*; Trinchero, P.*; Molinero, J.*; et al.
Nuclear Technology, 208(6), p.1059 - 1073, 2022/06
The SKB Task Force is an international forum on modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. The WPDE experiments are matrix diffusion experiments in gneiss performed at the ONKALO underground facility in Finland. Synthetic groundwater containing several conservative and sorbing tracers was injected along a borehole interval. The objective of Task 9A was the predictive modelling of the tracer breakthrough curves from the WPDE experiments. Several teams, using different modelling approaches and codes, participated in this exercise. An important conclusion from this exercise is that the modelling results were very sensitive to the magnitude of dispersion in the borehole opening, which is related to the flow of water. Focusing on the tails of the breakthrough curves, which are more directly related to matrix diffusion and sorption, the results from the different teams were more comparable.
Ito, Kenji; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Matsuno, Hiroki; Nagaoki, Yoshihiro; Sakuma, Yuichi
Dekomisshoningu Giho, (63), p.1 - 26, 2022/05
The prototype advanced thermal reactor Fugen entered into the decommissioning phases with the approval of the decommissioning plan in February 2008. The prototype fast breeder reactor Monju entered into the decommissioning stage with the approval of the decommissioning plan in March 2018. In April 2018, the head office of Tsuruga decommissioning demonstration was newly established to oversee the decommissioning operations in Tsuruga area, and decommissioning projects for two unique reactors have progressed safely and steadily.
Ishii, Yumiko*; Miura, Hikaru*; Jo, J.*; Tsuji, Hideki*; Saito, Rie; Koarai, Kazuma; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Urushidate, Tadayuki*; Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro*; Wada, Toshihiro*; et al.
PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(5), p.e0268629_1 - e0268629_17, 2022/05
We investigated the variability in Cs activity concentration in individual aquatic insects in detritivorous caddisfly () and carnivorous dobsonfly () larvae from the Ota River, Fukushima. Caddisfly larvae showed sporadically higher radioactivity, whereas no such outliers were observed in dobsonfly larvae. Autoradiography and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that these caddisfly larvae samples contained radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs), which are insoluble Cs-bearing silicate glass particles. CsMPs were also found in potential food sources of caddisfly larvae, such as periphyton and drifting particulate organic matter, indicating that larvae may ingest CsMPs along with food particles of similar size. Although CsMPs distribution and uptake by organisms in freshwater ecosystems is relatively unknown, our study demonstrates that CsMPs can be taken up by aquatic insects.
Do, S.-H.*; Kaneko, Koji; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; Stone, M. B.*; Lin, J. Y. Y.*; Ito, Shinichi*; Masuda, Takatsugu*; Samolyuk, G. D.*; Dagotto, E.*; et al.
Physical Review B, 105(18), p.L180403_1 - L180403_6, 2022/05
Kimura, Fumihito*; Yamamura, Sota*; Fujiwara, Kota*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Saito, Shimpei*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 389, p.111660_1 - 111660_11, 2022/04
Kubota, Takahide*; Takano, Daichi*; Kota, Yohei*; Mohanty, S.*; Ito, Keita*; Matsuki, Mitsuhiro*; Hayashida, Masahiro*; Sun, M.*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saito, Yuji; et al.
Physical Review Materials (Internet), 6(4), p.044405_1 - 044405_12, 2022/04
Saeki, Morihisa*; Matsumura, Daiju; Nakanishi, Ryuzo*; Yomogida, Takumi; Tsuji, Takuya; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Oba, Hironori*
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 126(12), p.5607 - 5616, 2022/03
The reaction mechanism of the direct photoreduction of a Rh ion complex to a Rh species induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation was studied using dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure (DXAFS) spectroscopy. The time-resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) showed the absence of isosbestic points and suggested that more than two Rh species contribute toward the direct photoreduction of Rh. Analysis of the time-resolved XANES data by singular value deposition showed that the direct photoreduction involves three Rh species. Multivariate curve resolution by alternating least-squares analysis (MCR-ALS) of the time-resolved XANES data gave pure spectra and concentration profiles of the three Rh species. The Rh species were assigned to Rh, Rh, and Rh species based on the features of the pure XANES spectra. The concentration profiles suggested that the direct photoreduction proceeds in the order of Rh Rh Rh. A reaction mechanism, which was proposed involving photoreductions of Rh and Rh, photoinduced autocatalytic reductions of Rh and Rh, and photooxidation of Rh, well reproduced the concentration profiles of three Rh species.
