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Journal Articles

Development of ODS tempered martensitic steel for high burn up fuel cladding tube of SFR

Otsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kaito, Takeji; Hashidate, Ryuta; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Chikara; et al.

2018 GIF Symposium Proceedings (Internet), p.305 - 314, 2020/05

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel has been developed worldwide as a high-strength and radiation-tolerant steel used for advanced nuclear system. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing ODS steel as the primary candidate material of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) high burn-up fuel cladding tube. Application of high burn-up fuel to SFR core can contribute to improvement of economical performance of SFR in conjunction with volume and hazardousness reduction of radioactive waste. This paper described the current status and future prospects of ODS tempered martensitic steel development in JAEA for SFR fuel application.

Journal Articles

Ultra-high temperature creep rupture and transient burst strength of ODS steel claddings

Yano, Yasuhide; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Tanno, Takashi; Kato, Shoichi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, p.347 - 353, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

9Cr-ODS steel claddings consisting of tempered martensitic matrix, showed prominent creep rupture strength at 1000 $$^{circ}$$C, which surpassed that of heat-resistant austenitic steels although creep rupture strength of tempered martensitic steels is generally lower than that of austenitic steels at high temperatures. The measured creep rupture strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings at 1000 $$^{circ}$$C was higher than that from extrapolated creep rupture trend curves formulated using data at temperatures from 650 to 850 $$^{circ}$$C. This superior strength seemed to be owing to transformation of the matrix from the $$alpha$$-phase to the $$gamma$$-phase. The transient burst strengths for 9Cr-ODS steel were much higher than those for 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS). Cumulative damage fraction analyses suggested that the life fraction rule can be used for the rupture life prediction of 9Cr-ODS steel and PNC-FMS claddings in the transient and accidental events with a certain accuracy.

Journal Articles

Challenge next-generation nuclear system; Development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel

Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

Enerugi Rebyu, 39(1), p.44 - 46, 2019/01

For performance improvement of next-generation nuclear system such as fast reactor, it has been expected to develop advanced material resistant to severe in-reactor environment (i.e. high-dose neutron irradiation at high-temperature). Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel for long life fuel cladding tube of fast reactor. Application of ODS ferritic steel to fast reactor fuel can extend the fuel life time twice or more as long as the fuel with conventional cladding tube (i.e. modified SUS316), thus reducing fuel exchange frequency and fuel cost. It can be adaptable to high-temperature plant operation, which is favorable for improvement of power generation efficiency. This paper interprets the development of ODS ferritic steel cladding tube for sodium-cooled fast reactor, which has been led by JAEA for dozens of years.

Journal Articles

Effect of nitrogen concentration on nano-structure and high-temperature strength of 9Cr-ODS steel

Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 16, p.230 - 237, 2018/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Model calculation of Cr dissolution behavior of ODS ferritic steel in high-temperature flowing sodium environment

Otsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kaito, Takeji

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 505, p.44 - 53, 2018/07


 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:73.25(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A calculation model was constructed to systematically study the effects of environmental conditions (i.e. Cr concentration in sodium, test temperature, axial temperature gradient of fuel pin, and sodium flow velocity) on Cr dissolution behavior. Chromium dissolution was largely influenced by small changes in Cr concentration (i.e. chemical potential of Cr) in liquid sodium in the model calculation. Chromium concentration in sodium coolant, therefore, should be recognized as a critical parameter for the prediction and management of Cr dissolution behavior in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) core. Because the fuel column length showed no impact on dissolution behavior in the model calculation, no significant downstream effects possibly take place in the SFR fuel cladding tube due to the much shorter length compared with sodium loops in the SFR plant and the large axial temperature gradient. The calculated profile of Cr concentration along the wall-thickness direction was consistent with that measured in BOR-60 irradiation test where Cr concentration in sodium bulk flow was set at 0.07 wt ppm in the calculation.

Journal Articles

Corrosion behavior of ODS steels with several chromium contents in hot nitric acid solutions

Tanno, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 494, p.219 - 226, 2017/10


 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:14.65(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel cladding tubes have been developed for fast reactors. 9 chromium ODS and 11Cr-ODS tempered martensitic steels are prioritized for the candidate material in research being carried out at JAEA. In this work, fundamental immersion tests and electro-chemical tests of 9 to 12Cr-ODS steels were systematically conducted in various nitric acid solutions at 95$$^{circ}$$C. The corrosion rate exponentially decreased with effective solute chromium concentration (Cr$$_{eff}$$) and nitric acid concentration. Addition of oxidizing ions also suppressed the corrosion rate. According to polarization curves and surface observations in this work, the combination of low Cr$$_{eff}$$ and dilute nitric acid could not prevent the active dissolution at the beginning of immersion, and the corrosion rate was high. In comparison, higher Cr$$_{eff}$$, concentrated nitric acid and addition of oxidizing ions helped to prevent the active dissolution, and suppressed the corrosion rate.

