Nakamura, Mizuki; Izumo, Sari; Ogawa, Rina; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro
JAEA-Technology 2022-025, 73 Pages, 2022/12
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been establishing as the implementing body of the near surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from research facilities and other facilities in order to actualize the near surface disposal. It is necessary to evaluate the effective doses by direct and skyshine -rays from disposal facilities and reduce the doses below the target dose (50 Sv/y) at the site boundary for the safety assessment during operation. It was shown at the results of conceptual design that the distance from the trench disposal facilities to site boundary needed to be kept more than 120m in order to satisfy the target dose. However, the design of trench disposal facilities was changed because of increasing amount of waste subject to the trench disposal. Therefore, the dose by skyshine -rays from trench disposal facilities was recalculated by use of two-dimensional discrete ordinates Sn code DOT 3.5. As a result, it was evaluated that the dose by skyshine -rays from each trench facility at the site boundary whose distance was 120m from a trench facility was lower than 50 Sv/y, respectively, and the dose added up the doses from trench facilities was also lower than 50 Sv/y. In addition, it was suggested to reduce the target skyshine dose by thickening the covered soil on the top layer.
Okada, Shota; Murakami, Masashi; Kochiyama, Mami; Izumo, Sari; Sakai, Akihiro
JAEA-Testing 2022-002, 66 Pages, 2022/08
Japan Atomic Energy Agency is an implementing organization of burial disposal for low-level radioactive waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities in Japan. Radioactivity concentrations of the waste are essential information for design of the disposal facility and for licensing process. A lot of the waste subjected to the burial disposal is arising from dismantling of nuclear facilities. Radioactive Wastes Disposal enter has therefore discussed a procedure to evaluate the radioactivity concentrations by theoretical calculation for waste arising from the dismantling of the research reactors facilities and summarized the common procedure. The procedure includes evaluation of radioactive inventory by activation calculation, validation of the calculation results, and determination of the disposal classification as well as organization of the data on total radioactivity and maximum radioactivity concentration for each classification. For the evaluation of radioactive inventory, neutron flux and energy spectra are calculated at each region in the reactor facility using two- or three-dimensional neutron transport code. The activation calculation is then conducted for 140 nuclides using the results of neutron transport calculation and an activation calculation code. The recommended codes in this report for neutron transport calculation are two-dimensional discrete ordinate code DORT, three-dimensional discrete ordinate code TORT, or Monte Carlo codes MCNP and PHITS, and for activation calculation is ORIGEN-S. Other recommendation of cross-section libraries and calculation conditions are also indicated in this report. In the course of the establishment of the procedure, Radioactive Wastes Disposal Center has discussed the commonly available procedure at meetings. It has periodically held to exchange information with external operators which have research reactor facilities. The procedure will properly be reviewed and be revised by reflecting future situ
Izumo, Sari; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Motoyama, Mitsushi*; Sakai, Akihiro
JAEA-Technology 2018-018, 39 Pages, 2019/03
JAEA has planed the near surface disposal of LLW generated from research, industrial, and medical facilities. Maximum radioactivity concentration of each waste and total radioactivity of disposed wastes are needed to be less than the permitted values in the license of disposal facility. Thus, it is important not to evaluate the radioactivity of each waste in unduly conservative ways so as to dispose of the total amount of the waste that is originally planned. Accordingly, the detection limit is required to be as low as the clearance level for the very low level radioactive waste planned to be disposed of trench-type. In this report, the feasibility of the non-destructive assay method is studied by model calculations for gamma emitters. It is confirmed that the detection limit less than the clearance level can be achieved as regards the box type metal container that is difficult to measure. This report summarizes the requirements for the non-destructive measuring equipment.
Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Izumo, Sari; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro
Dekomisshoningu Giho, (58), p.10 - 23, 2018/09
Low level radioactive wastes are generated in the research and development of the nuclear energy, medical and industrial use of radioisotope except NPP in Japan. The disposal of wastes arising from NPP has already been implemented while not the one for wastes from research institutes etc. Japan Atomic Energy Agency therefore has been assigned an implementing organization for the disposal legally in 2008 in order to promote the disposal program as quickly and firmly as possible. Since then, JAEA has conducted their activity relating to the disposal facility design on generic site conditions and developing Waste Acceptance Criteria for LLW from research institutes. This report summarizes the WAC and current challenges.
Hayashi, Hirokazu; Izumo, Sari; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro
JAEA-Technology 2018-001, 66 Pages, 2018/06
It is necessary to establish evaluation methodology of radioactivity concentrations of each radionuclide in waste packages for operation of the Near-surface Trench disposal and Sub-surface Pit disposal facility in near future, which has been preparing for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research facilities in JAEA. The radionuclides containing in waste packages generated from both JRR-2 and JRR-3, which are H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, Tc-99, Ag-108m, I-129, Cs-137, Eu-152, Eu-154, U-234, U-238, Pu-239+240, Pu-238+Am-241, Cm-243+244, were evaluated their density based on radiochemical analysis data, and the Evaluation Methodology of the Radioactivity Concentration such as Scaling Factor method and mean activity concentration method was studied in this report.
Hayashi, Hirokazu; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
A near surface disposal for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) is operating in Japan. However, the disposal of LLW from other nuclear facilities and radioisotope utilization facilities has not yet been implemented. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) plans to implement the near surface disposal. In order to be disposed of these wastes, it must be confirmed by the regulator that each waste package (radioactive waste solidified with filling materials, such as cement, in a container by a regulated method is termed a waste package) conforms to technical standards that aim for safe disposal. JAEA has studied reasonable confirmation methods to demonstrate the conformity of the waste package to the technical standard as NPP operators have studied it. This report describes the outline of our activities focused on development of the confirmation method applicable to radioactive wastes from research facilities.
Haraga, Tomoko; Tobita, Minoru*; Takahashi, Shigemi*; Seki, Kotaro*; Izumo, Sari; Shimomura, Yusuke; Ishimori, Kenichiro; Kameo, Yutaka
JAEA-Data/Code 2016-017, 53 Pages, 2017/02
Fugen Nuclear Power Station was shut down and now is under decommissioning. Many radioactivity concentration data of dismantled materials have to be accumulated to calculate the scaling factors of radioactive wastes and to verify that the cleared dismantled materials conform to the clearance levels. A simple and rapid radioactivity determination method for radioactive waste samples was developed by Department of Decommissioning and Waste Management. For its demonstration, the simple and rapid radioactivity determination method was applied to metal samples, which were taken from dismantled pipes in contact with heavy water or carbon dioxide gas of Fugen. This report summarizes the radioactivity data obtained from the analysis of those samples.
Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Nakata, Hisakazu; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya
JAEA-Technology 2016-023, 129 Pages, 2016/11
Waste packages must meet the technical requirements. This is because JAEA has been preparing an operating procedure manual for quality control of radioactive waste disposal to be applied to the processing of the waste packages. Raw wastes generated by JAEA are segregated and stored by a method specified in the manual. The composition of raw wastes was characterized on the basis of records of the segregation process. Simulated waste packages were produced by placing the waste materials in a 200 liter drum, which was then filled with mortar, followed by curing in a controlled manner. The static load test was conducted to measure deformation and strain performance of the simulated waste package. Compression apparatuses which can imitate loading conditions in pit-type and trench-type facility that are planned by JAEA were used. Based on the test result, waste packages produced in accordance with the manual met the technical requirement under the condition.
Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Nakata, Hisakazu; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Sato, Makoto*; Kitamura, Yoichi*; Honda, Yasutake*; Takaoka, Katsuki*; Amazawa, Hiroya
JAEA-Technology 2016-019, 134 Pages, 2016/10
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing to design trench disposal facility with impermeable layers in order to dispose of miscellaneous waste. Geomembrane liners have a function that prevent seepage of leachant and collect the leachant. However, the geomembrane liners do not necessarily provide the expected performance due to damage generated when heavy equipment contacts with the liner. Therefore, we studied the impermeable layers having high performance of preventing seepage of leachant including radioactivity taking into account characteristics of low permeable materials and effect of multiple layer structure. As results, we have evaluated that the composite layers composed by a drainage layer, geomembrane liners and a low permeable layer are most effective structure to prevent seepage of leachant. Taking into account disposal of waste including cesium, we also considered zeolite containing sheets for adsorption of cesium were installed in the impermeable layers.
Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Amazawa, Hiroya
JAEA-Technology 2016-001, 112 Pages, 2016/03
The waste packages must meet the technical requirements that radioactive waste shall be solidified in a container by a method determined by the Nuclear Regulation Authority to prevent from radiation hazards. JAEA has been preparing operating procedure manual on quality control for radioactive waste disposal in order to promote the manufacturing the waste package. This report presents that simulant waste packages were produced by placing wastes in a 200 liter drum, which was then filled with mortar of a novel mix proportion, followed by curing in a controlled manner. Determination of the presence of harmful voidage and raw waste immobility were performed by direct measurement and visual inspection of a vertical cross section of the waste packages respectively.
Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Akihiro; Izumo, Sari; Amazawa, Hiroya
JAEA-Technology 2015-009, 46 Pages, 2015/06
It is necessary to establish practical evaluation methods to determine radioactivity concentrations of the important nuclides for safety assessment on disposal of radioactive wastes in order to dispose of low-level radioactive wastes generated from various nuclear facilities in JAEA. In this report, it has been studied that the practical evaluation methods are applied for the important nuclides (H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ni-59, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Mo-93, Nb-94, Tc-99, Ag-108m, Cs-137, Eu-152, Eu-154, Ho-166m, nuclides) of radioactive wastes generated from JPDR facilities. As a result, it has been found that the appropriate methods to determine radioactivity concentrations such as the scaling factor method (Ni-63, Nb-94), the mean activity concentration method (H-3, C-14, Cl-36 and so on) and the theoretical method (Ni-59) can be applied and Co-60, Ag-108m and Cs-137 will be evaluated by measurements from outside of the waste package.
Kubota, Shintaro; Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi; Koda, Yuya; Nanko, Takashi
JAEA-Technology 2014-022, 22 Pages, 2014/07
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the PRODIA code which supports to make decommissioning plan and has been preparing evaluation functions. Manpower needs for the dismantling the condenser that had conducted from 2010 to 2012 was analyzed and compared with existing evaluation functions. Applicability of evaluation function for a large scale reactor facility was confirmed in dismantling of the heat insulating materials and feed water heaters and reliability of unit productivity factor was improved. Evaluation function of work for clearance was made in dismantling of pipes and supports. Statistically meaningful data was provided from the dismantling of the condenser. Manpower needs for dismantling of a condenser has positive correlation to the weight of equipment and can be described in linear expression. Reliability of each unit productivity factor will be improved with accumulating actual dismantling data in future.
Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Kubota, Shintaro; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake
JAEA-Technology 2014-021, 79 Pages, 2014/07
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed PROject management data evaluation code for DIsmantling Activities (PRODIA) to make an efficient decommissioning for nuclear facilities. PRODIA is a source code which provides estimated value such as manpower needs, costs, etc., for dismantling by evaluation formulas according to the type of nuclear facility. Evaluation formulas of manpower needs for dismantling of equipments about reprocessed uranium conversion in Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant are developed in this report. In the result, 7 formulas for prepare process, 24 formulas for dismantling process and 8 formulas for clean-up process are derived. It is confirmed that an unified evaluation formula can be used instead of 8 formulas about dismantling process of steel equipment for uranium conversion process, and 3 types of simplified formula can be used for preparation process and clean-up process respectively.
