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JAEA Reports

Report on research and development of nuclear forensics technologies

Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Toda, Nobufumi; Funatake, Yoshio; Watahiki, Masaru; Sakurai, Satoshi; Kuno, Yusuke

JAEA-Technology 2015-001, 185 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-001.pdf:56.65MB

Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activity includes sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analyzed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics technologies specify the origin of the nuclear materials used illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it becomes possible to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can contribute to strengthen global nuclear security regime. In this paper, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the fiscal term of 2011-2013 were reported.

Journal Articles

Progress and future prospects of nuclear forensics technology development project at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Funatake, Yoshio; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Proceedings of INMM 55th Annual Meeting (Internet), 7 Pages, 2014/07

In 2010, the Japan Government issued the national statement at Nuclear Security Summit (Washington D.C., USA) to develop technologies related to measurement and detection of nuclear materials for nuclear forensics within three-year timeframe, and to share the products with the international community in order to contribute to strengthening the nuclear security system. In response to this statement, JAEA that possesses sufficient technical capabilities to fulfil this nuclear forensics mission has started a nuclear forensics technology development project since JFY 2011. This paper will present the progress of the development project during JFY 2011 to 2013. This project includes the developments of analytical technologies such as isotope and impurity measurements, morphology analysis, age determination technique, and the prototype of national nuclear forensics library (NNFL). Some future prospects of this project will be also presented in this paper.

Journal Articles

Quantitative comparison study on nuclear nonproliferation for plutonium in spent fuel direct disposal and recycle use

Kuno, Yusuke; Hara, Daisuke*

Proceedings of INMM 55th Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2014/07

Comparison study of material-oriented Proliferation Resistance (PR) for plutonium in spent fuels resulting from both cases of direct disposal and recycle use is quantitatively made. The extended the figure-of-merit (FOM) described in term of time was used, where dose of actual spent fuels and their chemical/physical properties, and material quantity are additionally considered to the original FOM. This case study on spent fuels from LWR, once/twice recycles with MOX-LWR and Fast Reactor showed significant differences on FOM (attractiveness) among them.

JAEA Reports

Report of "The 2013 International Forum on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security; Ensuring Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in consideration of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station"

Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suda, Kazunori; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

JAEA-Review 2014-011, 74 Pages, 2014/03

JAEA-Review-2014-011.pdf:6.18MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency held "International Forum on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security; Ensuring Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Security of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in consideration of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station" on 3 and 4 December 2013. Keynote speakers from Japan, the United States, France and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), respectively explained their efforts. In two panel discussions, entitled "Nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security measures of nuclear fuel cycle options in consideration of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station" and "Roles of safeguards and technical measures for ensuring nuclear non-proliferation for nuclear fuel cycle options", active discussions were made. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum.

Journal Articles

Nuclear security and physical protection, safeguards

Kuno, Yusuke

Fukushima Daiichi Genshiryoku Hatsudensho Jiko: Sono Zenbo To Asu Ni Muketa Teigen; Gakkai Jikocho Saishu Hokokusho, p.262 - 274, 2014/03

Japan Atomic Energy Society made investigation of the cause for the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric happened in March 11, 2011. Although the accident of this Fukushima Daiichi was caused by natural disasters, it shows how a similar event could be generated by sabotage, and the importance of this point was recognized as well as safety measures from the nuclear security side. This paper describes the results of the investigation and discussion on the part of Nuclear Security / Physical Protection and Safeguards / nuclear material accountancy.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2013)

Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Okuno, Hiroshi; Katagiri, Hiromi; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Okamoto, Akiko; Koie, Masahiro; Ikeda, Takeshi; Nemotochi, Toshimasa; Saito, Toru; et al.

