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論文

${it In situ}$ neutron diffraction revealing the achievement of excellent combination of strength and ductility in metastable austenitic steel by grain refinement

Mao, W.; Gong, W.; Harjo, S.; 諸岡 聡; Gao, S.*; 川崎 卓郎; 辻 伸泰*

Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 176, p.69 - 82, 2024/03

Fe-24Ni-0.3C(wt.%)準安定オーステナイト鋼の降伏応力は、平均結晶粒径が35$$mu$$m(粗粒[CG])から0.5$$mu$$m(超微細粒[UFG])に減少すると3.5倍(158$$rightarrow$$551MPa)に増加したが、引張伸びは大きく維持された(0.87$$rightarrow$$0.82)。結晶粒径が力学特性と変形機構に及ぼす影響を定量的に明らかにするため、室温での引張変形中にCGとUFG Fe-24Ni-0.3C鋼のその場中性子回折測定を行った。CGとUFG試料における塑性変形の初期段階は転位すべりによって支配され、変形後期には変形誘起マルテンサイト変態(DIMT)も生じた。結晶粒の微細化により、DIMTの開始応力が大きく増加し、ひずみに関するDIMTの速度が抑制されることがわかった。結果として、(i)結晶粒微細化によりオー ステナイトが安定化し、DIMTに対して最も安定な結晶粒である$$<$$111$$>$$//LD(LD:負荷方向)オーステナイト粒でのDIMTの開始が大幅に遅れた。その結果、UFG試験片の$$<$$111$$>$$//LDオーステナイト粒のほとんどはマルテンサイトに変態しなかった。(ii)結晶粒の微細化は、マルテンサイト変態の自己促進効果も抑制した。それにもかかわらず、UFG試験片の変態速度が低いDIMTは、CG試験片のより応力を増加させるのに効率がよく、変形中に均一な変形を維持するのに適していた。以上の現象は、UFG準安定オーステナイト鋼の優れた強度と延性の両立に相互に寄与している。

論文

Predictive and inverse modeling of a radionuclide diffusion experiment in crystalline rock at ONKALO (Finland)

Soler, J. M.*; Kek$"a$l$"a$inen, P.*; Pulkkanen, V.-M.*; Moreno, L.*; Iraola, A.*; Trinchero, P.*; Hokr, M.*; $v{R}$$'i$ha, J.*; Havlov$'a$, V.*; Trpko$v{s}$ov$'a$, D.*; et al.

Nuclear Technology, 209(11), p.1765 - 1784, 2023/11

The REPRO-TDE test was performed at a depth of about 400 m in the ONKALO underground research facility in Finland. Synthetic groundwater containing radionuclide tracers (HTO, Cl-36, Na-22, Ba-133, Cs-134) was circulated for about four years in a packed-off interval of the injection borehole. Tracer activities were additionally monitored in two observation boreholes. The test was the subject of a modelling exercise by the SKB GWFTS Task Force. Eleven teams participated in the exercise, using different model concepts and approaches. Predictive model calculations were based on laboratory-based information concerning porosities, diffusion coefficients and sorption partition coefficients. After the experimental results were made available, the teams were able to revise their models to reproduce the observations. General conclusions from these back-analysis calculations include the need for reduced effective diffusion coefficients for Cl-36 compared to those applicable to HTO (anion exclusion), the need to implement weaker sorption for Na-22, compared to results from laboratory batch-sorption experiments, and the observation of large differences between the theoretical initial concentrations for the strongly-sorbing Ba-133 and Cs-134 and the first measured values a few hours after tracer injection. Different teams applied different concepts, concerning mainly the implementation of isotropic vs. anisotropic diffusion, or the possible existence of Borehole Disturbed Zones around the different boreholes. The role of microstructure was also addressed in two of the models.

