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JAEA Reports

Disassembly of the NBI system on JT-60U for JT-60 SA

Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Hanada, Masaya; Kawai, Mikito*; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi*; Kojima, Atsushi; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2014-042, 73 Pages, 2015/02

JAEA-Technology-2014-042.pdf:15.1MB

According to the project plan of JT-60 Super Advanced that is implemented as an international project between Japan and Europe, the neutral beam (NB) injectors have been disassembled. The disassembly of the NB injectors started in November, 2009 and finished in January, 2012 without any serious problems as scheduled. This reports the disassembly activities of the NB injectors.

JAEA Reports

Characteristics of surge noise generated by breakdowns at the protection spark gaps for the JT-60 negative ion source and countermeasure of malfunction due to the breakdown noise

Sasaki, Shunichi; Kojima, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Kawai, Mikito*; Hanada, Masaya

JAEA-Technology 2012-040, 26 Pages, 2013/01

JAEA-Technology-2012-040.pdf:5.6MB

Breakdowns occur in the JT-60U 500 kV negative ion accelerator with a high probability during the high voltage conditioning. The breakdown in the accelerator is the same phenomena as a short circuit for the power supply. Surge noise generated by the short circuit causes malfunctions of components in the NBI system and other systems. To evaluate the surge noise characteristics, the breakdown noise has been measured using a test circuit with a spark gap which is the protection gap for the accelerator and it considered to be a source of noise. Further, reduction of the surge noise at the spark gap and countermeasure of the malfunction due to the noise have been studied quantitatively at the side of the system where the malfunction occurs. As a result, it has been observed that the noise propagates through space or grounding lines and gives malfunctions for other systems. To reduce the noise, resistors have been connected in the ground potential side of the gap. It was confirmed that the resistor is effective to reduce the noise and probability of the malfunction has been reduced from 100% to 15%. In addition, by placing the ferrite core in the grounded line and by using an isolation amplifier, the malfunction was further reduced to 10%.

Journal Articles

Progress in development and design of the neutral beam injector for JT-60SA

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yutaka; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.835 - 838, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:58.2(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Neutral beam (NB) injectors for JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) have been designed and developed. Twelve positive-ion-based and one negative-ion-based NB injectors are allocated to inject 30 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams in total for 100 s. Each of the positive-ion-based NB injector is designed to inject 1.7 MW for 100s at 85 keV. A part of the power supplies and magnetic shield utilized on JT-60U are upgraded and reused on JT-60SA. To realize the negative-ion-based NB injector for JT-60SA where the injection of 500 keV, 10 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams for 100s is required, R&Ds of the negative ion source have been carried out. High-energy negative ion beams of 490-500 keV have been successfully produced at a beam current of 1-2.8 A through 20% of the total ion extraction area, by improving voltage holding capability of the ion source. This is the first demonstration of a high-current negative ion acceleration of $$>$$1 A to 500 keV. The design of the power supplies and the beamline is also in progress. The procurement of the acceleration power supply starts in 2010.

Journal Articles

Development of the JT-60SA Neutral Beam Injectors

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 1390, p.536 - 544, 2011/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:77.65

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Achievement of 500 keV negative ion beam acceleration on JT-60U negative-ion-based neutral beam injector

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(8), p.083049_1 - 083049_8, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:42 Percentile:88.1(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490 keV, 3 A and 510 keV, 1 A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of 2 m$$^{2}$$ for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m$$^{2}$$). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60SA and ITER.

Journal Articles

Demonstration of 500 keV beam acceleration on JT-60 negative-ion-based neutral beam injector

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.

Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/03

Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490keV, 3A and 510 keV, 1A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of $$sim$$ 2 m$$^{2}$$ for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m$$^{2}$$). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60 SA and ITER.