Journal Articles

Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.229 - 237, 2017/04

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:3.15(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were carried out to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions; temperatures ranged from room temperature to 1400$$^{circ}$$C which is near the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at the ultra-high temperatures between 900 and 1200$$^{circ}$$C, but that there was significant degradation in tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200$$^{circ}$$C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with $$gamma$$/$$delta$$ transformation, which was associated with reduced ductility. On the other hand, tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 $$^{circ}$$C unlike the other tested materials. Present study includes the result of "R&D of ODS ferritic steel fuel cladding for maintaining fuel integrity at the high temperature accident condition" entrusted to Hokkaido University by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

Journal Articles

Evaluation on tolerance to failure of ODS ferritic steel claddings at the accident conditions of fast reactors

Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Naganuma, Masayuki; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Kato, Shoichi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Kimura, Akihiko*; et al.

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04

Tolerance of fast rector fuel elements to failure in the typical accident conditions was evaluated for the oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel claddings that are candidate of the cladding material for advanced fast reactors. The evaluation was based on the cladding creep damage, which was quantified by the cumulative damage fractions (CDFs). It was shown that the CDFs of the ODS ferritic steel cladding were substantially lower than the breach limit of 1.0 in the loss of flow and transient over power conditions until a passive reactor shutdown system operates.

Journal Articles

Higher harmonic imaging of small defects in ODS steel cladding tubes and characterization of the defects with SEM

Kawashima, Koichiro*; Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Kaito, Takeji

Dai-24-Kai Choompa Ni Yoru Hihakai Hyoka Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (USB Flash Drive), p.99 - 104, 2017/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Oxide dispersion-strengthened/ferrite-martensite steels as core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors

Ukai, Shigeharu*; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; de Carlan, Y.*; Ribis, J.*; Malaplate, J.*

Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, p.357 - 414, 2017/00

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:1.21

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are the most promising candidate materials for fuel cladding of generation IV nuclear reactors. The progress and current status for development of ODS/FM(ferrite-martensite) steels conducted mainly in Japan and France are overviewed. The chemical compositions of ODS/FM steels are listed. Fabrication routes of cladding tube are mentioned for ferrite-type ODS steels using recrystallized process and martensite-type one using $$alpha$$-$$gamma$$ phase transformation. The optimized process is identical for both countries. Joining process between cladding and end-plug has been also developed by using the pressurized resistance upset welding method. The improvements brought by ODS/FM steels in high-temperature strength and irradiation resistance are verified.

Journal Articles

Effect of thermo-mechanical treatments on nano-structure of 9Cr-ODS steel

Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Onuma, Masato*

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.346 - 352, 2016/12

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:20.43(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Tensile properties and hardness of two types of 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel after aging up to 45,000 h

Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.324 - 330, 2016/12


 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:29.89(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Strength anisotropy of rolled 11Cr-ODS steel

Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.353 - 359, 2016/12


 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:45.52(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Materials for core components of fusion reactors and fast reactors, such as blankets and fuel cladding tubes, must be excellent in high temperature strength and irradiation resistance because they will be exposed to high heat flux and heavy neutron irradiation. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developing as the candidate material. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have been developing 9 and 11 Chromium (Cr) ODS steels for advanced fast reactor cladding tubes. The JAEA 11Cr-ODS steels were rolled in order to evaluate their anisotropy. Tensile tests and creep tests of them were carried out at 700 $$^{circ}$$C in longitudinal and transverse orientation. The anisotropy of tensile strength was negligible, though that of creep strength was distinct. The observation results and chemical composition analysis suggested that the cause of the anisotropy in creep strength was prior powder boundary including Ti-rich precipitates.

Journal Articles

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the excellent high-temperature strength

Kaito, Takeji

Shinayaka De Tsuyoi Tekko Zairyo; Kakushinteki Kozoyo Kinzoku Zairyo No Kaihatsu Saizensen, p.393 - 399, 2016/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Weldability of dissimilar joint between PNC-FMS and Type 316 steel under electron beam welding

Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(4), p.568 - 579, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:73.66(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The dissimilar butt welding joint of 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) and Type 316 austenitic steel (SUS316) produced by electron beam (EB) welding was studied. This study was carried out to investigate optimization of EB welding and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). Optimum EB welding conditions were a focus position of 30-40 mm and a welding speed of 1750-2000 mm/min, and optimum PWHT was performed after welding at 690$$^{circ}$$C for 60 min. As a result, no formation of delta ferrite was observed adjacent to the fusion zone, and the mechanical properties of the welds were similar to those of the base material. In this regard, EB welding is a proper fusion welding process for dissimilar PNC-FMS and SUS316.