論文

Quantitatively evaluating the huge L$"u$ders band deformation in an ultrafine grain stainless steel by combining ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction and digital image correlation analysis

Mao, W.; Gao, S.*; Gong, W.; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 辻 伸泰*

Scripta Materialia, 235, p.115642_1 - 115642_6, 2023/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0

本研究では、巨大なリューダースバンド変形を示す超微細粒(UFG)ステンレス鋼の引張その場中性子回折とデジタル画像相関測定を行い、バンド伝播中の歪硬化に対するオーステナイト母相と変形誘起マルテンサイトの個々の寄与を評価した。定量的解析の結果、UFG構造によって流動応力が大幅に増加した場合、オーステナイト母相のひずみ硬化は均一な変形を維持するには不十分であることがわかった。リューダースバンドの伝播に必要なひずみ硬化は、マルテンサイトの形成とその内部の高い内部応力によってもたらされた。

論文

Quantitatively evaluating respective contribution of austenite and deformation-induced martensite to flow stress, plastic strain, and strain hardening rate in tensile deformed TRIP steel

Mao, W.; Gao, S.*; Gong, W.; Bai, Y.*; Harjo, S.; Park, M.-H.*; 柴田 曉伸*; 辻 伸泰*

Acta Materialia, 256, p.119139_1 - 119139_16, 2023/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:81.18

変形誘起塑性(TRIP)鋼は、変形誘起マルテンサイト変態(DIMT)に伴う加工硬化率の向上により、強度と延性の優れた組み合わせを示す。TRIP鋼や合金の加工硬化挙動におけるDIMTの役割を定量的に評価することは、強度と延性の両立を可能にする先進材料を設計するための指針を与えるが、変形中に相組成が変化し続け、応力と塑性ひずみの両方が構成相間で動的に分配されるため、その評価は困難である。本研究では、Fe-24Ni-0.3C(wt.%)TRIPオーステナイト鋼の引張変形とその場中性子回折測定を行った。中性子回折測定による応力分割と相分割に基づく解析手法を提案し、試験片の引張流動応力と加工硬化率を、オーステナイト母相,変形誘起マルテンサイト、DIMT変態速度に関連する因子に分解し、試料の加工硬化挙動における各因子の役割を考察した。さらに、回折プロファイル解析により測定した転位密度を用いてオーステナイトとマルテンサイト間の塑性ひずみ分配を間接的に推定し、材料中のオーステナイトとマルテンサイト間の応力・ひずみ分配の全体像を構築した。その結果、変形誘起マルテンサイト変態速度とマルテンサイトが負担する相応力の両方が、材料の全体的な引張特性に重要な役割を果たしていることが示唆された。提案した分解解析法は、TRIP現象を示す多相合金の機械的挙動を調べるために広く適用できる可能性がある。

論文

PANDORA Project for the study of photonuclear reactions below $$A=60$$

民井 淳*; Pellegri, L.*; S$"o$derstr$"o$m, P.-A.*; Allard, D.*; Goriely, S.*; 稲倉 恒法*; Khan, E.*; 木戸 英治*; 木村 真明*; Litvinova, E.*; et al.

European Physical Journal A, 59(9), p.208_1 - 208_21, 2023/09

光核反応は原子核構造の観点からも応用の観点からも重要であるにも関わらず、その反応断面積は未だに不定性が大きい。近年、超高エネルギー宇宙線の起源を探るために、鉄よりも軽い原子核の光核反応断面積を正確に知る必要が指摘されている。この状況を打破するため、原子核物理の実験、理論、宇宙物理の共同研究となるPANDORAプロジェクトが始まった。本論文はその計画の概要をまとめたものである。原子核実験ではRCNP、iThembaによる仮想光子実験とELI-NPによる実光子実験などが計画されている。原子核理論では、乱雑位相近似計算、相対論的平均場理論、反対称化分子動力学、大規模殻模型計算などが計画されている。これらで得られた信頼性の高い光核反応データベースと宇宙線伝搬コードを組み合わせ、超高エネルギー宇宙線の起源の解明に挑む。