Journal Articles

Development and design of the negative-ion-based NBI for JT-60 Super Advanced

Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Inoue, Takashi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Kojima, Atsushi; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.208 - 213, 2010/08

A large negative ion source with an ion extraction area of 110 cm $$times$$ 45 cm has been developed to produce 500 keV, 22 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beams required for JT-60 Super Advanced. To realize the JT-60SA negative ion source, the JT-60 negative ion source has been modified and tested on the negative-ion-based neutral beam injector on JT-60U. A 500 keV H$$^{-}$$ ion beam has been produced at 3 A without a significant degradation of beam optics. This is the first demonstration of a high energy negative ion acceleration of more than one-ampere to 500 keV in the world. The beam current density of 90 A/m$$^{2}$$ is being increased to meet 130 A/m$$^{2}$$ of the design value for JT-60SA by tuning the operation parameters. A long pulse injection of 30 s has been achieved at a injection D$$^{0}$$ power of 3 MW. The injection energy, defined as the product of the injection time and power, reaches 80 MJ by neutralizing a 340 keV, 27 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beam produced with two negative ion sources.

JAEA Reports

Modification of the drift ducts reionization loss estimation for JT-60U NBI

Kawai, Mikito; Akino, Noboru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Ebisawa, Noboru; Honda, Atsushi; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Noto, Katsuya; Oshima, Katsumi; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2008-069, 32 Pages, 2008/10

JAEA-Technology-2008-069.pdf:6.75MB

The neutral beam injection system for JT-60U consists of positive-ion based type(P-NBI) and negative-ion based type(N-NBI). The reionization losses of neutral beams in the drift ducts of both P-NBI and N-NBI are estimated using the data of ambient pressure and gas flow rate into the beamlines. This system was not enough to obtain detail injection power for a long pulse operation. Modifications of the system to obtain reionization loss for a long pulse operation have been conducted. The new system has a capability to measure the pressures of drift duct during operation. The system can calculate the reionization loss automatically during the pulse from the measured pressure. More acurate injection power can be obtained by this new system.

JAEA Reports

Modification of power supplies in the negative-ion-based NBI system for a 100s operation in JT-60SA

Usui, Katsutomi; Noto, Katsuya; Kawai, Mikito; Oga, Tokumichi*; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

JAEA-Technology 2008-053, 35 Pages, 2008/08

JAEA-Technology-2008-053.pdf:10.56MB

The JT-60 negative ion-based NBI (N-NBI) system is required to extend the pulse duration from 30s to 100s in JT-60SA that is the modified JT-60U with full superconducting coils. The JT-60SA N-NBI system will have 2 ion sources, each of which will inject 5 MW at 500 keV. The present power supply system should be upgraded to operate for 100s with minimizing the modification of existing components. The protective characteristic and thermal capacities of the power supply components were assessed based on the experience of the modification for the 30s operation in 2003. The acceleration power supply is to be modified with combination of existing Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTO) and Injection Enhanced Gate Transistors (IEGT) added newly. Five power supplies for a plasma production in the negative ion sources are to be modified by increasing the capacities of the partial resistance and cooling systems. These modifications can allow the long pulse operation of 100 for JT-60SA N-NBI system.

Journal Articles

Recent R&D activities of negative-ion-based ion source for JT-60SA

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Honda, Atsushi; Kawai, Mikito; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4), p.1519 - 1529, 2008/08

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:34.65(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The JT-60SA N-NBI system is required to inject 10 MW for 100 s at 500 keV. Three key issues should be solved for the JT-60SA N-NBI ion source. One is to improve the voltage holding capability. Recent R&D tests suggested that the accelerator with a large area of grids may need a high margin in the design of electric field and a long time for conditioning. The second issue is to reduce the grid power loading. It was found that some beamlets were strongly deflected due to beamlet-beamlet interaction and strike on the grounded grid. The grids are to be designed by taking account of beamlet-beamlet interaction in three-dimensional simulation. Third is to maintain the D- production for 100 s. A simple cooling structure is proposed for the active cooled plasma grid, where a key is the temperature gradient on the plasma grid for uniform D- production. The modified N-NBI ion source will start on JT-60SA in 2015.