JAEA-Review 2013-046, 65 Pages, 2014/02

JAEA-Review-2013-046.pdf:11.18MB

When a nuclear emergency occurs in Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the responsibility of providing technical support to the National government, local governments, police, fire stations and nuclear operators etc., because the JAEA has been designated as the Designated Public Institution under the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures and the Act on Response to Armed Attack Situations, etc.. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) of JAEA provides a comprehensive range of technical support activities to an Off-Site Center in case of a nuclear emergency. Specifically, NEAT gives technical advice and information, dispatches specialists as required, and supplies the National Government and local governments with emergency equipments and materials. NEAT provides various exercise and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response organizations at normal times. The tasks of NEAT, with its past experiences as a designated public institution including the responses to TEPCO's Fukushima Accident, have been shifted to technical supports to the national government for strengthening its abilities to emergency responses; the NEAT therefore focused on maintenance and operation of its functions, and strengthening its response abilities in cooperation with the national government. This annual report summarized these activities of JAEA/NEAT in the fiscal year 2012.

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of passive $$gamma$$ spectrometry of molten core material from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 1, 2 and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy; Low-volatile FP and special nuclear material inventory analysis and fundamental characteristics of $$gamma$$-rays from fuel debris

Sagara, Hiroshi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(1), p.1 - 23, 2014/01

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:34.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Feasibility study of $$gamma$$ spectrometry of molten core material from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 1, 2 and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy has been performed, focusing on the low-volatile fission product and heavy metal inventory analysis, and fundamental characteristics of $$gamma$$-ray from fuel debris for passive measurement. The inventory ratio of low-volatile lanthanides, $$^{154}$$Eu and $$^{144}$$Ce, to special nuclear material were evaluated by whole core inventory in unit 1, 2 and 3 cores as reference value for homogenized molten fuel material, and also as a function of burnup for specific fuel debris, considering the sensitivity of enrichment, specific power, water void fraction, cooling time, calculation tool accuracy and release ratio. The same indices could be applied to unit 3, while the uncertainty of specific fuel debris of separated MOX fuel would be increased significantly. Source photon spectrum results showed the detectability of low-volatile high energy $$gamma$$-rays emitted from $$^{154}$$Eu at least in 20 years after the accident, that from Ce/$$^{144}$$Pr in 10 years, and volatile $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs at least in 20 years with 99% or more release ratio. Mass attenuation coefficients of fuel debris was evaluated to be insensitive to its compositions in high energy region. Leakage photon ratio was evaluated with variety of parameters and significant impact was confirmed with certain size of fuel debris, its correlation was summarized with respect to the photopeak ratio of source $$^{154}$$Eu. Finally, preliminary study with hypothetical canister model of fuel debris based on TMI-2 experience, and future plan were introduced.

Journal Articles

Report on INMM Annual Meeting, 5

Kuno, Yusuke

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Senta Nyusu, 43(1), p.3 - 6, 2014/01

54th INMM Annual Meeting was held at Palm Desert in USA in July 2013. This paper describes the introduction to some remarkable presentations at the meeting.

Journal Articles

Present status and future plan of development on National Nuclear Forensics Library at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Funatake, Yoshio; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-34-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2013/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has initiated R&D project on nuclear forensics technology such as analytical technologies towards the establishment of nuclear forensics capabilities in Japan. National Nuclear Forensics Library (NNFL) is one of the fundamental nuclear forensics capabilities and a prototype NNFL has been developed as one R&D topic of the project at JAEA. Main objective of a NNFL is to determine whether a seized nuclear or other radioactive material from nuclear security event (e.g. illicit trafficking) is originated from a country or not. Analytical data of the seized material are compared with the existing materials populated in a NNFL, and its attributions such as origin and history will be identified. This paper describes the current status and future plan on the development of prototype NNFL. The outline and the results of the participation in an international table top exercise on NNFL named "Galaxy Serpent" were also reported in the present paper.

