Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.
Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08
To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped GdAlGaO (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:YAlO, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.
Tsuji, Mitsuyo; Aizawa, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Kurihara, Akikazu; Miyake, Yasuhiro*
Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2020/08
The water experiments using a 1/10 scale experimental apparatus simulating the reactor vessel of SFR were conducted to investigate the natural circulation phenomena in a reactor vessel. In this paper, the natural circulation flow field in the reactor vessel was measured by the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method. The PIV measurement was carried out under the operation of the dipped-type direct heat exchanger (DHX) installed in the upper plenum when 20% of the core fuel fell to the lower plenum and accumulated on the core catcher. From the results of PIV measurement, it was quantitatively confirmed that the upward flow occurred at the center region of the lower and upper plenums. In addition, the downward flows were confirmed near the reactor vessel wall in the upper plenum and through outermost layer of the simulated core in the lower plenum. Moreover, the relationship between the temperature field and the velocity field was investigated in order to understand the natural circulation phenomenon in the reactor vessel. From the above results, it was confirmed that the natural circulation cooling path was established under the dipped-type DHX operation.
Ezure, Toshiki; Onojima, Takamitsu; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Jun; Kurihara, Akikazu; Kameyama, Yuri*
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.3355 - 3363, 2019/08
Steady-state sodium experiments under the operating conditions of a decay heat removal system (DHRS) were carried out as part of the safety enhancement of sodium-cooled fast reactors using the PLANDTL 2 facility, which has 30 heated channels with electric heaters and 25 no-heated channels as the simulated core. In the experiments, a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) with a dipped type direct heat exchanger (DHX) in the upper plenum was used as the DHRS. This paper reports on the preliminary experimental results of the PLANDTL 2 experiments under the DRACS operating conditions without flow in the primary circuit, including the thermal hydraulic interactions between the upper plenum and the core under the DHX operating conditions and the resulting core cooling behavior from the outside of the multiple rows of the fuel assemblies
Periez, R.*; Bezhenar, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kim, K. O.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Liptak, L.*; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 198, p.50 - 63, 2019/03
A number of marine radionuclide dispersion models were applied to simulate Cs releases from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 over the northwest Pacific. Simulations extended over two years and both direct releases into the ocean and deposition of atmospheric releases on the ocean surface were considered. Dispersion models included an embedded biological uptake model (BUM). Three types of BUMs were used: equilibrium, dynamic and allometric. Model results were compared with Cs measurements in water, sediment and biota. A reasonable agreement in model/model and model/data comparisons was obtained.
Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kuwabara, Jun; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya
JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.103 - 106, 2019/02
To investigate the dynamics of radionuclides in the ocean released by the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F), vertical distributions of I at three stations in the western North Pacific was revealed. The 1F accident-derived I existed within the mixed layer at 3 stations. The maximum layer of the 1F accident-derived I existed at the depth of 370 m - 470 m at the most southern station. Considering the dissolved oxygen concentration and the current velocity arround the station, the maximum layer of the 1F accident-derived I would be fromed that I which existed in the surface seawater at other area of observation point was carried to the depth of 370 m - 470 m by the fast downward flow.
Li, S.*; Toyoda, Masayuki*; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki*; Ito, Masayuki*; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiko*; Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Otani, Akira*; Matsumura, Daiju; Asano, Shun*; Mizuki, Junichiro*; et al.
Physica C, 555, p.45 - 53, 2018/12
-dependence of local distortions in BaFeAs and LiFeAs by X-ray PDF and XAFS methods. Although PDF data exhibit anomaly at the structure transition temperature, EXAFS data exhibit no anomaly. Data supporting the local orthorhombicity at 300 K in the tetragonal phase for BaFeAs. Arguments on the origins of the 4-fold symmetry breaking in the ground average structure of the tetragonal phase.
Aizawa, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ishida, Katsuji*; Nagasawa, Kazuyoshi*
Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2018/11
A conceptual design of an advanced loop type sodium cooled reactor has been carried out in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Temperature fluctuation is caused by mixing of fluids at different temperature from the control rod channels and the core fuel assemblies, high cycle thermal fatigue may arise on the Core Instrument Plane (CIP) at bottom of the Upper Internal Structure (UIS). In JAEA, 1/3-scaled five jets water tests (FIWAT) have been performed in order to investigate thermal striping phenomena around the CIP. In this study, the velocity field was measured in the mixing area between the jet outlet and the bottom of the structure by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to compare with the temperature fluctuation characteristics.
Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kuwabara, Jun; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya
Marine Chemistry, 204, p.163 - 171, 2018/08
To investigate the penetration of radionuclides released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), depth profiles were revealed at Kuroshio current, transition, and Oyashio current areas. The FDNPP-derived I was found in surface layer at Oyashio current and transition areas and in sub-surface layer at Kuroshio current area. Moreover, it was found that the FDNPP-derived I/Cs ratios in the Oyashio current and transition areas were higher than that in the FDNPP reactor. The higher FDNPP-derived I/Cs ratios suggest three potential mechanisms for the migration of radionuclides in the environment: (1) radioiodine was released more easily than radiocesium by the FDNPP accident, (2) I was supplied from the atmosphere by re-emitted I from contaminated areas around Fukushima, (3) leaked water that removed radiocesium reached the sampling stations. The FDNPP-derived I in sub-surface layer would be transported by the meander of the Kuroshio Extension current.