JAEA Reports

Assessment of water-cooled bleeder resistors for long pulse injection in acceleration power supply on positive-ion-based NBI System

Noto, Katsuya; Usui, Katsutomi; Kawai, Mikito; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

JAEA-Technology 2008-049, 23 Pages, 2008/06

JAEA-Technology-2008-049.pdf:8.49MB

Water-cooled bleeder resistor, utilized in acceleration power supply on the positive-ion-based NBI system, has been designed to realize 100 s injections of intense neutral beams in JT-60 Super Advanced. The design is progressed with minimizing modification of existing electric parts. Exsiting water-cooled bleeder resistors is composed of three water vessels connected in parallel, in each of which 150 resistors of 600 $$Omega$$ are immersed and connected in series. Although the manufacturing company requires entire replacement of water-cooled bleeder, the careful assessment of thermal load allows only the replacement of the resistors inside the water vessel. The resistance of one resistors is required to be increased from 600 $$Omega$$ to 2.5 k$$Omega$$. The total resistance of the bleeder is $$sim$$140 k$$Omega$$ that includes the resistance of water. In the operation with the bleeder of $$sim$$140 k$$Omega$$, stable production of 85 keV, 55 A D$$^{+}$$ beams, allowing 2 MW of the designed injection power, was confirmed without instabilization of the acceleration power supply. This modification significantly reduces the cost and the manufacturing time.

Journal Articles

Long pulse production of high current D$$^{-}$$ ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source

Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Honda, Atsushi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 79(2), p.02A519_1 - 02A519_4, 2008/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:30.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A long pulse production of high-current, high-energy D$$^{-}$$ ion beams was studied in the JT-60U negative ion source that was designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D$$^{-}$$ ion beams. Prior to the long pulse production, the short pulse beams were produced to examine operational ranges for a stable voltage holding capability and an allowable grid power loading. From a correlation between the voltage holding capability and a light intensity of cathodoluminescence from the insulator made of Fiber Reinforced Plastic insulator, the voltage holding was found to be stable at $$<$$ 340 kV where the light was sufficiently suppressed. The grid power loading for the long pulse operation was also decreased to the allowable level of $$<$$ 1 MW without a significant reduction of the beam power by tuning the extraction voltage (Vext) and the arc power (Parc). These allow the production of 30 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beams at 340 keV from two ion sources at Vacc = 340 kV. The pulse length was extended step by step, and finally reached up to 21 s, where the beam pulse length was limited by the surface temperature of the beam scraper without water cooling. The D$$^{-}$$ ion beams were neutralized to via a gas cell, resulting in a long pulse injection of 3.2 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams for 21 s. This is the first long injection of $$>$$ 20 s in a power range of $$>$$ 3 MW.

Journal Articles

Technical design of NBI system for JT-60SA

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Hanada, Masaya; Inoue, Takashi; Honda, Atsushi; Kamada, Masaki; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 82(5-14), p.791 - 797, 2007/10

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:79.3(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Modification of JT-60U to a superconducting device (so called JT-60SA) has been planned to contribute to ITER and DEMO. The NBI system is required to inject 34 MW for 100 s. The upgraded NBI system consists of twelve positive ion based NBI (P-NBI) units and one negative ion based NBI (N-NBI) unit. The injection power of the P-NBI units are 2 MW each at 85 keV, and the N-NBI unit will be 10 MW at 500 keV, respectively. On JT-60U, the long pulse operation of 30 s at 2 MW (85 keV) and 20 s at 3.2 MW (320 keV) have been achieved on P-NBI and N-NBI units, respectively. Since the temperature increase of the cooling water in both ion sources is saturated within 20 s, further pulse extension up to 100 s is expected to mainly modify the power supply systems in addition to modification of the N-NBI ion source for high acceleration voltage. The detailed technical design of the NBI system for JT-60SA is presented.

