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Journal Articles

A Mechanism for spontaneous thermal fragmentation with coolant entrainment during the molten fuel-sodium interaction

Johnson, M.*; Emura, Yuki; Clavier, R.*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Brayer, C.*; Journeau, C.*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 423, p.113165_1 - 113165_14, 2024/07

Experimental investigation of two interactions between molten jets and sodium, pertaining to severe accidents in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, have been undertaken at the JAEA's MELT facility. X-ray imaging and debris analysis reveal rapid formation of a crust at the melt coolant-interface, instigating thermal fragmentation events. Heat transfer calculations at the jet-coolant interface, supported by particle tracking velocimetry characterisation of the jet velocity, imply the formation of a solid crust within milliseconds of contact with the coolant. A mechanism for enhanced thermal fragmentation is proposed, inspired by observations from the X-ray imaging of coolant entrainment into the jet.

Journal Articles

Experiment and new analysis model simulating in-place cooling of a degraded core in severe accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors

Imaizumi, Yuya; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Kamiyama, Kenji; Matsuba, Kenichi; Akaev, A.*; Mikisha, A.*; Baklanov, V.*; Vurim, A.*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 194, p.110107_1 - 110107_11, 2023/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

A Large-scale particle-based simulation of heat and mass transfer behavior in EAGLE ID1 in-pile test

Zhang, T.*; Yao, Y.*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Imaizumi, Yuya; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2023/05

Journal Articles

A Series of molten stainless steel-sodium interaction experiments to develop an evaluation methodology for jet breakup during core disruptive accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors

Matsuba, Kenichi; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of 2023 International Congress on Advanced in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2023) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2023/04

A series of Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments discharging about 1 kg of molten stainless steel (SS), one of prototypic materials, into a sodium pool (about 30 cm in diameter, about 1 m in depth) has been conducted at the MELT facility of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. X-ray visualization program confirmed that molten SS jets with diameters of about 1 to 2 cm were broken up by FCIs which occurred with sodium vapor expansion at depths near the initial sodium level. Responses of thermocouples suggested that the jets were rapidly cooled near the initial sodium level and became SS fragments before reaching the bottom of the sodium pool. Results of experiments with molten SS jets confirmed that an evaluation methodology for jet breakup under sodium-cooled conditions needs to be developed by taking into account effects of thermal parameters related to sodium vaporization as well as conventional parameters, such as density ratio of a jet and coolant, and jet diameter.

Journal Articles

Measurement of void fraction distribution in a sphere-packed bed using X-ray imaging

Yamamoto, Seishiro*; Odaira, Naoya*; Ito, Daisuke*; Ito, Kei*; Saito, Yasushi*; Imaizumi, Yuya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji

Konsoryu, 37(1), p.79 - 85, 2023/03

Journal Articles

Thinning behavior of solid boron carbide immersed in molten stainless steel for core disruptive accident of sodium-cooled fast reactor

Emura, Yuki; Takai, Toshihide; Kikuchi, Shin; Kamiyama, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Yokoyama, Hiroki*; Sakamoto, Kan*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 10 Pages, 2023/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

A 3D particle-based simulation of heat and mass transfer behavior in the EAGLE ID1 in-pile test

Zhang, T.*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Kamiyama, Kenji

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 179, p.109389_1 - 109389_10, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:29.26(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Measurements of pressure drop and void fraction of air-water two-phase flow in a sphere-packed bed

Yamamoto, Seishiro*; Odaira, Naoya*; Ito, Daisuke*; Ito, Kei*; Saito, Yasushi*; Imaizumi, Yuya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/10

Journal Articles

Particle-based simulation of jet impingement behaviors

Takatsuka, Daichi*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, W.*; Zhang, T.*; Nakamura, Takeshi*; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/10

Journal Articles

Study on the discharge behavior of the molten-core materials through the control rod guide tube; Investigations of the effect of an internal structure in the control rod guide tube on the discharge behavior

Kato, Shinya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Akaev, A.*; Vurim, A.*; Baklanov, V.*

Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-13) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2022/09

The In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of molten-core in Core Disruptive Accidents (CDAs) is of prime importance in enhancing the safety of sodium-cooled fast reactors. One of the main subjects in ensuring IVR is to design the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) which allows effective discharge of molten core materials from the core region. The effectiveness of the CRGT design is assessed through CDA analyses, and it is reasonable for these analyses to develop a computer code collaborated with experimental researches. Thus, experiments addressing the discharge behavior of the molten-core materials through the CRGT have proceeded as one of the subjects in the collaboration research named the EAGLE-3 project, and the obtained experimental results are reflected in the development of the SIMMER code. In this project, a series of out-of-pile tests using molten-alumina as the fuel simulant was conducted to understand the discharge behavior of molten-core materials through the CRGT. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of an internal structure in the CRGT on the discharge behavior of the molten-core materials, the data of an out-of-pile test in which the molten-alumina penetrated to a duct with the internal structure were analyzed. In addition, the post-test analysis using the SIMMER code was conducted and the results were compared with the test results.