Tada, Junichiro*; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Hayano, Ryugo*; Kobayashi, Hitoshi*; Asano, Yoshihiro*
Wakariyasui Hoshasen Butsurigaku; Kaitei 3-Han, 305 Pages, 2018/03
This book is an introduction to radiation physics. Under the concept of "linking physics of high school and radiation physics" for readers with high school graduation degree, we are doing simple commentary on the basis of qualitative explanation as much as possible. This book begins with "What is Radiation Physics", and consists of 12 chapters, including introductory special relativity, introductory quantum theory, structures of atoms and nuclei, radiations, radioactivity, interactions between radiation and matter, accelerators, radiation dose and so on.
Uchiyama, Naoki*; Ozawa, Tatsuya*; Sato, Koji*; Kobayashi, Jun; Onojima, Takamitsu; Tanaka, Masaaki
FAPIG, (194), p.12 - 18, 2018/02
no abstracts in English
Tanaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Jun; Nagasawa, Kazuyoshi*
Dai-22-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2017/06
In JAEA, a numerical simulation code named MUGTHES which can deal with conjugate heat transfer between the fluid and the structure parts has been developed for estimation of the thermal fatigue issue. In fundamental validation, the benchmark analysis was considered using the experiment of planar triple parallel jet sodium test (PLAJEST). Three specific experimental conditions at Vr=1, 1.56, and 5.56 were employed for the benchmark analyses according to the knowledge in the literatures. Through the benchmarks, applicability of the large eddy simulation (LES) approach with the standard Smagorinsky model in MUGTHES to simulate thermal striping phenomena was potentially confirmed and issues to be modified in the future works were indicated.
Ono, Ayako; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Jun; Kamide, Hideki
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 4(1), p.16-00217_1 - 16-00217_15, 2017/02
In the design of the Advanced Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor in Japan, the Reynolds number in the primary hot leg (H/L) piping reaches 4.210. Furthermore, a short elbow is used in the H/L piping to achieve a compact plant layout. In the H/L piping, flow-induced vibration is a concern due to the excitation force caused by pressure fluctuation in the short elbow. In this report, the influence of inlet velocity condition on the unsteady velocity characteristics in the short elbow was studied by controlling the flow patterns at the elbow inlet. Measured velocity distributions indicated that the inlet velocity profiles affected a circumferential secondary flow, which then affected an area of flow separation at the elbow. It was also found that the velocity fluctuation at low frequency components observed upstream of the elbow could remain in downstream of the elbow though its intensity was attenuated.
Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Sumiya, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Kokusen, Junya; Uchida, Shoji; Kaminaga, Jota; Oki, Keiichi; Fukaya, Hiroyuki; Sono, Hiroki
JAEA-Technology 2016-025, 42 Pages, 2016/11
A preliminary test on MOX fuel dissolution for the STACY critical experiments had been conducted in 2000 through 2003 at Nuclear Science Research Institute of JAEA. Accordingly, the uranyl / plutonium nitrate solution should be reconverted into oxide powder to store the fuel for a long period. For this storage, the moisture content in the oxide powder should be controlled from the viewpoint of criticality safety. The stabilization of uranium / plutonium solution was carried out under a precipitation process using ammonia or oxalic acid solution, and a calcination process using a sintering furnace. As a result of the stabilization operation, recovery rate was 95.6% for uranium and 95.0% for plutonium. Further, the recovered oxide powder was calcined again in nitrogen atmosphere and sealed immediately with a plastic bag to keep its moisture content low and to prevent from reabsorbing atmospheric moisture.
Kobayashi, Jun; Ezure, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kamide, Hideki
Proceedings of 10th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-10) (USB Flash Drive), 5 Pages, 2016/11
JAEA has been conducting a design study for an advanced large-scale sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). Hot sodium from the fuel subassembly can mix with the cold sodium from the control rod (CR) channel at the bottom of Upper Internal Structure (UIS). Temperature fluctuation due to the fluid mixing at the core outlet may cause high cycle thermal fatigue at the bottom of UIS. JAEA had performed a water experiment to examine countermeasures for the significant temperature fluctuation generated at the bottom of SFRs UIS. Meanwhile, a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) is equipped in a backup control rod (BCR) channel to ensure reactor shutdown. The BCR guide tubes have a flow guide structure "flow-collector" to provide reliable operation of SASS. Flow-collector may affect the thermal mixing behavior at the bottom of the UIS. This study has investigated the influence of the flow- collector on characteristics of the temperature fluctuation around the BCR channels.
Periez, R.*; Bezhenar, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Duffa, C.*; Iosjpe, M.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Lamego, F.*; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; et al.
