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A Predicted CRISPR-mediated symbiosis between uncultivated archaea

Esser, S. P.*; Rahlff, J.*; Zhao, W.*; Predl, M.*; Plewka, J.*; Sures, K.*; Wimmer, F.*; Lee, J.*; Adam, P. S.*; McGonigle, J.*; et al.

Nature Microbiology (Internet), 8(9), p.1619 - 1633, 2023/09


CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotic cells from viruses, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Capitalizing on multi-omics approaches, we show here that the CRISPR-Cas systems of uncultivated archaea also play an integral role in mitigating potentially detrimental interactions with episymbionts. A comprehensive analysis of CRISPR-Cas-based infection histories revealed that uncultivated deep-subsurface archaeal primary-producers defend themselves from archaeal episymbionts of the DPANN superphylum of archaea, some of which are known to fuse their membranes with their host. We show that host cells counter these attacks by deploying one of two CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-B and type III-A) to target and disrupt essential genes in the episymbiont. However, genome-scale modeling of metabolic interactions between two deep subsurface host-symbiont systems revealed that host cells also benefit from the symbionts via metabolic complementation. We speculate that populations of these uncultivated archaeal episymbionts are currently transitioning from a parasitic lifestyle to one of mutualism, as must have occurred in countless mutualistic systems known today. By expanding our analysis to thousands of archaeal genomes, we conclude that CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance to archaeal episymbiosis evolved independently in various archaeal lineages and may be a wide-spread evolutionary phenomenon.


Level structures of $$^{56,58}$$Ca cast doubt on a doubly magic $$^{60}$$Ca

Chen, S.*; Browne, F.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Lee, J.*; Obertelli, A.*; 角田 佑介*; 大塚 孝治*; 茶園 亮樹*; Hagen, G.*; Holt, J. D.*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 843, p.138025_1 - 138025_7, 2023/08

$$^{57,59}$$Scからの1陽子ノックアウト反応を用いて、$$^{56}$$Caと$$^{58}$$Caのガンマ崩壊を観測した。$$^{56}$$Caでは1456(12)keVの$$gamma$$線遷移が、$$^{58}$$Caでは1115(34)keVの遷移が観測された。どちらの遷移も暫定的に$$2^{+}_{1} rightarrow 0^{+}_{gs}$$と割り当てられた。有効核子間相互作用をわずかに修正した広い模型空間での殻模型計算では、$$2^{+}_{1}$$準位エネルギー、2中性子分離エネルギー、反応断面積が実験とよく一致し、N=34閉殻の上に新しい殻が形成されていることを裏付けた。その構成要素である$$0_{f5/2}$$$$0_{g9/2}$$軌道はほぼ縮退しており、これは$$^{60}$$Caが二重魔法核である可能性を排除し、Ca同位体のドリップラインを$$^{70}$$Caあるいはそれ以上にまで広げる可能性がある。


High-density nanoprecipitates and phase reversion via maraging enable ultrastrong yet strain-hardenable medium-entropy alloy

Kwon, H.*; Sathiyamoorthi, P.*; Gangaraju, M. K.*; Zargaran, A.*; Wang, J.*; Heo, Y.-U.*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; Lee, B.-J.*; Kim, H. S.*

Acta Materialia, 248, p.118810_1 - 118810_12, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Maraging steels, known for ultrahigh strength and good fracture toughness, derive their superior properties from lath martensite structure with high-density nanoprecipitates. In this work, we designed a novel Fe-based medium-entropy alloy with a chemical composition of Fe$$_{60}$$Co$$_{25}$$Ni$$_{10}$$Mo$$_5$$ in atomic% by utilizing the characteristics of the maraging steels. By a single-step aging of only 10 min at 650 $$^{circ}$$C, the alloy showed microstructures consisting of a very high number density of (Fe, Co, Ni)$$_7$$Mo$$_6$$-type nanoprecipitates in lath martensite structure and reverted FCC phase, which led to ultrahigh yield strength higher than 2 GPa. This work demonstrates a novel direction to produce strong and ductile materials by expanding the horizons of material design with the aid of high-entropy concept and overcoming the limits of conventional materials.


Pressure-modulated magnetism and negative thermal expansion in the Ho$$_2$$Fe$$_{17}$$ intermetallic compound

Cao, Y.*; Zhou, H.*; Khmelevskyi, S.*; Lin, K.*; Avdeev, M.*; Wang, C.-W.*; Wang, B.*; Hu, F.*; 加藤 健一*; 服部 高典; et al.

Chemistry of Materials, 35(8), p.3249 - 3255, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Physical)



Multiple mechanisms in proton-induced nucleon removal at $$sim$$100 MeV/nucleon

Pohl, T.*; Sun, Y. L.*; Obertelli, A.*; Lee, J.*; G$'o$mez-Ramos, M.*; 緒方 一介*; 吉田 数貴; Cai, B. S.*; Yuan, C. X.*; Brown, B. A.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 130(17), p.172501_1 - 172501_8, 2023/04

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:94.39(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Competitive strengthening between dislocation slip and twinning in cast-wrought and additively manufactured CrCoNi medium entropy alloys

Woo, W.*; Kim, Y. S.*; Chae, H. B.*; Lee, S. Y.*; Jeong, J. S.*; Lee, C. M.*; Won, J. W.*; Na, Y. S.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; et al.