JAEA Reports

Development of protection system for power supply facilities in JT-60U P-NBI for long pulse operation

Oshima, Katsumi; Okano, Fuminori; Honda, Atsushi; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Usui, Katsutomi; Noto, Katsuya; Kawai, Mikito; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

JAEA-Technology 2007-044, 27 Pages, 2007/06

JAEA-Technology-2007-044.pdf:26.9MB

In the positive ion based NBI (P-NBI) system, we have developed a protection system to protect the power supply facilities from over load during long pulse operation. The protection system monitors the voltage (V) and current (I) in the power supply facilities, and calculates the parameters of V2t and I2t in real-time, where T is the pulse duration. It turns off the power supply facilities when V2t and I2t are beyond the critical values. After two development stages, we have completed the protection system using a package typed PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) which has a high expandability of multi-unit operation. Moreover, we have constructed a user-friendly system by using a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system.

JAEA Reports

Characteristics of voltage holding and light emission on the accelerator of JT-60U N-NBI ion source

Kikuchi, Katsumi; Akino, Noboru; Hanada, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Kamada, Masaki; Kawai, Mikito; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Noto, Katsuya; Usui, Katsutomi

JAEA-Technology 2007-027, 17 Pages, 2007/03

JAEA-Technology-2007-027.pdf:2.3MB

Voltage holding capability of the 500 kV accelerator in the JT-60 negative ion source that is one of the key issues for high performance of the JT-60 negative-ion-based NBI system was investigated. The achieved voltage holding capabilities with and without the beam acceleration were 400 kV and 455 kV, respectively. To understand a poor voltage holding capability of the negative ion source, correlation between the voltage holding capability and the light emitted inside the ion source was carefully examined. The acceleration voltage was stably applied at $$<$$ 400kV, where the light intensity was almost zero. Increasing the acceleration voltage beyond 400 kV, the voltage holding become very unstable where the light intensity increases in proportion to the acceleration voltage. The spectroscopy measurement showed that the light spectrum was a broad wavelength of 360 - 500 nm peaked at 420 nm. There was no line spectrum due to the gas discharge such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon. From these results, it is seemed that the origin of the light emission is a cathode luminescence from the FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) insulator in JT-60 negative ion source due to the electron impact. Moreover, breakdown phenomena at inside and outside of the ion source were examined by using photo-multipliers with fast data acquisition system. When the breakdown occurred inside the ion source, the breakdowns sequentially occurred at the spark gap switches outside of the ion source, which protect the FRP insulator from the flashover on its surface. Once the spark gap was turned on after the breakdown inside the ion source, the breakdowns at the spark gap occurred at lower voltage than the normal set value when the high voltage was applied again after $$sim$$70 ms interval. This result indicates that the voltage holding capability was limited by the spark gap switches in this operational sequence.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary design of beamline components for JT-60SA NBI heating system

Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Kawai, Mikito; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Otsuki, Shinichi*; Sato, Fujio*

JAEA-Technology 2007-025, 37 Pages, 2007/03

JAEA-Technology-2007-025.pdf:6.84MB

The modification of the beamline components for JT-60SA NBI heating system has been preliminarily studied by means of three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) technique, such as the connection between positive ion-based NBI (P-NBI) port and the cryostat of JT-60SA vacuum vessel, an additional magnetic shielding plate, the down-shift of the negative ion-based NBI (N-NBI), and disassembly of the present NBI system. The length of drift duct for JT-60SA is to be shorted because the cryostat is to be inserted between the JT-60SA vacuum vessel and the P-NBI beamline. It is found that the removal of the fast shutter and a newly designed connection flange made of FRP is a solution to keep the same function in the shorten drift duct. The position interference with the 3D CAD indicates that the available space between the neutralizer cell and the ion tank is 30 mm, which is enough space to install a thick mild steel to avoid the magnetic saturation. On the N-NBI, the down-shift of 0.6 m is realized by shorting the basement of ion tank, reversing the shaft of the movable calorimeter and exchanging the support structure of the neutralizer cell. Moreover, the minimum dissection components and the disassembly procedure have been proposed to effectively disassemble the present NBI system.