Science of the Total Environment, 569-570, p.594 - 602, 2016/11
State-of-the art dispersion models were applied to simulate Cs dispersion from Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster fallout in the Baltic Sea and from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant releases in the Pacific Ocean after the 2011 tsunami. Models were of different nature, from box to full three-dimensional models, and included water/sediment interactions. Agreement between models was very good in the Baltic. In the case of Fukushima, results from models could be considered to be in acceptable agreement only after a model harmonization process consisting of using exactly the same forcing (water circulation and parameters) in all models. It was found that the dynamics of the considered system (magnitude and variability of currents) was essential in obtaining a good agreement between models. The difficulties in developing operative models for decision-making support in these dynamic environments were highlighted.
Ono, Ayako; Kamide, Hideki; Kobayashi, Jun; Doda, Norihiro; Watanabe, Osamu*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(9), p.1385 - 1396, 2016/09
Decay heat removal by natural circulation is a significant passive safety measure of a fast reactor against station blackout. The decay heat removal system (DHRS) of the loop type sodium fast reactor being designed in Japan comprises a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system and primary reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS). The thermal hydraulic phenomena in the plant under natural circulation conditions need to be understood for establishing a reliable natural circulation driven DHRS. In this study, sodium experiments were conducted using a plant dynamic test loop to understand the thermal-hydraulic phenomena considering natural circulation in the plant. The experiments simulating the scram transient confirmed that PRACS started up smoothly under natural circulation, and the simulated core was stably cooled after the scram. Moreover, the experiments varying the pressure loss coefficients of the loop as the experimental parameters showed robustness of the PRACS.
Tanaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Jun; Nagasawa, Kazuyoshi*
Proceedings of OECD/NEA & IAEA Workshop on Application of CFD/CMFD Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety and Design and their Experimental Validation (CFD4NRS-6) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2016/09
A numerical simulation code named MUGTHES which can deal with conjugate heat transfer problem between the fluid and the structure parts has been developed in order to predict the thermal response in the structure for estimation of the thermal fatigue issue. To perform fundamental validation of the MUGTHES, the benchmark simulation was considered using the experiment of planar triple parallel jets mixing sodium test (PLAJEST). Since it was known by literatures that three representative flow mixing patterns were shown in accordance with the velocity rate of the side jets to the center jet, three typical experimental conditions in the PLAJEST were employed as boundary conditions for the benchmark. Through the numerical simulations, applicability of the large eddy simulation (LES) approach with the standard Smagorinsky model to simulate thermal striping phenomena was confirmed.
Yamauchi, Kunihito; Okano, Jun; Shimada, Katsuhiro; Omori, Yoshikazu; Terakado, Tsunehisa; Matsukawa, Makoto; Koide, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Fukumoto, Masahiro; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2015-053, 36 Pages, 2016/03
The superconducting Satellite Tokamak machine "JT-60SA" under construction in Naka Fusion Institute is an international collaborative project between Japan (JA) and Europe (EU). The contributions for this project are based on the supply of components, and thus European manufacturer shall conduct the installation, commissioning and tests on Naka site. This means that Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) had a quite difficult issue to manage the works by European workers and their safety although there is no direct contract. This report describes the approaches for the work and safety managements, which were agreed with EU after the tough negotiation, and then the completed on-site works for Quench Protection Circuits (QPC) as the first experience for EU in JT-60SA project. With the help of these approaches by JAEA, the EU works for QPC were successfully completed with no accident, and a great achievement was made for both EU and JA.
Takamatsu, Misao; Kawahara, Hirotaka; Ito, Hiromichi; Ushiki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Jun; Ota, Katsu; Okuda, Eiji; Kobayashi, Tetsuhiko; Nagai, Akinori; et al.
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 15(1), p.32 - 42, 2016/03
In the experimental fast reactor Joyo, it was confirmed that the top of the irradiation test sub-assembly of "MARICO-2" (material testing rig with temperature control) had been broken and bent onto the in-vessel storage rack as an obstacle and had damaged the upper core structure (UCS). This paper describes the results of the in-vessel repair techniques for UCS replacement, which are developed in Joyo. UCS replacement was successfully completed in 2014. In-vessel repair techniques for sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are important in confirming its safety and integrity. In order to secure the reliability of these techniques, it was necessary to demonstrate the performance under the actual reactor environment with high temperature, high radiation dose and remained sodium. The experience and knowledge gained in UCS replacement provides valuable insights into further improvements for In-vessel repair techniques in SFRs.
Periez, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Duffa, C.*; Jung, K.-T.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Lamego, F.*; Maderich, V.*; Min, B.-I.*; Nies, H.*; Osvath, I.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 150, p.247 - 269, 2015/12
A detailed intercomparison of marine dispersion models applied to the releases from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been carried out in the frame of MODARIA program, of the IAEA. Models have been compared in such a way that the reasons of the discrepancies between them can be assessed. The overall idea is to harmonize models, making them run with the same forcing in a step-by-step procedure, in such a way that the main agent in producing discrepancy between models can be found. It has been found that the main reason of discrepancies between models is due to the description of the hydrodynamics. However, once this has been suppressed, some variability between model outputs remains due to intrinsic differences between models. The numerical experiments have been carried out for a perfectly conservative radionuclide and for Cs. Model outputs for this radionuclide have also been compared with measurements in water and sediments.