論文

Lattice parameters of austenite and martensite during transformation for Fe-18Ni alloy investigated through ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction

Gong, W.; Harjo, S.; 友田 陽*; 諸岡 聡; 川崎 卓郎; 柴田 曉伸*; 辻 伸泰*

Acta Materialia, 250, p.118860_1 - 118860_16, 2023/05

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:62.28(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Martensitic transformation is accompanied by the generation of microscale and macroscale internal stresses during cooling below the martensitic transformation start temperature. These internal stresses have been determined through X-ray or neutron diffraction, but the reported results are not consistent, probably because the measured lattice parameter is influenced not only by the internal stress but also by several factors, including solute elements and crystal defects. Therefore, ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction combined with dilatometry measurements during martensitic transformation and subsequent cyclic tempering were performed for an Fe-18Ni alloy. The phase strains calculated by lattice parameter variations show that a hydrostatic compressive strain in austenite and a tensile strain in martensite arose as the martensitic transformation progressed during continuous cooling or isothermal holding. However, the phase stresses of austenite and martensite estimated from these strains failed to hold stress balance law when dense crystal defects involved in the processes. After these crystal defects were removed by appropriate tempering, the stress balance law held well. Meanwhile, the phase stresses of austenite and martensite were changed to opposite, revealing their true identity. Various crystal defects in austenite and martensite, introduced by plastic accommodation, were suggested to affect their lattice parameters and then their phase stresses.

論文

Compressive deformation behavior of AZ31 alloy at 21K; An ${it In situ}$ neutron diffraction study

Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎; Zheng, R.*; 眞山 剛*; Sun, B.*; 相澤 一也; Harjo, S.; 辻 伸泰*

Scripta Materialia, 225, p.115161_1 - 115161_5, 2023/03

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:37.86(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Deformation behavior during uniaxial compression at 21 K and 298 K in a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied by ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction. Decreasing the deformation temperature resulted in a slight increase in yield stress (115 MPa $$rightarrow$$ 139 MPa), but a remarkable enhancement in both the fracture stress (365 MPa $$rightarrow$$ 551 MPa) and fracture strain (12.8% $$rightarrow$$ 16.5%). The low temperature sensitivity of the {10$$overline{1}$$2} extension twinning which governed the macroscopic yielding led to the slight increase in yield stress. At 21K, basal slip was suppressed, while the extension twinning was promoted resulted in higher twin volume fraction. In the late stage of deformation, the {10$$overline{1}$$1}-{10$$overline{1}$$2} double twinning was suppressed, which is considered to be the reason to delay the fracture at 21 K.

論文

Unexpected dynamic transformation from $$alpha$$ phase to $$beta$$ phase in zirconium alloy revealed by in-situ neutron diffraction during high temperature deformation

Guo, B.*; Mao, W.; Chong, Y.*; 柴田 曉伸*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; Chen, H.*; Jonas, J. J.*; 辻 伸泰*

Acta Materialia, 242, p.118427_1 - 118427_11, 2023/01

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:62.4(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Dynamic transformation from alpha (HCP) to beta (BCC) phase in a zirconium alloy was revealed by the use of in-situ neutron diffraction during hot compression. The dynamic transformation was unexpectedly detected during isothermal compression at temperatures of 900$$^{circ}$$C and 950$$^{circ}$$C (alpha + beta two-phase region) and strain rates of 0.01 s$$^{-1}$$ and 0.001 s$$^{-1}$$, even though equilibrium two-phase states were achieved prior to the hot compression. Dynamic transformation was accompanied by diffusion of Sn from beta to alpha phase, which resulted in changes of lattice parameters and a characteristic microstructure of alpha grains. The details of dynamic transformation are discussed using the evolution of lattice constants.

論文

Stress partitioning between bcc and cementite phases discussed from phase stress and dislocation density in martensite steels

土田 紀之*; 上路 林太郎*; Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.

