Gong, W.; Harjo, S.; 友田 陽*; 諸岡 聡; 川崎 卓郎; 柴田 曉伸*; 辻 伸泰*
Acta Materialia, 250, p.118860_1 - 118860_16, 2023/05
Martensitic transformation is accompanied by the generation of microscale and macroscale internal stresses during cooling below the martensitic transformation start temperature. These internal stresses have been determined through X-ray or neutron diffraction, but the reported results are not consistent, probably because the measured lattice parameter is influenced not only by the internal stress but also by several factors, including solute elements and crystal defects. Therefore, neutron diffraction combined with dilatometry measurements during martensitic transformation and subsequent cyclic tempering were performed for an Fe-18Ni alloy. The phase strains calculated by lattice parameter variations show that a hydrostatic compressive strain in austenite and a tensile strain in martensite arose as the martensitic transformation progressed during continuous cooling or isothermal holding. However, the phase stresses of austenite and martensite estimated from these strains failed to hold stress balance law when dense crystal defects involved in the processes. After these crystal defects were removed by appropriate tempering, the stress balance law held well. Meanwhile, the phase stresses of austenite and martensite were changed to opposite, revealing their true identity. Various crystal defects in austenite and martensite, introduced by plastic accommodation, were suggested to affect their lattice parameters and then their phase stresses.
小山 元道*; 山下 享介*; 諸岡 聡; 澤口 孝宏*; Yang, Z.*; 北條 智彦*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.
ISIJ International, 62(10), p.2036 - 2042, 2022/10
The local plasticity and associated microstructure evolution in Fe-5Mn-0.1C medium-Mn steel (wt.%) were investigated in this study. Specifically, the micro-deformation mechanism during Lders banding was characterized based on multi-scale electron backscatter diffraction measurements and electron channeling contrast imaging. Similar to other medium-Mn steels, the Fe-5Mn-0.1C steel showed discontinuous macroscopic deformation, preferential plastic deformation in austenite, and deformation-induced martensitic transformation during Lders deformation. Hexagonal close-packed martensite was also observed as an intermediate phase. Furthermore, an in-situ neutron diffraction experiment revealed that the pre-existing body-centered cubic phase, which was mainly ferrite, was a minor deformation path, although ferrite was the major constituent phase.
小山 元道*; 山下 享介*; 諸岡 聡; Yang, Z.*; Varanasi, R. S.*; 北條 智彦*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.
ISIJ International, 62(10), p.2043 - 2053, 2022/10
deformation experiments with cold-rolled and intercritically annealed Fe-5Mn-0.1C steel were carried out at ambient temperature to characterize the deformation heterogeneity during Lders band propagation. Deformation band formation, which is a precursor phenomenon of Lders band propagation, occurred even in the macroscopically elastic deformation stage. The deformation bands in the Lders front grew from both the side edges to the center of the specimen. After macroscopic yielding, the thin deformation bands grew via band branching, thickening, multiple band initiation, and their coalescence, the behavior of which was heterogeneous. Thick deformation bands formed irregularly in front of the region where the thin deformation bands were densified. The thin deformation bands were not further densified when the spacing of the bands was below 10 m. Instead, the regions between the deformation bands showed a homogeneous plasticity evolution. The growth of the thin deformation bands was discontinuous, which may be due to the presence of ferrite groups in the propagation path of the deformation bands. Based on these observations, a model for discontinuous Lders band propagation has been proposed.
Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎; 諸岡 聡; 山下 享介*
ISIJ International, 62(10), p.1990 - 1999, 2022/10
Two mechanisms inconsistent each other, a relaxation of type II internal stress and a presence of mobile dislocation, were previously proposed to describe the low elastic limit of as-quenched lath martensite steels. In this study, neutron diffraction experiments were performed to revisit the deformation behavior of lath martensite steel. The highly dense random arrangement dislocations easily moved at the beginning of deformation, then accumulated, annihilated and changed the arrangement differently depending on the orientation of the packet with respect to the deformation direction. The movement of highly dense random arrangement dislocations played an important role as a mechanism at the beginning of deformation, and can be a true feature of mobile dislocations.
