Oka, Hiroshi*; Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Hashimoto, Naoyuki*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 572, p.154032_1 - 154032_8, 2022/12
9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steels with slightly different nitrogen concentrations (0.0034 - 0.029 wt%) were prepared and their creep property at 973 K was investigated with microstructural characterization before and after the creep test. The creep strength decreased significantly as the nitrogen concentration increased. Microstructural observation revealed that, in the higher nitrogen concentration specimen, coarse Y-rich inclusions were found along the boundary between transformed ferrite region and residual ferrite region. The solubility difference of nitrogen in and phase would induce the localized increment of nitrogen concentration in the boundary region during the austenitizing process, resulting in the thermodynamic destabilization and subsequent coarsening of the dispersed oxide particles. The rows of creep voids were found near the rupture part of the crept specimen, suggesting that the coarse inclusions were the starting point of creep void formation and the subsequent premature fracture.
Yano, Yasuhide; Hashidate, Ryuta; Tanno, Takashi; Imagawa, Yuya; Kato, Shoichi; Onizawa, Takashi; Ito, Chikara; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-015, 64 Pages, 2022/01
From a view point of practical application of fast breeder reactor cycles, which takes advantage of safety and economic efficiency and makes a contribution of volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste, it is necessary to develop fuel cladding materials for fast reactors (FRs) in order to achieve high-burnup. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel have been studied for use as potential fuel cladding materials in FRs owing to their excellent resistance to swelling and their high-temperature strength in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. It is very important to establish the materials strength standard in order to apply ODS steels as a fuel cladding. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire the mechanical properties such as tensile, creep rupture strength tests and so on. In this study, tensile and creep rupture strengths of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings were evaluated using by acquired these data. Because of the phase transformation temperature of 9Cr-ODS steel, temperature range for the evaluation was divided into two ones at AC1 transformation temperature of 850C.
Otsuka, Satoshi; Shizukawa, Yuta; Tanno, Takashi; Imagawa, Yuya; Hashidate, Ryuta; Yano, Yasuhide; Onizawa, Takashi; Kaito, Takeji; Onuma, Masato*; Mitsuhara, Masatoshi*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11 Pages, 2022/00
JAEA has been developing 9Cr-oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) tempered martensitic steel(TMS) as a candidate material for the fuel cladding tubes of sodium-cooled fast reactors(SFRs). The reliable prediction of in-reactor creep-rupture strength is critical for implementing the 9Cr-ODS TMS cladding tube in the SFR. This study investigated the quantitative correlation between the creep properties of 9Cr-ODS TMS at 700 C and the dispersions of nanosized oxides by analyzing the creep data and the material's nanostructure. The possibility of deriving a formula for estimating the in-reactor creep properties of 9Cr-ODS TMSs based on an analysis of the nanostructure of neutron-irradiated 9Cr-ODS TMSs was also discussed. The creep properties of 9Cr-ODS TMS at 700 C closely correlated with the dispersion of nanosized oxide particles. The correlation between creep-rupture lives and nanosized oxide particle dispersion was determined using existing creep models. The elucidation of correlation between the stress exponent of secondary creep rate and the nanostructure is essential to enhance future modeling reliability and formulation.
Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 555, p.153105_1 - 153105_8, 2021/11
The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile properties and microstructures of dissimilar welds between 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel and 316 stainless steel after thermal aging at temperatures between 400 and 600C up to 30,000 h. Characterization of microstructure was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural analysis showed that the microstructure in the weld metals consisted of lath martensite containing a small amount of residual austenite. Thermal aging hardening of WMs occurred at 400 and 450C due to the effects of both a-a' phase separation and G-phase precipitation. However, there was no significant change in the total elongation, and fracture surfaces indicated that very fine dimpled rupture was predominant rather than the cleavage rupture. It was suggested that lath martensite phases enhanced the tensile strength due to phase separation, while residual austenite played a role in keeping elongation as a soft phase.
Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*
Materials Transactions, 62(8), p.1239 - 1246, 2021/08
The FeCrAl-ODS alloy claddings were manufactured and Vickers hardness, ring tensile tests and TEM observations of these claddings were performed to investigate the effects of thermal aging at 450 C for 5,000 and 15,000 h. The age-hardening of all FeCrAl-ODS alloy cladding was found. In addition, the significant increase in tensile strength was accompanied by much larger loss of ductility. It was suggested that this age-hardening behavior was attributed to the (Ti, Al)-enriched phase (' phase) and the ' phase precipitates (content of Al is 7 wt%). In comparison with FeCrAl-ODS alloys with almost same chemical compositions, there was significant age-hardening in both alloys. However, the extrusion bar with no-recrystallized structures was keeping good ductility. It was suggested that this different behavior of reduction ductility was attributed to the effects of grain boundaries, dislocation densities and specimen preparation direction.
Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Tachi, Yoshiaki
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 547, p.152833_1 - 152833_7, 2021/04
In order to evaluate the stability of nano-sized oxide particles and matrix structure of ODS cladding tube, which are the determinants of their high temperature strength, the microstructural observation was carried out after internal pressurized creep test at 700C for over 45,000 hours. The specimens were the as-received and crept specimens of 9Cr-ODS steel with tempered martensite and 12Cr-ODS steel with recrystallized ferrite. Small platelet was cut out from the crept pressurized tube, then thinned to foil. Microstructural observation was conducted with TEM JEOL 2010F. As a result of the observation, it was confirmed that the size and number density of the nano-sized particles were almost unchanged even after the creep test. In addition, the tempered martensite structure, which is one of the determinants of the creep strength of 9Cr-ODS steel, was not significantly different between the as-received and crept specimen, indicating the stability of their matrix structure.
Oka, Hiroshi*; Kaito, Takeji; Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Satoshi
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 370, p.110894_1 - 110894_8, 2020/12
The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a cumulative damage fraction (CDF) analysis for the prediction of fuel pin breach in fast rector using experimentally obtained fuel pin breach data for the first time. Six breached fuel pins were obtained from steady state irradiation in the EBR-II. Post irradiation examinations revealed that FP gas pressure was the main cause of creep damage in cladding, and that the stress contribution from FCMI was negligible. CDFs evaluated for these pins using in-reactor creep rupture equation, taking into account the irradiation history of cladding temperature and hoop stress due to FP gas pressure, were in the range of 0.7 to 1.4 at the occurrence of breach. This shows clearly that fuel pin breach occurs when the CDF approaches 1.0. The results indicate that CDF analysis would be a reliable method for the prediction of fuel pin breach when appropriate material strength and environmental effects are adopted.
Otsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kaito, Takeji; Hashidate, Ryuta; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Chikara; et al.
2018 GIF Symposium Proceedings (Internet), p.305 - 314, 2020/05
Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel has been developed worldwide as a high-strength and radiation-tolerant steel used for advanced nuclear system. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing ODS steel as the primary candidate material of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) high burn-up fuel cladding tube. Application of high burn-up fuel to SFR core can contribute to improvement of economical performance of SFR in conjunction with volume and hazardousness reduction of radioactive waste. This paper described the current status and future prospects of ODS tempered martensitic steel development in JAEA for SFR fuel application.
Yano, Yasuhide; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Tanno, Takashi; Kato, Shoichi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, p.347 - 353, 2019/04
9Cr-ODS steel claddings consisting of tempered martensitic matrix, showed prominent creep rupture strength at 1000 C, which surpassed that of heat-resistant austenitic steels although creep rupture strength of tempered martensitic steels is generally lower than that of austenitic steels at high temperatures. The measured creep rupture strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings at 1000 C was higher than that from extrapolated creep rupture trend curves formulated using data at temperatures from 650 to 850 C. This superior strength seemed to be owing to transformation of the matrix from the -phase to the -phase. The transient burst strengths for 9Cr-ODS steel were much higher than those for 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS). Cumulative damage fraction analyses suggested that the life fraction rule can be used for the rupture life prediction of 9Cr-ODS steel and PNC-FMS claddings in the transient and accidental events with a certain accuracy.
Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji
Enerugi Rebyu, 39(1), p.44 - 46, 2019/01
For performance improvement of next-generation nuclear system such as fast reactor, it has been expected to develop advanced material resistant to severe in-reactor environment (i.e. high-dose neutron irradiation at high-temperature). Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel for long life fuel cladding tube of fast reactor. Application of ODS ferritic steel to fast reactor fuel can extend the fuel life time twice or more as long as the fuel with conventional cladding tube (i.e. modified SUS316), thus reducing fuel exchange frequency and fuel cost. It can be adaptable to high-temperature plant operation, which is favorable for improvement of power generation efficiency. This paper interprets the development of ODS ferritic steel cladding tube for sodium-cooled fast reactor, which has been led by JAEA for dozens of years.
Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 16, p.230 - 237, 2018/08
Otsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kaito, Takeji
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 505, p.44 - 53, 2018/07
A calculation model was constructed to systematically study the effects of environmental conditions (i.e. Cr concentration in sodium, test temperature, axial temperature gradient of fuel pin, and sodium flow velocity) on Cr dissolution behavior. Chromium dissolution was largely influenced by small changes in Cr concentration (i.e. chemical potential of Cr) in liquid sodium in the model calculation. Chromium concentration in sodium coolant, therefore, should be recognized as a critical parameter for the prediction and management of Cr dissolution behavior in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) core. Because the fuel column length showed no impact on dissolution behavior in the model calculation, no significant downstream effects possibly take place in the SFR fuel cladding tube due to the much shorter length compared with sodium loops in the SFR plant and the large axial temperature gradient. The calculated profile of Cr concentration along the wall-thickness direction was consistent with that measured in BOR-60 irradiation test where Cr concentration in sodium bulk flow was set at 0.07 wt ppm in the calculation.
Tanno, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 494, p.219 - 226, 2017/10
Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel cladding tubes have been developed for fast reactors. 9 chromium ODS and 11Cr-ODS tempered martensitic steels are prioritized for the candidate material in research being carried out at JAEA. In this work, fundamental immersion tests and electro-chemical tests of 9 to 12Cr-ODS steels were systematically conducted in various nitric acid solutions at 95C. The corrosion rate exponentially decreased with effective solute chromium concentration (Cr) and nitric acid concentration. Addition of oxidizing ions also suppressed the corrosion rate. According to polarization curves and surface observations in this work, the combination of low Cr and dilute nitric acid could not prevent the active dissolution at the beginning of immersion, and the corrosion rate was high. In comparison, higher Cr, concentrated nitric acid and addition of oxidizing ions helped to prevent the active dissolution, and suppressed the corrosion rate.
Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.229 - 237, 2017/04
Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were carried out to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions; temperatures ranged from room temperature to 1400C which is near the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at the ultra-high temperatures between 900 and 1200C, but that there was significant degradation in tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with / transformation, which was associated with reduced ductility. On the other hand, tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 C unlike the other tested materials. Present study includes the result of "R&D of ODS ferritic steel fuel cladding for maintaining fuel integrity at the high temperature accident condition" entrusted to Hokkaido University by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).
Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Naganuma, Masayuki; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Kato, Shoichi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Kimura, Akihiko*; et al.
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
Tolerance of fast rector fuel elements to failure in the typical accident conditions was evaluated for the oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel claddings that are candidate of the cladding material for advanced fast reactors. The evaluation was based on the cladding creep damage, which was quantified by the cumulative damage fractions (CDFs). It was shown that the CDFs of the ODS ferritic steel cladding were substantially lower than the breach limit of 1.0 in the loss of flow and transient over power conditions until a passive reactor shutdown system operates.
Kawashima, Koichiro*; Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Kaito, Takeji
Dai-24-Kai Choompa Ni Yoru Hihakai Hyoka Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (USB Flash Drive), p.99 - 104, 2017/01
no abstracts in English
Ukai, Shigeharu*; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; de Carlan, Y.*; Ribis, J.*; Malaplate, J.*
Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, p.357 - 414, 2017/00
Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are the most promising candidate materials for fuel cladding of generation IV nuclear reactors. The progress and current status for development of ODS/FM(ferrite-martensite) steels conducted mainly in Japan and France are overviewed. The chemical compositions of ODS/FM steels are listed. Fabrication routes of cladding tube are mentioned for ferrite-type ODS steels using recrystallized process and martensite-type one using - phase transformation. The optimized process is identical for both countries. Joining process between cladding and end-plug has been also developed by using the pressurized resistance upset welding method. The improvements brought by ODS/FM steels in high-temperature strength and irradiation resistance are verified.
Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Onuma, Masato*
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.346 - 352, 2016/12
Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.324 - 330, 2016/12
Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.353 - 359, 2016/12
Materials for core components of fusion reactors and fast reactors, such as blankets and fuel cladding tubes, must be excellent in high temperature strength and irradiation resistance because they will be exposed to high heat flux and heavy neutron irradiation. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developing as the candidate material. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have been developing 9 and 11 Chromium (Cr) ODS steels for advanced fast reactor cladding tubes. The JAEA 11Cr-ODS steels were rolled in order to evaluate their anisotropy. Tensile tests and creep tests of them were carried out at 700 C in longitudinal and transverse orientation. The anisotropy of tensile strength was negligible, though that of creep strength was distinct. The observation results and chemical composition analysis suggested that the cause of the anisotropy in creep strength was prior powder boundary including Ti-rich precipitates.