Iwamoto, Yosuke; Tsuda, Shuichi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko
Frontiers in Energy Research (Internet), 11, p.1085264_1 - 1085264_11, 2023/01
This review describes experimental data useful for validation of radiation shielding design in advanced reactor systems such as nuclear fusion and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) and calculations using the PHITS code and JENDL-4.0/HE. The relevant experiments have been conducted mainly in Japan and include (1) neutron spectra in iron shields using 14 MeV neutron sources, (2) leakage neutron spectra from spherical piles of various materials using 14 MeV neutron sources, (3) neutron spectra after penetration through shields using several tens of MeV neutron sources, (4) neutron spectra produced from the target by high-energy heavy-ion bombardment, and (5) induced radioactivity in concrete using heavy-ion nuclear reaction product particles as a source. Throughout, the experimental and calculated values were agreed well. These experimental data are also useful for the validation of all radiation transport calculation codes used in the design of advanced reactor systems.
Fukuda, Tatsuo; Kobata, Masaaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Yoshii, Kenji; Kamiya, Junichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Makino, Takahiro*; Yamazaki, Yuichi*; Oshima, Takeshi*; Shirai, Yasuhiro*; et al.
Journal of Applied Physics, 132(24), p.245102_1 - 245102_8, 2022/12
Direct energy conversion has been investigated using Ni/SiC Schottky junctions with the irradiation of monochromatized synchrotron X-rays simulating the gamma rays of Np (30 keV) and Am (60 keV). From current-voltage measurements, electrical energies were obtained for both kinds of gamma rays. The energy conversion efficiencies were found to reach up to 1.6%, which is comparable to those of a few other semiconducting systems reported thus far. This result shows a possibility of energy recovery from nuclear wastes using the present system, judging from the radiation tolerant nature of SiC. Also, we found different conversion efficiencies between the two samples. This could be understandable from hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, suggesting the formation of Ni-Si compounds at the interface in the sample with a poor performance. Hence, such combined measurements are useful to provide information that cannot be obtained by electrical measurements alone.
JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.97 - 102, 2022/11
In the space environment, radiation irradiate the semiconductors of the devices, and the atomic displacement caused by these radiation degrades the electrical performance of the devices. The atomic displacement of the semiconductor is proportional to the displacement damage (DDD), which is expressed by the non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL). In order to calculate the DDD of semiconductors for various radiation in space, we have developed a method for calculating the DDD in the PHITS code. When silicon was irradiated with protons, neutrons, and electrons, the results of the NIEL calculations by PHITS agreed with the numerical data obtained by the NIEL computer for semiconductors. The defect production efficiencies obtained from the recent molecular dynamic simulations for SiC, InAs, GaAs, and GaN semiconductors were also implemented in PHITS. The results show that GaAs is the most sensitive to displacement damage and SiC is the most resistant to damage when irradiated with 10 MeV protons.
Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; et al.
JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.129 - 133, 2022/11
For accurate prediction of neutronic characteristics for accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and a source term of spallation neutrons for reactor physics experiments for the ADS at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), we have launched an experimental program to measure nuclear data on ADS using the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University. As part of this program, the proton-induced double-differential thick-target neutron-yields (TTNYs) and cross-sections (DDXs) for iron have been measured with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. For each measurement, the target was installed in a vacuum chamber on the beamline and bombarded with 107-MeV proton beams accelerated from the FFAG accelerator. Neutrons produced from the targets were detected with stacked, small-sized neutron detectors composed of the NE213 liquid organic scintillators and photomultiplier tubes, which were connected to a multi-channel digitizer mounted with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), for several angles from the incident beam direction. The TOF spectra were obtained from the detected signals and the FFAG kicker magnet's logic signals, where gamma-ray events were eliminated by pulse shape discrimination applying the gate integration method to the FPGA. Finally, the TTNYs and DDXs were obtained from the TOF spectra by relativistic kinematics.
Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko
PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(11), p.e0276364_1 - e0276364_16, 2022/11
The displacement damage dose (DDD) has been used as an index to determine the lifetime of semiconductor devices used in space radiation environments. Recently, a new index, effective DDD, has been proposed, which takes into account the defect generation efficiency of materials obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. In this study, we developed a method to calculate both conventional and effective DDD for typical semiconductor materials such as SiC, InAs, GaAs, and GaN in the PHITS code. As a result, in the arsenic compounds InAs and GaAs, the number of defects increases due to amorphization and the effective DDD is larger than the conventional DDD, while in SiC the relationship is reversed due to defect recombination. The improved PHITS can be used to calculate the effective DDD of semiconductors in cosmic ray environments, and PHITS can make a significant contribution to the evaluation of radiation damage of new semiconductor devices in space.
Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Matsuda, Norihiro; Kunieda, Satoshi; elik, Y.*; Furutachi, Naoya*; Niita, Koji*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(5), p.665 - 675, 2022/05
A benchmark study of PHITS3.24 has been conducted using neutron-shielding experiments listed in the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database. Five neutron sources were selected, which are generated from (1) 43- and 68-MeV proton-induced reaction on a thin lithium target, (2) 52-MeV proton-induced reaction on a thick graphite target, (3) 590-MeV proton-induced reaction on a thick lead target, (4) 500-MeV proton-induced reaction on a thick tungsten target, and (5) 800-MeV proton-induced reaction on a thick tantalum target. For all cases, overall agreements in the results are satisfactory when using the JENDL-4.0/HE to simulate neutron- and proton-induced reactions up to 200 MeV. However, discrepancies using PHITS default settings are observed in the results. For an accurate neutron-shielding design for accelerator facilities, using JENDL-4.0/HE in the particle and heavy-ion transport code system calculation is favorable.
Nakano, Keita; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Meigo, Shinichiro; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Takeshita, Hayato*; Maekawa, Fujio
JAEA-Research 2021-018, 41 Pages, 2022/03
Neutronic analysis of beam window of the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) proposed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducted using PHITS and DCHAIN-PHITS codes. We investigate gas production of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the beam window, displacement per atom of beam window material, and heat generation in the beam window. In addition, distributions of produced nuclides, heat density, and activity are derived. It was found that at the maximum 12500 appm H production, 1800 appm He production, and damage of 62.1 DPA occurred in the beam window by the ADS operation. On the other hand, the maximum heat generation in the beam window was 374 W/cm. In the analysis of LBE, Bi and Po were found to be the dominant nuclides in decay heat and radioactivity. Furthermore, the heat generation in the LBE by the proton beam was maximum around 5 cm downstream of the beam window, which was 945 W/cm.
Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Yonehara, Katsuya*; Ishida, Taku*; Nakano, Keita; Abe, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Spina, T.*; Ammigan, K.*; et al.
JAEA-Conf 2021-001, p.138 - 143, 2022/03
To predict the operating lifetime of materials in high-energy radiation environments at proton accelerator facilities, Monte Carlo code are used to calculate the number of displacements per atom (dpa). However, there is no experimental data in the energy region above 30 GeV. In this presentation, we introduce our experimental plan for displacement cross sections with 120-GeV protons at Fermilab Test Beam Facility. Experiments will be performed for the US fiscal year 2022. We developed the sample assembly with four wire sample of Al, Cu, Nb and W with 250-m diameter and 4-cm length. The sample assembly will be maintained at around 4 K by using a cryocooler in a vacuum chamber. Then, changes in the electrical resistivity of samples will be obtained under 120-GeV proton irradiation. Recovery of the accumulated defects through isochronal annealing, which is related to the defect concentration in the sample, will also be measured after the cryogenic irradiation.
Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Rovira Leveroni, G.; Terada, Kazushi*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Toh, Yosuke; Segawa, Mariko; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(3), p.318 - 333, 2022/03
Matsuya, Yusuke; Kusumoto, Tamon*; Yachi, Yoshie*; Hirata, Yuho; Miwa, Misako*; Ishikawa, Masayori*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Matsuyama, Shigeo*; Fukunaga, Hisanori*
AIP Advances (Internet), 12(2), p.025013_1 - 025013_9, 2022/02
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiation therapy, which can selectively eradicate solid tumors by -particles and Li ions generated through the nuclear reaction between thermal neutron and B in tumor cells. With the development of accelerator-based neutron sources that can be installed in medical institutions, accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy is expected to become available at several medical institutes around the world in the near future. Lithium is one of the targets that can produce thermal neutrons from the Li(p,n)Be near-threshold reaction. Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo code, which can simulate a variety of diverse particle types and nuclear reactions. The latest PHITS code enables simulating the generation of neutrons from the Li(p,n)Be reactions by using Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-4.0/HE). In this study, we evaluated the neutron fluence using the PHITS code by comparing it to reference data. The subsequent neutron transport simulations were also performed to evaluate the boron trifluoride (BF) detector responses and the recoiled proton fluence detected by a CR-39 plastic detector. As a result, these comparative studies confirmed that the PHITS code can accurately simulate neutrons generated from an accelerator using a Li target. The PHITS code has a significant potential for contributing to more precise evaluating accelerator-based neutron fields and understandings of therapeutic effects of BNCT.
Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sugihara, Kenta; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 15 Pages, 2022/00
Double-differential thick target neutron yields (TTNYs) for Fe, Pb, and Bi targets induced by 107-MeV protons were measured using the fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator at Kyoto University for research and development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) and fundamental ADS reactor physics research at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). Note that TTNYs were obtained with the time-of-flight method using a neutron detector system comprising eight neutron detectors; each detector has a small NE213 liquid organic scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The TTNYs obtained were compared with calculation results using Monte Carlo-based spallation models (i.e., INCL4.6/GEM, Bertini/GEM, JQMD/GEM, and JQMD/SMM/GEM) and the evaluated high-energy nuclear data library, i.e., JENDL-4.0/HE, implemented in the particle and heavy iontransport code system (PHITS). All models, including JENDL-4.0/HE, failed to predict high-energy peaks at a detector angle of 5. Comparing the energy- and angle-integrated spallation neutron yields at energies of 20 MeV estimated using the measured TTNYs and the PHITS indicated that INCL4.6/GEM would be suitable for the Monte Carlo transport simulation of ADS reactor physics experiments at the KUCA.