Takagi, Rina*; Matsuyama, Naofumi*; Ukleev, V.*; Yu, L.*; White, J. S.*; Francoual, S.*; Mardegan, J. R. L.*; Hayami, Satoru*; Saito, Hiraku*; Kaneko, Koji; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 13(1), p.1472_1 - 1472_7, 2022/03
Ariyoshi, Gen; Obayashi, Hironari; Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu
Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/03
To clarify the flow characteristics of heavy liquid-metal (HLM) is important to achieve the construction of nuclear transmutation facility that utilizes HLM as a spallation target and coolant. At present, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target plans to be installed in Japan proton accelerator research complex (J-PARC). LBE is also selected as one of the candidate media of a spallation target and a coolant for innovative nuclear systems such as accelerator-driven system (ADS) and LBE-cooled fast reactor, due to its adequate physical/chemical properties. The characteristics of LBE flowing inside the target are usually clarified with computational fluid dynamics analysis since the measurement techniques for the HLM flow are not well established, especially for high temperature region over 450C that is delivered from ADS's criteria. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop measurement method for flow characteristics in the high temperature LBE. A miniature electro-magnet is introduced to electro-magnetic probe to overcome the limitation caused by a curie temperature of permanent magnet. To evaluate performance of the new probe, experimental apparatus equipping annular rotating vessel were also manufactured. The new probe was applied to high temperature LBE up to 480C. As a result, proportional induced voltage to the rotation speed of LBE were clearly observed, where excitation currents of the miniature electro-magnet were 0.2 A or 1 A. In this paper, configuration and performance of the newly developed electro-magnet probe to the high temperature LBE will be presented.
Nakada, Akira; Nakano, Masanao; Kanai, Katsuta; Seya, Natsumi; Nishimura, Shusaku; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Futagawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Ryohei; Uchiyama, Rei; et al.
JAEA-Review 2021-062, 163 Pages, 2022/02
Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2020 to March 2021. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.
Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Tani, Norio; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 32 Pages, 2022/02
In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, the purpose of the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is to accelerate a 1 MW, high-intensity proton beam. To achieve beam operation at a repetition rate of 25 Hz at high intensities, the RCS was elaborately designed. After starting the RCS operation, we carefully verified the validity of its design and made certain improvements to establish a reliable operation at higher power as possible. Consequently, we demonstrated beam operation at a high power, namely, 1 MW. We then summarized the design, actual performance, and improvements of the RCS to achieve a 1 MW beam.
Saito, Mutsuki*; Takagishi, Ryunosuke*; Kurita, Nubuyuki*; Watanabe, Masari*; Tanaka, Hidekazu*; Nomura, Ryuji*; Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki*; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiko*; Kajimoto, Ryoichi
Physical Review B, 105(6), p.064424_1 - 064424_15, 2022/02
Kumazoe, Hiroyuki*; Igarashi, Yasuhiko*; Iesari, F.*; Shimizu, Ryota*; Komatsu, Yuya*; Hitosugi, Taro*; Matsumura, Daiju; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Iwamitsu, Kazunori*; Okajima, Toshihiko*; et al.
AIP Advances (Internet), 11(12), p.125013_1 - 125013_5, 2021/12
Ishii, Mamoru*; Shiota, Daiko*; Tao, Chihiro*; Ebihara, Yusuke*; Fujiwara, Hitoshi*; Ishii, Takako*; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi*; Kataoka, Ryuho*; Koga, Kiyokazu*; Kubo, Yuki*; et al.
Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.108_1 - 108_20, 2021/12
We surveyed the relationship between the scale of space weather events and their occurrence rate in Japan and we discussed the social impact of these phenomena during the Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP). The information was compiled for domestic users of space weather forecasts for appropriate preparedness against space weather disasters. This paper gives a comprehensive summary of the survey, focusing on the fields of electricity, satellite operations, communication and broadcasting, satellite positioning usage, aviation, human space activity, and daily life on the Earth's surface, using the cutting-edge knowledge of space weather. Quantitative estimations of the economic impact of space weather events on electricity and aviation are also given.