Journal Articles

Analysis on cooling behavior for simulated molten core material impinging to a horizontal plate in a sodium pool

Matsushita, Hatsuki*; Kobayashi, Ren*; Sakai, Takaaki*; Kato, Shinya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-13) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/09

During core disruptive accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors, the molten core material flows through flow channels, such as the control rod guide tubes, into the core inlet plenum under the core region. The molten core material can be cooled and solidified while impinging on a horizontal plate of the inlet plenum in a sodium coolant. However, the solidification and cooling behaviors of molten core materials impinged on a horizontal structure have not been sufficiently studied thus far. Notably, this is an important phenomenon that needs to be elucidated from the perspective of improving the safety of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Accordingly, a series of experiments on discharging a simulated molten core material (alumina: Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) into a sodium coolant on a horizontal structure was conducted at the experimental facility of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In this study, analyses on the sodium experiments using SIMMER-III as the fast reactor safety evaluation code were performed. The analysis methods were validated by comparing the results and experiment data. In addition, the cooling and solidification behaviors during jet impingement were evaluated. The results indicated that the molten core material exhibited fragmentation owing to the impingement on the horizontal plate and was, therefore, scattered toward the periphery. Furthermore, the simulated molten core material was evaluated to be cooled by sodium and subsequently solidified.

Journal Articles

Experiment and analysis for development of evaluation method for cooling of residual core materials in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors

Imaizumi, Yuya; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Kamiyama, Kenji; Matsuba, Kenichi; Akayev, A. S.*; Mikisha, A. V.*; Baklanov, V. V.*; Vurim, A. D.*

Dai-26-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/07

The cooling of the residual core materials after the fuel discharge from the SFR core in the core disruptive accident can significantly affect the distribution fraction of the core materials which is an important factor for the in-vessel retention (IVR). The cooling of the residual core materials is called "in-place cooling". For the evaluation of the in-place cooling, behavior in a SFR core was simulated by SIMMER-III, and method of phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was applied based on the analysis result. Experiment which focuses on the thermal-hydraulic phenomena which were extracted by the PIRT was conducted in the framework of EAGLE-3 project. Continuous oscillation of sodium level which can occur in the phase of in-place cooling of SFRs was observed in the experiment, and analysis by the SIMMER-III was conducted. By investigation of the analysis result, difference between the experiment and analysis results was revealed to be due to remaining and occupation of non-condensable gas above the sodium level which would be unrealistic in the experiment. Gas mixture model between non-condensable gas and sodium vapor was developed to solve this problem, and coincidence between experiment and analysis results was largely improved by this new model.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on reaction behavior between control rod material and molten stainless steel for core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors

Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa

Dai-26-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/07

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Masaki*; Aizawa, Kosuke; Ando, Masanori; Ashida, Takashi; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Doda, Norihiro; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Ezure, Toshiki; Fukano, Yoshitaka; et al.

Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.3, 631 Pages, 2022/07

This book is a collection of the past experience of design, construction, and operation of two reactors, the latest knowledge and technology for SFR designs, and the future prospects of SFR development in Japan. It is intended to provide the perspective and the relevant knowledge to enable readers to become more familiar with SFR technology.

Journal Articles

A Status of experimental program to achieve in-vessel retention during core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors

Kamiyama, Kenji; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kato, Shinya; Imaizumi, Yuya; Mukhamedov, N.*; Akayev, A.*; Pakhnits, A.*; Vurim, A.*; Baklanov, V.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/04

Journal Articles

French-Japanese experimental collaboration on fuel-coolant interactions in sodium-cooled fast reactors

Johnson, M.*; Delacroix, J.*; Journeau, C.*; Brayer, C.*; Clavier, R.*; Montazel, A.*; Pluyette, E.*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04

Fuel-coolant interactions in the event of molten fuel discharge to the lower plenum of a sodium cooled fast reactor is under investigation as part of a French-Japanese experimental collaboration on severe accidents. The MELT facility enables the X-ray visualisation of the quenching of molten core material jets in sodium at kilogram-scale. The SERUA facility, currently under preparation, is presented for the investigation of boiling heat transfer at elevated melt-coolant interface temperatures. In this article, the status of the collaboration using these facilities is presented.