NEA/NSC/R(2021)2 (Internet), p.316 - 323, 2021/12
For validation of the radiation damage model in Monte Carlo particle transport codes such as PHITS, presenters are continuing measurements of the defect-induced electrical resistivity increase of cryogenic-samples under high-energy proton irradiation related to the displacement cross section. In this presentation, I will introduce measurements of electrical resistivity of aluminum and copper under 125 and 200 MeV proton irradiation at the FFAG accelerator facility in Kyoto University and the cyclotron facility in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. A comparison of experimental displacement cross sections with calculated results using PHITS indicated that the arc-dpa model with the defect production efficiencies provided a better quantitative description of the displacement cross-section than NRT-dpa, which have been widely used.
Kawase, Shoichiro*; Kimura, Atsushi; Harada, Hideo; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu; Nakamura, Shoji; Segawa, Mariko; Toh, Yosuke
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(7), p.764 - 786, 2021/07
Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Matsuda, Hiroki
Isotope News, (774), p.27 - 31, 2021/04
no abstracts in English
Hayakawa, Takehito*; Toh, Yosuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Shizuma, Toshiyuki*; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Satoshi*; Kajino, Toshitaka*
Physical Review C, 103(4), p.045801_1 - 045801_5, 2021/04
Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011050_1 - 011050_6, 2021/03
R&D of the beam window is crucial in the ADS, which serves as a partition between the accelerator and the target region. Although the displacement per atom (DPA) is used to evaluate the damage on the window, experimental data on the displacement cross section is scarce in the energy region above 20 MeV. We started to measure the displacement cross section for the protons in the energy region between 0.4 to 3 GeV. The displacement cross section can be derived by resistivity change divided by the proton flux and the resistivity change per Frankel pair on cryo-cooled sample to maintain damage. Experiments were conducted at the 3 GeV proton synchrotron at the J-PARC Center, and aluminum and copper was used as samples. As a result of comparison between the present experiment and the calculation of the NRT model, which is widely used for calculation of the displacement cross section, it was found that the calculation of the NRT model overestimated the experiment by about 3 times.
Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Yabuuchi, Atsushi*; Shima, Tatsushi*
Materials Science Forum, 1024, p.95 - 101, 2021/03
To predict the lifetime of target materials in high-energy radiation environments at spallation neutron sources, radiation transport codes such as PHITS are used to calculate the displacements per atom (DPA) value. In this work, to validate calculated DPA values of tungsten, we implemented 0.25-mm-diameter wire sample of tungsten in a proton irradiation device with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler and measured the defect-induced electrical resistivity changes related to the displacement cross section using 389-MeV protons at 10 K. As well as our previous results for aluminum and copper, calculated results with defect production efficiencies provided good agreements with experimental data. Based on measurements of recovery of the defects through annealing, about 85% of the damage remained at 60 K, and the same tendency is observed in other experimental result for reactor neutron irradiation.
Ratliff, H.; Matsuda, Norihiro; Abe, Shinichiro; Miura, Takamitsu*; Furuta, Takuya; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 484, p.29 - 41, 2020/12
Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(10), p.1141 - 1151, 2020/10
To estimate the structural damages of materials in accelerator facilities, displacement per atom (dpa) is widely employed as a damage index, calculated based on the displacement cross-section obtained using a calculation model. Although dpa is applied as standard, the experimental data of the displacement cross-section for a proton in the energy region above 20 MeV are scarce. Among the calculation models, difference of about factor 8 exist, so that the experimental data of the cross-section are crucial to validate the model. To obtain the displacement cross-section, we conducted experiments at J-PARC. The displacement cross-section of copper and iron was successfully obtained for a proton projectile with the kinetic energies, 0.4 - 3 GeV. The results were compared with those obtained using the widely utilized Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model and the athermal-recombination-corrected (arc) model based on molecular dynamics. It was found that the NRT model overestimates the present displacement cross-section by 3.5 times. The calculation results obtained using with the arc model based on the Nordlund parameter show remarkable agreement with the experimental data. It can be concluded that the arc model must be employed for the dpa calculation for the damage estimation of copper and iron.
Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Sadamatsu, Hiroki*; Araki, Shohei*; Nakano, Keita*; Kawase, Shoichiro*; Kin, Tadahiro*; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Daiki; Hagiwara, Masayuki*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences, 239, p.20012_1 - 20012_4, 2020/09
Accelerator-based neutron sources induced by deuteron beams are attractive for study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste as well as radiation damage for fusion reactor materials. In the present work, we have carried out a Double Differential cross section (DDX) measurement for Li at 200 MeV in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. A deuteron beam accelerated to 200 MeV was transported to the neutron experimental hall and focused on a thin Li target. Emitted neutrons from the target were detected by two different-size EJ301 liquid organic scintillators located at two distances of 7 m and 20 m, respectively. The neutron DDXs were measured at six angles from 0 to 25). The neutron detection efficiencies of the detectors were calculated by SCINFUL-QMD code. We will present the results of the present DDX measurement and compare them with theoretical model calculations with DEURACS and PHITS.