川崎 卓郎; 福田 竜生; 山中 暁*; 坂本 友和*; 村山 一郎*; 加藤 孝典*; 馬場 将亮*; 橋本 英樹*; Harjo, S.; 相澤 一也; et al.
Journal of Applied Physics, 131(13), p.134103_1 - 134103_7, 2022/04
The microscopic origin of the pyroelectric power generation using ferroelectric ceramics for energy harvesting from time-varying waste heat can be understood by conducting neutron diffraction measurements. The behavior of the domain orientation and lattice strain in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramics with a tetragonal structure during the novel power generation cycle combining electric field and temperature change were investigated. The  domains and the lattice strain of the (111) plane in the direction of parallel to the electric field increase in the process of simultaneous rise in the electric field and temperature, and rapidly decrease in the process of the field drop. The alignment of the domain orientation by the electric field and its randomization by the higher temperature during the cycle are critical features of the current power generation system.
Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 土田 紀之*; 諸岡 聡; Gong, W.
鉄と鋼, 107(10), p.887 - 896, 2021/10
In situ neutron diffraction measurements of two low-alloy TRIP steels and a 304-type stainless steel during tensile and creep tests were performed at room temperature. Changes in the diffraction pattern, the peak integrated intensities of austenite () and the peak positions of were analyzed and discussed to understand a relationship between intergranular stress in and the occurrence of martensitic transformation during deformation. From tensile loading, it was found that the susceptibility of martensitic transformation depended on -() grains, in which -(111) grains underwent martensitic transformation at the latest. The -() dependence in the susceptibility of martensitic transformation was found to be controlled by the shear stress levels in -() grains, which were affected by the intergranular stress partitioning during deformation.
山下 享介*; 古賀 紀光*; 川崎 卓郎; 諸岡 聡; 友野 翔平*; 梅澤 修*; Harjo, S.
Materials Science & Engineering A, 819, p.141509_1 - 141509_10, 2021/07
In-situ neutron diffraction measurements were performed on a cold-rolled copper-iron (Cu-Fe) alloy during tensile tests at 293 K and 150 K. The roles of Cu and Fe on the deformation behavior of alloys were discussed and clarified. The strength and work-hardening rate of the alloy increased with decreasing test temperature. Furthermore, the phase stress of Fe increased considerably with decreasing test temperature; however, the response of this stress to the applied true stress exhibited no dependence on the temperature. The phase stresses of Cu changed only slightly with decreasing test temperature. However, the Cu phase stress response to the applied true stress increased with decreasing test temperature, indicating an increase in the work-hardening rate. The strengthening of Fe and the increase in the work-hardening of Cu contributed to an increase in the strength and work-hardening rate of the Cu-Fe alloy at low temperatures.
山下 享介; 友野 翔平*; 諸岡 聡; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 行木 辰弥*; 古賀 紀光*; 梅澤 修*
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011064_1 - 011064_6, 2021/03
The tensile deformation and stress partitioning behavior of duplex phase alloys consisting of FCC and BCC at low temperatures were investigated using in-situ neutron diffraction during deformation. Cu-40mass%Fe alloy rolled sheet and JIS SUS329J4L duplex stainless steel were used. Both alloys showed a good balance of strength and elongation at low temperatures. In Cu-40mass%Fe alloy, the BCC phase stress at yield point increased by decreasing test temperature. The FCC phase stress at yield point was almost constant regardless of test temperature. The FCC phase started plastic deformation at a low applied true stress. When the BCC phase yielded, phase stress of FCC increased drastically at beginning, then, it increased to applied true stress with the same rate of BCC phase stress at latter regime. On the other hand, both BCC and FCC phase stresses in SUS329J4L increased by decreasing temperature.