Journal Articles

Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle

Kuno, Yusuke; Tazaki, Makiko; Akiba, Mitsunori*; Adachi, Takeo*; Takashima, Ryuta*; Izumi, Yoshinori*; Tanaka, Satoru*

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference; Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads (GLOBAL 2013) (CD-ROM), p.965 - 974, 2013/09

Multilateral Nuclear Approach (MNA) provides services on the frontend and the backend to the states possessing nuclear power plants with nuclear non-proliferation measures and without interfering with the inalienable right in NPT may be one of the most effective and efficient manners for peaceful use of nuclear energy. Recent MNA discussions tend to focus on reliable fuel supply, namely front-end of NFC, where proliferation of uranium enrichment can be deterred. At the same time, the MNA capability to provide assurance/service that the Spent Fuel be managed properly is actually more important. In this work a regional MNA framework was studied to fulfil the above mentioned points.

Journal Articles

R&D status and future plan of nuclear forensics for analytical technology and national library at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2013/07

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) that possesses sufficient analytical capabilities to fulfil the mission of nuclear forensics technology development has started R&D project from JFY 2011. The R&D of the nuclear forensics technology at JAEA covers the development of analytical technology such as isotope and impurity measurements, morphology analysis, age determination technique, and proto-type of national nuclear forensics library. Each topic of the R&D has been promoted under the international cooperation with US-DOE. This paper will present the present status and brief results of the R&D project on nuclear forensics analytical technology and nuclear forensics library at JAEA. Some future plan of the R&D such as attribute identification of Japanese nuclear materials, data populating plan for existing nuclear materials data in JAEA fuel cycle facilities will be also introduced in the presentation.

Journal Articles

Study on sustainable regional nuclear fuel cycle framework from nuclear non-proliferation viewpoint, 4; A Specific proposal of Asian regional MNA framework

Kuno, Yusuke; Tazaki, Makiko; Akiba, Mitsunori*; Adachi, Takeo*; Takashima, Ryuta*; Tanaka, Satoru*

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2013/07

This paper presents a specific proposal of Asian regional MNA framework as the final result of our study. The target facilities include frontend and backend, especially, enrichment, reprocessing, MOX fabrication / storage and Spent Fuel storage facilities.

Journal Articles

Study on sustainable regional nuclear fuel cycle framework from nuclear non-proliferation viewpoint, 5; Comprehensive evaluation of Asian regional MNA framework

Kuno, Yusuke; Tazaki, Makiko; Akiba, Mitsunori*; Adachi, Takeo*; Takashima, Ryuta*; Tanaka, Satoru*

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2013/07

This paper discusses the evaluation result for proposed Asian regional MNA framework.

JAEA Reports

Report of the International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security; Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia

Tazaki, Makiko; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

JAEA-Review 2013-001, 76 Pages, 2013/03

JAEA-Review-2013-001.pdf:8.59MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency held "International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security; Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia" on 12 and 13 December 2012. In the forum, 5 keynote speakers respectively explained their views and efforts regarding challenges for peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. In two panel discussions, entitled "Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle back end" and "Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for nuclear energy use in the Asian region and a multilateral cooperative framework", active discussions were initiated among panelists. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum.

Journal Articles

How to address plutonium trilemma; Solutions for plutonium non-proliferation in Japanese nuclear policy changeover

Kuno, Yusuke; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Tazaki, Makiko

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 55(2), p.111 - 116, 2013/02

This article discusses issues on direct disposal of spent fuel and recovered plutonium from reprocessing, and described the international communities' concerns at Japanese nuclear policy change. Some options to be studied for SF and plutonium handling are also discussed.

JAEA Reports

JAEA cooperation on the excess weapons plutonium disposal; Joint researches with Russian National Laboratories and demonstration studies on vibropac MOX fuel assemblies

Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Iwabuchi, Junichi*; Kasai, Yoshimitsu*; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

JAEA-Review 2012-044, 109 Pages, 2013/01

JAEA-Review-2012-044.pdf:6.71MB

JAEA has worked for the contribution to the world disarmament and nonproliferation through the United States and Russia cooperation on the excess weapon plutonium disposition from Russian as well as to acquire the basic data of the post irradiation test with the BN-600 and the vibropack MOX fuel fabrication technologies. To support the initiative of Japan government, JAEA has started the joint research activities with some of the Russian national laboratories under the MINATOM in 1999. Since then, JAEA has been involved into the demonstration experiment for the vibropack fuel irradiation with the BN-600 that was managed by the PESCO corp. under the contract with MEXT. The joint researches with Russian national laboratories and the demonstration studies on vibropac MOX fuel assemblies from 1999 to 2011 are surmmarized in this document.