Scripta Materialia, 222, p.115002_1 - 115002_6, 2023/01

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:70.46(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

The present study investigated the tensile deformation behavior of quenched and tempered martensite steels at various austenitization and tempering temperatures using in situ neutron diffraction experiments. Phase lattice strains in the bcc and cementite ($$theta$$) phases and dislocation structures in the bcc phase were analyzed. The phase lattice strain in bcc became almost stagnant after yielding as the tempering temperature increased. The phase lattice strain in $$theta$$ increased linearly with an increase in the flow stress, independent of the austenitization and tempering temperatures. The stress partitioning between bcc and $$theta$$ was confirmed after the yielding of bcc, which contributed to the work hardening. The phase stresses of bcc and $$theta$$ and their stress partitioning improve the mechanical properties of martensite steels, which can be summarized by the systematic changes in phase lattice strain and dislocation properties due to the austenitization and tempering temperatures.

論文

${it In situ}$ observation of twinning and detwinning in AZ31 alloy

Gong, W.; Zheng, R.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 相澤 一也; 辻 伸泰*

Journal of Magnesium and Alloys (Internet), 10(12), p.3418 - 3432, 2022/12

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:93.84(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

Twinning and detwinning behavior of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy during cyclic compression-tension deformation with a total strain amplitude of 4% ($$pm$$2%) was evaluated using the complementary techniques of ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction, identical area electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. In-situ neutron diffraction demonstrates that the compressive deformation was dominated by twin nucleation, twin growth, and basal slip, while detwinning dominated the unloading of compressive stresses and subsequent tension stage. A large number of $$<c>$$-component dislocations observed in twins and the detwinned regions were attributed to the dislocation transmutation during the twinning and detwinning. The accumulation of barriers including twin boundaries and various types of dislocations enhanced the interactions of migrating twin boundary with these barriers during twinning and detwinning, which is considered to be the origin for increasing the work hardening rate in cyclic deformation of the AZ31 alloy.

論文

Rediscovery of Hall-Petch strengthening in bulk ultrafine grained pure Mg at cryogenic temperature; A Combined ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction and electron microscopy study

Zheng, R.*; Gong, W.; Du, J.-P.*; Gao, S.*; Liu, M.*; Li, G.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Ma, C.*; 尾方 成信*; et al.

Acta Materialia, 238, p.118243_1 - 118243_15, 2022/10

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:92.76(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Grain refinement can lead to the strengthening of metallic materials according to the Hall-Petch relationship. However, our recent results suggested that grain boundary sliding is the dominant deformation mode in bulk ultrafine grained (UFG) pure Mg at room temperature, leading to softening. Here, for the first time, we report that the Hall-Petch strengthening can be regained in bulk UFG pure Mg at cryogenic temperature. At 77K, the UFG pure Mg with a mean grain size of 0.6 $$mu$$m exhibited ultrahigh tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of 309 MPa and 380 MPa, respectively. Combined ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction and electron microscopy investigation indicated that residual dislocation structures and deformation twins hardly formed in the UFG specimen during tensile test at 298K. In contrast, fast accumulation of lattice defects and remarkable reorientation were evident at 77K, suggesting that the grain-boundary-mediated process was suppressed and the plastic deformation was dominated by dislocation slip and deformation twinning. In addition, all the pure Mg specimens exhibited pronounced strain hardening at 77 K, which was mainly attributed to the suppressed grain boundary sliding and dynamic recovery. The mean dislocation density and relative fractions of dislocations with various Burgers vectors of the UFG specimen deformed at 77K were determined quantitatively from neutron diffraction data.

論文

Synergistic hybrid electrocatalysts of platinum alloy and single-atom platinum for an efficient and durable oxygen reduction reaction

Liu, B.*; Feng, R.*; Busch, M.*; Wang, S.*; Wu, H.*; Liu, P.*; Gu, J.*; Bahadoran, A.*; 松村 大樹; 辻 卓也; et al.