古賀 紀光*; 梅澤 修*; 山本 正之*; 山本 卓*; 山下 享介; 諸岡 聡; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 52(3), p.897 - 901, 2021/03
Small ball rebound hardness tests demonstrated characteristic hardening at 700 K in the ultra-low carbon and pearlitic steels. The equilibrium phase diagram of Fe-C binary alloy calculated using Thermo-Calc exhibited dissolving of cementite above 700 K. Moreover, in-situ heating neutron diffraction measurement demonstrated the increase of lattice parameter by dissolving of cementite above 700 K. Therefore, it can be concluded that the characteristic hardening above 700 K can be attributed to the solid solute carbon.
Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 土田 紀之*; 諸岡 聡; Gong, W.*
ISIJ International, 61(2), p.648 - 656, 2021/02
neutron diffraction measurements of two low-alloy steels and a 304-type stainless steel during tensile and creep tests were performed at room temperature. Changes in the diffraction pattern, the integrated peak intensities of austenite (), and the peak positions of were analyzed and discussed to elucidate the relationship between intergranular stress in and the occurrence of martensitic transformation during deformation. Tensile loading experiments revealed that the susceptibility to martensitic transformation depended on the -(hkl) grains, where -(111) grains underwent martensitic transformation at the latest. The -hkl dependence of the susceptibility to martensitic transformation was found to be controlled by the shear stress levels in -(hkl) grains, which were affected by the intergranular stress partitioning during deformation.
山下 享介; 諸岡 聡; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 古賀 紀光*; 梅澤 修*
Scripta Materialia, 177, p.6 - 10, 2020/03
neutron diffraction measurements during tensile tests at low temperatures of a low alloy steel containing retained austenite have been performed. Evolutions of phase fractions and phase stresses were analyzed and discussed with the progress of deformation. The role of austenite in the steel during deformation at low temperatures was observed not to directly in the contribution to the strengths but in the improvement of the elongation by transformation of austenite to martensite -and in the increasing of the work-hardening rate by an increase in the phase fraction of martensite and the work hardening of martensite.
Kim, J.*; 山中 暁*; 村山 一郎*; 加藤 孝典*; 坂本 友和*; 川崎 卓郎; 福田 竜生; 関野 徹*; 中山 忠親*; 武田 雅敏*; et al.
Sustainable Energy & Fuels (Internet), 4(3), p.1143 - 1149, 2020/03
Waste heat is a potentially exploitable energy source but remains a problem awaiting a solution. To explore solutions for automobile applications, we investigate pyroelectric power generation from the temperature variation of exhaust gas using a novel electro-thermodynamic cycle. Niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate stannate (PNZST) ceramics were applied as pyroelectric materials, and their structural characteristics were investigated. In the driving cycle assessments (JC-08) using real exhaust gas, the maximum power generated was identified as 143.9 mW cm (777.3 J L per 1 cycle) over a temperature range of 150-220 C and an electric field of 13 kV cm-1. The net mean generating power of the total driving cycle was 40.8 mW cm, which is the most enhanced result in our power generating systems to date and 314 times greater than our first report. Materials with sharp transition behaviors with the temperature and electric field are worthy of study with regard to pyroelectric energy harvesting materials, and their corresponding crystal and domain structures were investigated to optimize performance.
直江 崇; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Xiong, Z.*; 二川 正敏
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.061009_1 - 061009_6, 2020/02
Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 諸岡 聡
Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 2, p.112 - 117, 2017/10
To understand strengthening mechanism in lath martensitic steels, in situ neutron diffractions during tensile deformation for 22SiMn2TiB steel and Fe-18Ni alloy were performed using TAKUMI of J-PARC. Profile analyses were performed using Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) fitting and Williamson-Hall (W-H) methods. As results, the dislocation densities as high as 10 m in the as-quenched states of both steels were determined hardly to change or slightly increase by the CMWP method. The reliability of the dislocation density obtained from the W-H method was low, because the whole profile was not considered for the analysis. In the former method, the values of parameter M related to dislocations arrangement was found to decrease rapidly for both steels at the beginning of plastic deformation. Hence, high work hardening in the lath martensitic steels was considered due to the dislocations rearrangements with plastic deformation.