Acta Materialia, 246, p.118699_1 - 118699_13, 2023/03

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:98.77(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been performed under loading in cast-wrought (CW) and additively manufactured (AM) equiatomic CoCrNi medium-entropy alloys. The diffraction line profile analysis correlated the faulting-embedded crystal structure to the dislocation density, stacking/twin fault probability, and stacking fault energy as a function of strain. The results showed the initial dislocation density of 1.8$$times$$10$$^{13}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in CW and 1.3$$times$$10$$^{14}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in AM. It significantly increased up to 1.3$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ m-$$^{-2}$$ in CW and 1.7$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in AM near fracture. The dislocation density contributed to the flow stress of 470 MPa in CW and 600 MPa in AM, respectively. Meanwhile, the twin fault probability of CW (2.7%) was about two times higher than AM (1.3%) and the stacking fault probability showed the similar tendency. The twinning provided strengthening of 360 MPa in CW and 180 MPa in AM. Such a favorable strengthening via deformation twinning in CW and dislocation slip in AM was attributed to the stacking fault energy. It was estimated as 18.6 mJ/m$$^{2}$$ in CW and 37.5 mJ/m$$^{2}$$ in AM by the strain field of dislocations incorporated model. Dense dislocations, deformation twinning, and atomic-scale stacking structure were examined by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).


Study of the $$N=32$$ and $$N=34$$ shell gap for Ti and V by the first high-precision multireflection time-of-flight mass measurements at BigRIPS-SLOWRI

飯村 俊*; Rosenbusch, M.*; 高峰 愛子*; 角田 佑介*; 和田 道治*; Chen, S.*; Hou, D. S.*; Xian, W.*; 石山 博恒*; Yan, S.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 130(1), p.012501_1 - 012501_6, 2023/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:81.67(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The atomic masses of $$^{55}$$Sc, $$^{56,58}$$Ti, and $$^{56-59}$$V have been determined using the high-precision multireflection time-of-flight technique. The radioisotopes have been produced at RIKEN's Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and delivered to the novel designed gas cell and multireflection system, which has been recently commissioned downstream of the ZeroDegree spectrometer following the BigRIPS separator. For $$^{56,58}$$Ti and $$^{56-59}$$V, the mass uncertainties have been reduced down to the order of 10 keV, shedding new light on the $$N=34$$ shell effect in Ti and V isotopes by the first high-precision mass measurements of the critical species $$^{58}$$Ti and $$^{59}$$V. With the new precision achieved, we reveal the nonexistence of the $$N=34$$ empirical two-neutron shell gaps for Ti and V, and the enhanced energy gap above the occupied $$nu$$p$$_{3/2}$$ orbit is identified as a feature unique to Ca. We perform new Monte Carlo shell model calculations including the $$nu$$d$$_{5/2}$$ and $$nu$$g$$_{9/2}$$ orbits and compare the results with conventional shell model calculations, which exclude the $$nu$$g$$_{9/2}$$ and the $$nu$$d$$_{5/2}$$ orbits. The comparison indicates that the shell gap reduction in Ti is related to a partial occupation of the higher orbitals for the outer two valence neutrons at $$N = 34$$.


"Southwestern" boundary of the $$N = 40$$ island of inversion; First study of low-lying bound excited states in $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V

Elekes, Z.*; Juh$'a$sz, M. M.*; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; 吉田 数貴; 緒方 一介*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064321_1 - 064321_10, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

$$^{59}$$Vと$$^{61}$$Vの低励起準位構造を初めて探索した。$$^{61}$$Vについては中性子ノックアウト反応と陽子非弾性散乱が、$$^{59}$$Vについては中性子ノックアウト反応データが得られた。$$^{59}$$Vについては4つ、$$^{61}$$Vについては5つの新たな遷移が確認された。Lenzi-Nowacki-Poves-Sieja (LNPS)相互作用に基づく殻模型計算との比較によって、それぞれの同位体について確認されたガンマ線のうち3つが、first 11/2$$^{-}$$状態とfirst 9/2$$^{-}$$状態からの崩壊と決定された。$$^{61}$$Vについては、($$p$$,$$p'$$)非弾性散乱断面積は四重極変形と十六重極変形を想定したチャネル結合法により解析されたが、十六重極変形の影響により、明確に反転の島に属するとは決定できなかった。


Extended $$p_{3/2}$$ neutron orbital and the $$N = 32$$ shell closure in $$^{52}$$Ca

Enciu, M.*; Liu, H. N.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Nowacki, F.*; 緒方 一介*; Poves, A.*; 吉田 数貴; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 129(26), p.262501_1 - 262501_7, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Stress contribution of B2 phase in Al$$_{0.7}$$CoCrFeNi eutectic high entropy alloy

Yun, D.*; Chae, H.*; Lee, T.*; Lee, D.-H.*; Ryu, H. J.*; Banerjee, R.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lee, S. Y.*