ACS Nano, 16(9), p.14121 - 14133, 2022/09

 被引用回数:23 パーセンタイル:98.04(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Pt single-atom materials possess an ideal atom economy but suffer from limited intrinsic activity and side reaction of producing H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we demonstrate that anchoring platinum alloys on single-atom Pt-decorated carbon (Pt- SAC) surmounts their inherent deficiencies, thereby enabling a complete four-electron ORR pathway catalysis with high efficiency and durability. Pt$$_{3}$$Co@Pt-SAC demonstrates an exceptional mass and specific activities 1 order of magnitude higher than those of commercial Pt/C. They are durable throughout 50000 cycles, showing only a 10 mV decay in halfwave potential. The superior durability is attributed to the shielding effect of the Pt-SAC coating, which significantly mitigates the dissolution of Pt$$_{3}$$Co cores.

論文

Modelling of the LTDE-SD radionuclide diffusion experiment in crystalline rock at the $"A$sp$"o$ Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden)

Soler, J. M.*; Meng, S.*; Moreno, L.*; Neretnieks, I.*; Liu, L.*; Kek$"a$l$"a$inen, P.*; Hokr, M.*; $v{R}$$'i$ha, J.*; Vete$v{s}$n$'i$k, A.*; Reimitz, D.*; et al.

Geologica Acta, 20(7), 32 Pages, 2022/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:62.97(Geology)

亀裂性岩石中の地下水流動と物質移行のモデル化に関するSKBタスクフォースにおけるTask 9Bは、スウェーデンのエスポ岩盤研究所で実施された原位置長期収着・拡散試験(LTDE-SD)の試験結果のモデル化に焦点をあてたものである。10のモデリングチームによって、異なるモデル概念やコードを用いたモデル化が実施された。モデル化のアプローチは、(1)拡散方程式の解析解、(2)連続多孔質媒体中の数値計算モデル、(3)微細な不均質性(鉱物粒界,微細亀裂の分布等)を考慮した微細構造モデルの大きく3種に分類できる。異なるチームによるモデル化結果から、岩石や亀裂の表面の擾乱影響を含む岩石特性の不均質な分布、微細な亀裂の効果など、様々な異なるモデル概念の比較・評価がなされた。

論文

Predictive modeling of a simple field matrix diffusion experiment addressing radionuclide transport in fractured rock. Is it so straightforward?

Soler, J. M.*; Neretnieks, I.*; Moreno, L.*; Liu, L.*; Meng, S.*; Svensson, U.*; Iraola, A.*; Ebrahimi, K.*; Trinchero, P.*; Molinero, J.*; et al.

Nuclear Technology, 208(6), p.1059 - 1073, 2022/06

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:49.33(Nuclear Science & Technology)

SKBタスクフォースは、亀裂性岩石中の地下水流動と物質移行のモデル化に関する国際フォーラムである。WPDE試験はフィンランドのオンカロ地下施設において実施された片麻岩中のマトリクス拡散試験である。複数の非収着性及び収着性のトレーサーを含む模擬地下水が試錐孔の試験区間に沿って注入された。タスク9Aは、WPDE試験で得られたトレーサー破過曲線に対する予測モデリングを行うことを目的とした。複数のチームが本タスクに参加し、異なるモデル化手法とコードを用いた予測解析を行った。この予測解析の重要な結論は、試錐孔の開口部における地下水流動に関連する分散パラメータにモデル化結果が大きく影響されることである。マトリクス拡散及び収着に関連する破過曲線のテール部に着目すると、異なるチーム間の解析結果の差異は相対的に小さい結果となった。

論文

Achieving excellent mechanical properties in type 316 stainless steel by tailoring grain size in homogeneously recovered or recrystallized nanostructures