Journal Articles

Effects of manufacturing process on impact properties and microstructures of ODS steels

Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji; Tanaka, Kenya

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 455(1-3), p.480 - 485, 2014/12

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:29.54(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are noticed as an advanced alloy durable to high-temperature and high-dose neutron irradiation environment. Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 9-12Cr-ODS martensite steels have been developed as the primary candidate material for fast reactor fuel cladding tube. They would be also good candidates for fusion reactor blanket material. In this work, two types of 11Cr-ODS steels were manufactured: pre-mix and full pre-alloy ODS steels. Tensile tests, creep tests, 1/3 sized Charpy impact tests and metallurgical observations were carried out on these steels. The impact properties of full pre-alloy ODS steel was shown to be much superior than that of pre-mix ODS steels. It was demonstrated that the full pre-alloy process noticeably improved the microstructure homogeneity (i.e. reduction of inclusions and pores). The ductility of full pre-alloy ODS steels were better than that of pre-mix ODS steels.

JAEA Reports

Long term performance of radial shielding subassemblies with zirconium hydride in sodium cooled fast reactor core; Hydrogen release into primary coolant and helium production in cladding tube steels

Inoue, Masaki; Kaito, Takeji

JAEA-Research 2013-041, 69 Pages, 2014/01


Long term performance of radial shielding subassemblies with zirconium hydride, which is one of the key technologies to reduce reactor vessel radius, was evaluated for the demonstration fast breeder reactor core. Hydrogen permeation through cladding tube wall and release into primary coolant is essential to design cold traps and shielding performance. Also, higher thermal neutron fluence produces larger helium in cladding tube steels, and may degrade mechanical properties and dimensional stability. A new model was established to quantitatively calculate hydrogen release and helium production under steep gradient of neutron and $$gamma$$ ray fluxes in outer core region. Austenitic stainless steel (PNC316) and ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) will not be capable for 60 years because of large helium production and high permeability, respectively. In contrast, dual wall tube combining PNC-FMS with surface oxidized Fe-18Cr-2Al alloy will be applicable for 60 years in case that manufacturing process is successfully developed.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of irradiation behavior on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings irradiated in Joyo/CMIR-6

Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Sekine, Manabu; Endo, Toshiaki; Yamagata, Ichiro; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Tanno, Takashi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2013-030, 57 Pages, 2013/11


It is necessary to develop the fast reactor core materials, which can achieve high-burnup operation improving safety and economical performance. Ferritic steels are expected to be good candidate core materials to achieve this objective because of their excellent void swelling resistance. Therefore, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel and 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) have been respectively developed for cladding and wrapper tube materials in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, the effects of fast neutron irradiation on mechanical properties and microstructure of 9Cr-and 12Cr-ODS steel claddings for fast reactor were investigated. Specimens were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor Joyo using the CMIR-6 at temperatures between 420 and 835$$^{circ}$$C to fast neutron doses ranging from 16 to 33 dpa. The post-irradiation ring tensile tests were carried out at irradiation temperatures.

JAEA Reports

Dissolutions of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels in various nitric acid solutions, 2; The Amount of the corrosion products in the dissolution process

Inoue, Masaki; Suto, Mitsuo; Koyama, Shinichi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

JAEA-Research 2013-009, 78 Pages, 2013/10


In order to exammine the applicability for advanced aqueous reprocessing system, the martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel (9Cr-ODS steel), which is the primary candidate material for high burnup fuel pin cladding tube in fast reactor cycle, was evaluated for the amount of corrosion products in the dissolution process. The quantity of corrosion products was calculated to investigate the influence of both various chemical processes and waste glass (vitrified high level radioactive wastes) by use of the results of a maximum cladding temperature fuel subassembly and the sum of all fuel subassemblies, respectively. The experimental results of immersion tests in flowing liquid sodium loops and fuel pin irradiation tests in fast reactors were reviewed to consider the effect of outer and inner corrosions in high burnup fuel pins on corrosion products. This work revealed that the sum of corrosion products depends largely on the mass transfer behavior in flowing liquid sodium.

Journal Articles

High temperature reaction tests between high-Cr ODS ferritic steels and U-Zr metallic fuel

Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Inoue, Masaki; Okuda, Takanari*; Kimura, Akihiko*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 441(1-3), p.286 - 292, 2013/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:67.55(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The Al addition to ODS ferritic steels considerably improves the compatibility between U-Zr fuel and the ODS steels. The threshold temperature for reaction layer formation is roughly 50K higher in the Al-containing ODS ferritic steels than in those same steels without Al addition. The activity calculation results obtained using general thermodynamic data indicate the possibility that stabilization of the intact alpha-Zr layer by Al addition is the main mechanism for the compatibility improvement by Al addition.

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