岡島 智史; 若井 隆純; 川崎 信史
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 4(5), p.16-00641_1 - 16-00641_11, 2017/10
The prevention of excessive deformation by thermal ratcheting is important in the design of high-temperature components of fast breeder reactors (FBR). As a result of experimental study that simulated the fast breeder reactor vessel nearby the coolant surface, it was reported that long distance traveling of temperature distribution causes new type of thermal ratcheting, even if there is no primary stress. In this paper, we propose a simple screening criterion to prevent continuous accumulation of plastic strain derived from long distance traveling of temperature distribution. The major cause of this ratcheting mechanism is lack of residual stress that brings shakedown behavior at the center of yielding area. Because the residual stresses are derived from constraint against the elastic part, we focused on the distance from the center of yielding area to the elastic region. So, the proposed criterion restricts the axial length of the area with full-section yield state, which is the double of the above distance. We validated the proposed criterion based on finite element analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic material. As the result of the validation analyses, we confirmed that the accumulation of the plastic strain saturates before 2nd cycles in the cases that satisfy the proposed criterion, regardless of the shape of temperature distribution.
岡島 智史; 若井 隆純; 川崎 信史
Proceedings of International Conference on Asia-Pacific Conference on Fracture and Strength 2016 (APCFS 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.269 - 270, 2016/09
The prevention of excessive deformation by thermal ratcheting is important in the design of high-temperature components of fast breeder reactors (FBR). As the result of experimental study that models the fast breeder reactor vessel nearby the coolant surface, it has been reported that long range traveling of temperature distribution causes new type of thermal ratcheting, even if there is no primary stress. In this paper, we propose screening criteria to prevent continuous accumulation of plastic strain derived from thermal stress that is caused in wide range. We proposed the criteria referring to the definition of primary local membrane stress, which limit the axial length of the yielding region. And then, based on finite element analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic material, we have validated the proposed criteria for various type of traveling temperature distributions.
大原 高志; 鬼柳 亮嗣; 及川 健一; 金子 耕士; 川崎 卓郎; 田村 格良; 中尾 朗子*; 花島 隆泰*; 宗像 孝司*; 茂吉 武人*; et al.
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 49(1), p.120 - 127, 2016/02
SENJU, a time-of-flight Laue-type single-crystal neutron diffractometer, was developed at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of the Japan Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Molecular structure analysis of a sub-millimeter taurine crystal and magnetic structure analysis of a MnF crystal were performed to evaluate its performance.
Su, Y.; 及川 健一; 川崎 卓郎; 甲斐 哲也; 塩田 佳徳*; 佐藤 博隆*; 篠原 武尚; 友田 陽*; 原田 正英; 鬼柳 亮嗣; et al.
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 8, p.031015_1 - 031015_5, 2015/09
渡辺 均; 中野 政尚; 藤田 博喜; 河野 恭彦; 井上 和美; 吉井 秀樹*; 大谷 和義*; 檜山 佳典*; 後藤 一郎*; 木部 智*; et al.
JAEA-Review 2014-040, 115 Pages, 2015/01
月森 和之; 岩田 耕司*; 川崎 信史*; 岡島 智史; 矢田 浩基; 笠原 直人*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 269, p.23 - 32, 2014/04
高速増殖炉実用化のためのR&D、すなわちFaCT(Fast reactor Cycle Technology development)が日本において進められている。そのR&D項目の一つとして、従来設計で熱荷重低減のために原子炉容器の内側に取り付けられていた炉壁保護構造を取り去って、コンパクトな原子炉容器を実現する課題がある。最も重要なことは、起動,停止を繰り返すたびに上下する液面近傍の原子炉容器に累積する非弾性ひずみ量の評価である。本研究の目的は、このような複雑な非弾性挙動を精度よく評価できる合理的な構成モデルを開発し、これに基づく設計ガイドを用意することである。われわれは、高精度塑性構成モデル及び簡便な塑性構成モデルを開発し、系統的な試験を実施し、その結果に基づいてこれらモデルの有効性を示した。