Liu, M.*; Gong, W.; Zheng, R.*; Li, J.*; Zhang, Z.*; Gao, S.*; Ma, C.*; 辻 伸泰*

Acta Materialia, 226, p.117629_1 - 117629_13, 2022/03

 被引用回数:28 パーセンタイル:99.45(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

One hopeful path to realize good comprehensive mechanical properties in metallic materials is to accomplish homogeneous nanocrystalline (NC) or ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with low dislocation density. In this work, high pressure torsion deformation followed by appropriate annealing was performed on 316 stainless steel (SS). For the first time, we successfully obtained NC/UFG 316 SS having uniform microstructures with various average grain sizes ranging from 46 nm to 2.54 $$mu$$m and low dislocation densities. Among the series, an un-precedentedly high yield strength (2.34 GPa) was achieved at the smallest grain size of 46 nm, in which dislocation scarcity induced hardening accounting for 57% of the strength. On the other hand, exceptional strength-ductility synergy with high yield strength (900 MPa) and large uniform elongation (27%) was obtained in the fully recrystallized specimen having the grain size of 0.38 $$mu$$m. The high yield stress and scarcity of dislocation sources in recrystallized UFGs activated stacking faults and deformation twins nucleating from grain boundaries during straining, and their interaction with dislocations allowed for sustainable strain hardening, which also agreed with the plaston concept recently proposed. The multiple deformation modes activated, together with the effective strengthening mechanisms, were responsible for the outstanding comprehensive mechanical performance of the material.

論文

Effective grain size refinement of an Fe-24Ni-0.3C metastable austenitic steel by a modified two-step cold rolling and annealing process utilizing the deformation-induced martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation

Mao, W.; Gao, S.*; Bai, Y.*; Park, M.-H.*; 柴田 曉伸*; 辻 伸泰*

Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 17, p.2690 - 2700, 2022/03

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:87.4(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

超微細結晶粒(UFG)組織を有する準安定オーステナイト鋼は、冷間圧延中の変形誘起マルテンサイト変態と焼鈍時のオーステナイトへの逆変態を利用することにより、従来の冷間圧延および焼鈍プロセスで製造することができる。しかし、変形誘起マルテンサイト変態に対するオーステナイトの機械的安定性が高い場合には、冷間圧延中に十分な量のマルテンサイトが生成しないため、このようなプロセスは適用できない。本研究では、高い機械的安定性を有するFe-24Ni-0.3C準安定オーステナイト鋼に対して、冷間圧延と焼鈍の2段階プロセスを適用した。冷間圧延に先立ち、繰り返しサブゼロ処理と逆焼鈍処理を施した。このような処理により、オーステナイトの機械的安定性が劇的に低下し、その後の冷間圧延工程で変形誘起マルテンサイトの生成が大幅に促進された。その結果、結晶粒の微細化が著しく促進され、平均オーステナイト粒径0.5mmの完全再結晶試験片の作製に成功し、高強度と高延性を両立させた。

論文

Joint environmental radiation survey by JAEA and KAERI around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant; Performance of mobile gamma-ray spectrometry using backpack and carborne survey platforms

Ji, Y.-Y.*; 越智 康太郎; Hong, S. B.*; 中間 茂雄; 眞田 幸尚; 三上 智

Health Physics, 121(6), p.613 - 620, 2021/12

原子力機構(JAEA)と韓国原子力研究所(KAERI)との間に締結された放射線防護や環境放射線測定に関する共同研究に基づき、福島第一原子力発電所周辺の放射性セシウム沈着量を評価するための合同測定が実施された。まず初めに、バックパック測定プラットフォームを用いた可搬型$$gamma$$線スペクトロメトリーが3つの地点で実施された。車両測定は、各バックパック測定地点間を移動する際に、車内に$$gamma$$線スペクトロメーターを搭載することで実施した。車体による放射線の遮蔽の影響を加味した上で、評価手法の妥当性が検証された。

論文

Catalog of gamma-ray glows during four winter seasons in Japan

和田 有希*; 松本 崇弘*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 古田 禄大*; 米徳 大輔*; 澤野 達哉*; 岡田 豪*; 南戸 秀仁*; et al.

Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(4), p.043117_1 - 043117_31, 2021/12

In 2015 the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderstorms (GROWTH) collaboration launched a mapping observation campaign for high-energy atmospheric phenomena related to thunderstorms and lightning discharges. This campaign has developed a detection network of gamma rays with up to 10 radiation monitors installed in Kanazawa and Komatsu cities, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, where low-charge-center winter thunderstorms frequently occur. During four winter seasons from October 2016 to April 2020, in total 70 gamma-ray glows, minute-lasting bursts of gamma rays originating from thunderclouds, were detected. Their average duration is 58.9 sec. Among the detected events, 77% were observed in nighttime. The gamma-ray glows can be classified into temporally-symmetric, temporally-asymmetric, and lightning-terminated types based on their count-rate histories. An averaged energy spectrum of the gamma-ray glows is well fitted with a power-law function with an exponential cutoff, whose photon index, cutoff energy, and flux are 0.613 $$pm$$ 0.009, 4.68 $$pm$$ 0.04 MeV, and (1.013 $$pm$$ 0.003) $$times$$ 10$$^{-5}$$ erg cm$$^{-2}$$s$$^{-1}$$ (0.2-20.0 MeV), respectively. The present paper provides the first catalog of gamma-ray glows and their statistical analysis detected during winter thunderstorms in the Kanazawa and Komatsu areas.

論文

Evaluation report of Task 9C based on comparisons and analyses of modelling results for the ONKALO REPRO-TDE experiment

Soler, J. M.*; Kek$"a$l$"a$inen, P.*; Pulkkanen, V.-M.*; Moreno, L.*; Iraola, A.*; Trinchero, P.*; Hokr, M.*; $v{R}$$'i$ha, J.*; Havlov$'a$, V.*; Trpko$v{s}$ov$'a$, D.*; et al.

SKB TR-21-09, 204 Pages, 2021/11

Task 9C of the SKB Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes (Task Force GWFTS) was the third subtask within Task 9 and focused on (1) predictive and (2) back-analysis modelling of experimental results from the REPRO-TDE in situ diffusion experiment. The test was performed at a depth of about 400 m in the ONKALO underground research facility in Finland. Synthetic groundwater containing radionuclide tracers (HTO, Cl-36, Na-22, Ba-133, Cs-134) was circulated for about four years in a packed-off interval of the so-called injection borehole. Tracer activities were additionally monitored in two observation boreholes arranged as a right-angled triangle and located at about 0.1 m wall-to-wall from the injection borehole. Eleven modelling teams participated in the modelling exercise, using different model concepts and approaches. Three main types of models were applied: (1) An analytical solution to the diffusion-retention equations, (2) continuum-porous-medium-type numerical models, and (3) microstructure-based models. The predictive model calculations were based on laboratory-based information concerning porosities, diffusion coefficients and sorption partition coefficients available in the task description. Microstructural characterisation of rock samples was also available and used by the teams using microstructure-based models.

論文

Half-integer Shapiro steps in strong ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

Yao, Y.*; Cai, R.*; Yang, S.-H.*; Xing, W.*; Ma, Y.*; 森 道康; Ji, Y.*; 前川 禎通; Xie, X.-C.*; Han, W.*

Physical Review B, 104(10), p.104414_1 - 104414_6, 2021/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:8.84(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We report the experimental observation of half-integer Shapiro steps in the strong ferromagnetic Josephson junction (Nb-NiFe-Nb) by investigating the current-phase relation under radio-frequency microwave excitation. The half-integer Shapiro steps are robust in a wide temperature range from T = 4 to 7 K. The half-integer Shapiro steps could be attributed to co-existence of 0- and $$pi$$-states in the strong ferromagnetic NiFe Josephson junctions with the spatial variation of the NiFe thickness. This scenario is also supported by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization of the Nb/NiFe/Nb junction.

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