Shibahara, Yuji; Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Izumi, Masanori; Tezuka, Masashi; Morishita, Yoshitsugu; Kiyota, Shiko; Tachibana, Mitsuo
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 12(3), p.197 - 210, 2013/09
As the first step of the applicability inspection of PRODIA Code for dismantling activities in the decommissioning of FUGEN, manpower needs for dismantling activities in FUGEN conducted in 2008 were calculated with conventional calculation formulas which were made by data obtained from JPDR decommissioning program. Since the conventional calculation formula for dismantling of feedwater heater has no applicability, the new calculation formula was constructed by reflecting the work description of dismantling of feedwater heater in FUGEN. It was found that the calculation results with this new formula showed the good agreement with the actual data both of 3rd feedwater heater and 4th one. Based on this discussion, some case studies for dismantling of feedwater heater were conducted.
Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2013) (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2013/09
Tachibana, Mitsuo; Izumo, Sari; Sugitsue, Noritake; Park, S.-K.*
DYNATOM (Internet), 2013(4), p.31 - 35, 2013/04
JAEA has the Uranium Refining & Conversion Plant. KAERI has the Uranium Conversion Plant. These CFs have been under decommissioning after their missions completed. Each organization has been developing decommissioning engineering systems to develop effective decommissioning plans and to implement dismantling activities effectively. Therefore, benchmark tests were started in order to verify mutual decommissioning engineering systems. Each organization compared mutual decommissioning engineering system, and compared specification and dismantling procedure of the rotary kiln and management data for dismantling the rotary kiln. Management data for dismantling the rotary kiln in KAERI was calculated by using DENESYS of JAEA. This report describes results of comparisons of dismantling activities of the rotary kiln in JAEA and KAERI, and calculated results by JAEA.
Muraguchi, Yoshinori; Kanayama, Fumihiko; Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo
JAEA-Technology 2012-035, 69 Pages, 2012/12
Dismantling activities of equipment in JAEA's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF) used for wet reprocessing test started from 1996. Glove boxes and hoods installed in the main building were dismantled preferentially for securing temporary place of dismantled waste and dismantling tools by dismantling activities. Of these, 8 glove boxes (glove box group) were installed in room 232 of the main building. The glove box group was dismantled by setting up a large plastic enclosure (greenhouse) for work efficiency. In this report, dismantling procedure and actual data obtained from dismantling activity were arranged about dismantling activity of glove box group of room 232 in 1996. About dismantling activity of glove box group, manpower of the basic work items extracted by classifying into common work items and independent work items were analyzed. In addition, calculation equation was examined concerning dismantling of glove boxes.
Tachibana, Mitsuo; Izumo, Sari; Sugitsue, Noritake; Park, S.-K.*
Proceedings of American Nuclear Society Embedded Topical on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology Expo (DD&R 2012) (DVD-ROM), p.107 - 110, 2012/06
JAEA has the Uranium Refining & Conversion Plant. KAERI has the Uranium Conversion Plant. These facilities have been under decommissioning after their missions completed. Each organization has been developing decommissioning engineering systems to develop effective decommissioning plans and to implement dismantling activities effectively. Therefore, benchmark tests were started in order to verify mutual decommissioning engineering systems. This report describes results of comparisons of dismantling activities of the rotary kiln in JAEA and KAERI, and calculated results by JAEA.
Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Shibahara, Yuji; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake; Tachibana, Mitsuo
Proceedings of International Waste Management Symposia 2012 (WM 2012) (CD-ROM), 13 Pages, 2012/02
Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data have been collected. Establishment of the calculation formula for dismantling of each kind of equipment makes it possible to evaluate manpower for dismantling the whole facility. However, it is not easy to prepare calculation formula for all kinds of equipment in the facility. Therefore, a simpler evaluation method was considered to calculate manpower based on facility characteristics. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. To create an effective dismantling plan, it is necessary to carefully consider use of a GH preliminarily. Thus, an evaluation method of project management data such as manpower and secondary waste generation was considered. The results showed promise for evaluating project management data of GH by using established calculation formula.
Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Sugitsue, Noritake; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi
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no abstracts in English