Journal Articles

Sensitivity analysis of low-volatile FPs and Cm-244 inventory in irradiated nuclear fuel for special nuclear material accountancy in fuel debris

Sagara, Hiroshi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 107(1), p.803 - 804, 2012/11

Fission products(FPs) such as Eu, Ce, Ru have low release ratio in case of core melting event in severe accident to co-exist inside fuel debris in oxide or metallic phase, based on TMI-2 experience and source term experiments. Passive $$gamma$$ spectroscopy of Ce-144/Pr-144 was utilized in quantifying special nuclear material in fuel debris of TMI-2 historically, and the same methodology might be applied to high energy $$gamma$$ emitter, Eu-154 and Ru-106. Passive neutron measurement has been also utilized for quantifying nuclear material practically. Different from conventional spent fuel, however, fuel debris would be lost in information of irradiated profile, release ratio of volatile FPs, and so on. In the present paper, sensitivity analysis of low-volatile FPs and Cm-244 inventory in irradiated nuclear fuel in light water reactor was performed numerically to clarify the uncertainty of low-volatile FP and Cm inventory regarding fuel irradiation parameters and calculation methodology, and to derive applicable index to quantify nuclear material in fuel debris.

Journal Articles

Study on sustainable regional nuclear fuel cycle framework from nuclear non-proliferation viewpoint, 1; Historical review and basic concept to propose new framework

Kuno, Yusuke; Tazaki, Makiko; Akiba, Mitsunori*; Adachi, Takeo*; Takashima, Ryuta*; Omoto, Akira*; Oda, Takuji*; Choi, J.-S.*; Tanaka, Satoru*

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

This paper will present brief historical review of multilateral nuclear approach (MNA), and based on which, a basic concept of a reliable framework of nuclear fuel cycle, where the fuel-cycle services could be provided without discrimination and meet the international 3S requirements, is discussed.

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of $$gamma$$ spectroscopy of low-volatile FPs for special nuclear material accountancy in molten core material

Sagara, Hiroshi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

Reviewing the technologies applied to TMI-2, feasibility study of $$gamma$$ spectroscopy of low-volatile FPs for special nuclear material accountancy in molten core material or debris has been performed numerically, and the sensitivity of low-volatile FP nuclides on fuel contents, especially $$^{239}$$Pu, was studied with parameters of typical BWR fuel such as enrichment, burnup and neutron spectrum, heat density. Comparing TMI-2, a PWR reactor, broader neutron spectrum axial profile and irradiation cycle complexity of typical BWR fuel assemblies make more variance in the accumulation of daughter nuclides by neutron capture reactions. As results, $$^{239}$$Pu quantification, by burnup dependent $$^{154}$$Eu/$$^{239}$$Pu index has accuracy of 15-18% in 1-sigma level mainly affected by burnup uncertainty, and $$^{239}$$Pu quantification by $$^{144}$$Ce/$$^{239}$$Pu has accuracy of 20% as long as $$^{144}$$Ce released photon could be observed within 10 years, within the scope of inventory survey except for measurement uncertainty. Finally systematic image of fuel quantification by passive $$gamma$$ spectroscopy and, as future study, FPs quantification by passive $$gamma$$ measurement tests by mockup debris measurement with self-attenuation correction are introduced.

JAEA Reports

Review of the International Forum on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security; Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident to the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit

Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

JAEA-Review 2012-021, 83 Pages, 2012/06

JAEA-Review-2012-021.pdf:8.17MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held "2011 International Forum on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security; Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit" on 8 and 9 December, 2011. It intended to articulate effective strategies and measures for strengthening nuclear security using lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Moreover, it was expected to explore comprehensive approaches which could contribute to enhancing both nuclear safety and security in order to support sustainable and appropriate development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summary of panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum.

122 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)