Journal Articles

Development of methodology to evaluate mechanical consequences of vapor expansion in SFR severe accident transients; Lessons learned from previous France-Japan collaboration and future objectives and milestones

Bachrata, A.*; Gentet, D.*; Bertrand, F.*; Marie, N.*; Kubota, Ryuzaburo*; Sogabe, Joji; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kamiyama, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Kubo, Shigenobu

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/04

In the frame of France-Japan collaboration, one of the objectives is to define and assess the calculation methodologies, and to investigate the phenomenology and the consequences of severe accident scenarios in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). A methodology whose purpose is to assess the loadings of the structures induced by a Fuel Coolant Interaction (FCI) taking place in the sodium plenum of SFR has been defined in the frame of the collaboration between France and Japan during 2014-2019. The work progress will be spread over the period 2020-2024 and the main objectives and milestones will be introduced in the paper. The objective of studies is to comprehensively address the margin between the limit of integrity of the main vessel structures and the loadings resulting from severe accidents. For this purpose, the SIMMER mechanistic calculation code simulates core disruptive accident sequences in SFRs. A fluid structure dynamics tool evaluates this interaction i.e. EUROPLEXUS is used in CEA studies and AUTODYN tool is used in JAEA studies. In the paper, a benchmark study is described in order to illustrate the evaluation of vapour expansion phase in the hot plenum. To do that, joint input data are used on the basis of an ASTRID 1500 MWth core degraded state after the power excursion which leads to vapour expansion. The most penalizing case was evidenced in this study by suppressing the action of transfer tube in-core mitigation devices in SIMMER input deck and thus privileging the upward molten core ejection. Even if the most penalizing case was evidenced in this paper, no significant RV deformation was observed in both EUROPLEXUS and AUTODYN calculation results. The assumed mechanical energy was small for the core expansion phase.

Journal Articles

A 3D particle-based analysis of molten pool-to-structural wall heat transfer in a simulated fuel subassembly

Zhang, T.*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Kamiyama, Kenji

Extended abstracts of the 2nd Asian Conference on Thermal Sciences (Internet), 2 Pages, 2021/10

For the Japanese sodium cooled fast reactor, a fuel subassembly with an inner duct structure (FAIDUS) was designed to avoid the re-criticality by preventing the large-scale pool formation. In the present study, using the finite volume particle method, the EAGLE ID1 test which was an in-pile test performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of FAIDUS was numerically simulated and the thermal-hydraulic mechanisms underlying the heat transfer process were analyzed.

Journal Articles

Study on eutectic melting behavior of control rod materials in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, 1; Project overview and progress until 2019

Yamano, Hidemasa; Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Shin; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Nishi, Tsuyoshi*; Ota, Hiromichi*; et al.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 28) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2021/08

One of the key issues in a core disruptive accident (CDA) evaluation in sodium-cooled fast reactors is eutectic reactions between boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) and stainless steel (SS) as well as its relocation. Such behaviors have never been simulated in CDA numerical analyses in the past, therefore it is necessary to develop a physical model and incorporate the model into the CDA analysis code. This study focuses on B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting experiments, thermophysical property measurement of the eutectic melt, and physical model development for the eutectic melting reaction. The eutectic experiments involve the visualization experiments, eutectic reaction rate experiments and material analyses. The thermophysical properties are measured in a range from solid to liquid state. The physical model is developed for a CDA computer code based on the measured data of the eutectic reaction rate and the physical properties. This paper describes the project overview and progress of experimental and analytical studies conducted until 2019. Specific results in this paper are the validation of physical model describing B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic reaction in the CDA analysis code, SIMMER-III, through the numerical analysis of the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting experiments in which a B$$_{4}$$C block was placed in a SS pool.

Journal Articles

Fragmentation and cooling behavior of a simulated molten core material discharged into a sodium pool with limited depth and volume

Matsuba, Kenichi; Kato, Shinya; Kamiyama, Kenji; Akayev, A. S.*; Baklanov, V. V.*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 28) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/08

In order to obtain experimental knowledge on fragmentation and cooling behavior of molten core material discharged into regions where the depth and volume of sodium are limited, a series of out-of-pile experiments using molten alumina as a simulant for molten core material was conducted. It was found that following mechanisms might be involved in the fragmentation and cooling behavior in a shallow sodium pool: (1) FCI which occurs at location of impingement of the molten jet on the bottom plate promotes fragmentation. (2) If there is a sufficient amount of sodium as a heat sink outside the region, heat exchange by sodium flow in and out due to vapor expansion and condensation suppresses the sodium temperature rise. (3) This temperature suppression contributes to effective cooling of molten core material. In the future study, in order to confirm the mechanisms which was clarified in this study, analytical evaluation of the experimental result will be carried out using a simulation tool.

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