JAEA Reports

Study on modification of power supply system for long pulse operation on JT-60 positive ion-based NBI

Usui, Katsutomi; Noto, Katsuya; Kawai, Mikito; Oga, Tokumichi*; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

JAEA-Technology 2007-024, 32 Pages, 2007/03

JAEA-Technology-2007-024.pdf:7.54MB

The JT-60 positive ion-based NBI (P-NBI) system is required to extend the pulse duration from 30 s to 100 s for JT-60SA, which is the modification of JT-60U to a fully superconducting coil tokamak. The JT-60SA NBI system will have 12 P-NBI units, each of which will inject 2 MW at 85 keV. The present power supply system is to be upgraded to operate for 100 s with minimum modification. The modification of the power supply has been studied in view of the protective characteristic and the thermal capacities of main power supply components. The design study is based on the results of the first modification of 30 s operation which was done in 2003. It has been confirmed that the long pulse operation of 100 s is possible by with partial modification of the power supply components such as enhancement of the water-cooled resistance of the acceleration power supply.

Journal Articles

Present status of the negative ion based NBI system for long pulse operation on JT-60U

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Grisham, L. R.*; Hanada, Masaya; Honda, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 46(6), p.S211 - S219, 2006/06

 Times Cited Count:52 Percentile:86.86(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Recently, the extension of the pulse duration up to 30 sec has been intended to study quasi-steady state plasma on JT-60U N-NBI system. The most serious issue is to reduce the heat load on the grids for long pulse operation. Two modifications have been proposed to reduce the heat load. One is to suppress the beam spread which may be caused by beamlet-beamlet interaction in the multi-aperture grid due to the space charge force. Thin plates were attached on the extraction grid to modify the local electric field. The plate thickness was optimized to steer the beamlet deflection. The other is to reduce the stripping loss, where the electron of the negative ion beam is stripped and accelerated in the ion source and then collides with the grids. The ion source was modified to reduce the pressure in the accelerator column to suppress the beam-ion stripping loss. Up to now, long pulse injection of 17 sec for 1.6 MW and 25 sec for $$sim$$1 MW has been obtained by one ion source with these modifications.

JAEA Reports

Characteristics of voltage holding and outgassing on the accelerator of JT-60 N-NBI ion source

Kikuchi, Katsumi; Akino, Noboru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Usui, Katsutomi; Umeda, Naotaka; Oga, Tokumichi; Kawai, Mikito; Mogaki, Kazuhiko

JAEA-Technology 2006-016, 25 Pages, 2006/03

JAEA-Technology-2006-016.pdf:2.54MB

The 500 keV negative-ion based neutral beam injector (NBI) has been operated to heat plasma and drive plasma current on JT-60U since 1996. The ion source was designed to accelerate the negative ions up to 500 keV. During the last 10 years, the accelerated voltage of the negative ion beam has been limited to $$sim$$400 keV by breakdowns in the accelerator. To understand the breakdown phenomena, the characteristics of the voltage holding of the ion source were studied without beam extraction. Outgassing with the main species of m/e=28 was observed when high voltage was applied even without breakdowns. It was noticed that the fraction of the main species at breakdown was almost the same as without breakdowns. Conditioning reduced the outgassing and resulted in improvement of the voltage holding capability. Inside the ion source, a brightening was observed even without breakdown. The brightening intensity was suppressed by increasing the D$$_{2}$$ pressure in the accelerator in the range of 10$$^{-4}$$ Pa to 0.5 Pa. Since the voltage holding was also improved with D$$_{2}$$ pressure, breakdowns seemed to correlate with the brightening phenomena in the accelerator. This report gives the preliminary results of outgassing and brightening measurements when the high voltage was applied on the accelerator without beam extraction.

Journal Articles

Beam deflection by plasma grid filter current in the negative-ion source for JT-60U neutral beam injection system

Umeda, Naotaka; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Inoue, Takashi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Oga, Tokumichi

Review of Scientific Instruments, 77(3), p.03A529_1 - 03A529_3, 2006/03

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:31.18(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

77 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)