Tsutsui, Satoshi; Higashinaka, Ryuji*; Nakamura, Raito*; Fujiwara, Kosuke*; Nakamura, Jin*; Kobayashi, Yoshio*; Ito, Takashi; Yoda, Yoshitaka*; Kato, Kazuo*; Nitta, Kiyofumi*; et al.
Hyperfine Interactions, 242(1), p.32_1 - 32_10, 2021/12
Sakoda, Akihiro; Nomura, Naoki*; Kuroda, Yujiro*; Kono, Takahiko; Naito, Wataru*; Yoshida, Hiroko*
Journal of Radiological Protection, 41(4), p.1258 - 1287, 2021/12
Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, many radiation experts directly experienced a vast gap between ideal and real public understanding (PU) of radiation in risk communication. Therefore, this study collated and reviewed information about PU activities for radiation and its risk that six Japanese academic societies - which seemed to be socially neutral expert communities - related to radiation and radiation risk conducted before and after the accident. Activities these radiation-related societies provided to general public were discussed from the following perspectives: (1) difficulties in two-way communication due to resources, motivation, public interest and concerns; (2) balance between academic research and PU activities; (3) academic societies' building trust with the public whilst ensuring member experts' neutrality and independence; (4) discussions among academic societies to prepare for public engagement. We hope that this paper encourages experts and academic societies in radiation protection to hold more national and international discussions about their roles in public communication and outreach.
Asano, Shun*; Ishii, Kenji*; Matsumura, Daiju; Tsuji, Takuya; Kudo, Kota*; Taniguchi, Takanori*; Saito, Shin*; Sunohara, Toshiki*; Kawamata, Takayuki*; Koike, Yoji*; et al.
Physical Review B, 104(21), p.214504_1 - 214504_7, 2021/12
Hironaka, Kota; Ito, Fumiaki*; Lee, J.; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Tone; Suzuki, Satoshi*; Yogo, Akifumi*; Arikawa, Yasunobu*; Abe, Yuki*
Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11
Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is a method for non-destructive measurement of nuclear material by using a time-of-flight (TOF) technique with a pulsed neutron source. For NRTA system to carry out the short-distance TOF measurements with high resolutions, a short-pulsed neutron source is required. Laser-driven neutron sources (LDNSs) is very suitable as such a neutron source because of its short pulse width. Moreover, the compactness of the laser system is also expected due to the remarkable development of laser technology in recent years. In the present study, we have developed a technology for applying LDNS to the NRTA system and conducted the demonstration experiment using the LFEX laser at Osaka University to investigate the feasibility of the system. In this experiment, we successfully observed the neutron resonance peaks of indium and silver samples.
Ono, Koki*; Higomoto, Toshiya*; Saito, Yugo*; Uchino, Shun; Nishida, Yusuke*; Takahashi, Yoshiro*
Nature Communications (Internet), 12(1), p.6724_1 - 6724_8, 2021/11
Quantum transport is ubiquitous in physics. So far, quantum transport between terminals has been extensively studied in solid state systems from the fundamental point of views such as the quantized conductance to the applications to quantum devices. Recent works have demonstrated a cold-atom analog of a mesoscopic conductor by engineering a narrow conducting channel with optical potentials, which opens the door for a wealth of research of atomtronics emulating mesoscopic electronic devices and beyond. Here we realize an alternative scheme of the quantum transport experiment with ytterbium atoms in a two-orbital optical lattice system. Our system consists of a multi-component Fermi gas and a localized impurity, where the current can be created in the spin space by introducing the spin-dependent interaction with the impurity. We demonstrate a rich variety of localized-impurity-induced quantum transports, which paves the way for atomtronics exploiting spin degrees of freedom.
Soler, J. M.*; Keklinen, P.*; Pulkkanen, V.-M.*; Moreno, L.*; Iraola, A.*; Trinchero, P.*; Hokr, M.*; ha, J.*; Havlov, V.*; Trpkoov, D.*; et al.
SKB TR-21-09, 204 Pages, 2021/11