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 918, p.165673_1 - 165673_7, 2022/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Physical)

In this study, the deformation behavior and strengthening contribution of the FCC phase and B2 phase in Al$$_{0.7}$$CoCrFeNi eutectic high entropy alloys (HEAs) were investigated using in-situ neutron diffraction. An FCC matrix phase exhibited a slip-dominant deformation scheme, while twinning hardly contributed to deformation. Applied macroscopic stresses were rarely redistributed to the BCC A2 phase dispersed within the B2 phase, whereas the stress contribution of the B2 phase, which was initially lower than that of the FCC phase, increased significantly with an increase in plastic strain; hence, its contribution to tensile deformation became predominant. This study allows us to postulate a target value of each phase by microstructural tunning to achieve the desired properties of multicomponent phase HEAs.


Estimating fine melt pool, coarse melt pool, and heat affected zone effects on the strengths of additive manufactured AlSi10Mg alloys

Lam, T.-N.*; Lee, A.*; Chiu, Y.-R.*; Kuo, H.-F.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Jain, J.*; Lee, S. Y.*; Huang, E.-W.*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 856, p.143961_1 - 143961_9, 2022/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:53.96(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Fine melt pool (FMP), coarse melt pool (CMP), and heat affected zone (HAZ) are generally observed in the additive manufactured AlSi10Mg alloys. In this study, we demonstrated that the yield strength can be estimated by the combination of the sizes and volume fractions of FMP, CMP, HAZ together with the second-phase hardening. Two different AlSi10Mg alloys fabricated via powder bed fusion (PBF) process were prepared to examine the lattice strain evolution of constituent phases during uniaxial tensile loading via in-situ neutron diffraction measurements. The horizontally-built (Hz-built) exhibited a much better yield and tensile strength as well as elongation compared to the vertically-built (Vt-built) AlSi10Mg alloy. We reported empirical strength quantification based on the sizes and ratios of fine melt pool (FMP), coarse melt pool (CMP), and heat affected zone (HAZ) together with the possible failure mode to prevent early fracture in the additive manufactured alloys.


Selective recovery of thorium and uranium from leach solutions of rare earth concentrates in continuous solvent extraction mode with primary amine N1923

Nguyen, T. H.*; Le Ba, T.*; Tran, C. T.*; Nguyen, T. T.*; Doan, T. T. T.*; Do, V. K.; 渡邉 雅之; Pham, Q. M.*; Hoang, S. T.*; Nguyen, D. V.*; et al.

Hydrometallurgy, 213, p.105933_1 - 105933_11, 2022/08

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:83.44(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)



A First glimpse at the shell structure beyond $$^{54}$$Ca; Spectroscopy of $$^{55}$$K, $$^{55}$$Ca, and $$^{57}$$Ca

小岩井 拓真*; Wimmer, K.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Barbieri, C.*; Duguet, T.*; Holt, J. D.*; 宮城 宇志*; Navr$'a$til, P.*; 緒方 一介*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 827, p.136953_1 - 136953_7, 2022/04

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:69.47(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

中性子過剰核$$^{54}$$Caでは、新魔法数34が発見されて以来、その構造を知るために多くの実験がなされてきたが、それを超える中性子過剰核の情報は全く知られてこなかった。本論文では、理化学研究所RIBFにて$$^{55}$$K, $$^{55}$$Ca, $$^{57}$$Caの励起状態から脱励起するガンマ線を初めて観測した結果を報告した。それぞれ1つのガンマ線しか得られなかったものの、$$^{55}$$Kおよび$$^{55}$$Caのデータは、それぞれ、陽子の$$d_{3/2}$$$$s_{1/2}$$軌道間のエネルギー差、中性子の$$p_{1/2}$$$$f_{5/2}$$軌道間のエネルギー差を敏感に反映し、両方とも最新の殻模型計算によって200keV程度の精度で再現できることがわかった。また、1粒子状態の程度を特徴づける分光学的因子を実験データと歪曲波インパルス近似による反応計算から求め、その値も殻模型計算の値と矛盾しないことがわかった。


Grain-size-dependent microstructure effects on cyclic deformation mechanisms in CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy-alloys

Luo, M.-Y.*; Lam, T.-N.*; Wang, P.-T.*; Tsou, N.-T.*; Chang, Y.-J.*; Feng, R.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Liaw, P. K.*; Yeh, A.-C.*; et al.

Scripta Materialia, 210, p.114459_1 - 114459_7, 2022/03

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:90.29(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

The effect of grain size on strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) properties in the CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) was investigated towards the distinct microstructural developments during cyclic loading at a strain amplitude of $$pm$$ 1.0%. A much more prominent secondary cyclic hardening (SCH) behavior at the final deformation stage was observed in the fine-grained (FG) than in the coarse-grained (CG) CoCrFeMnNi. In-situ neutron-diffraction and microscopic examination, strongly corroborated by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, indicated that dislocation activities from planar slip to wavy slip-driven subgrain structures within the grains acted as the primary cyclic-deformation behaviors in the FG CoCrFeMnNi. Differently observed in the cyclic behavior of the CG CoCrFeMnNi was due to a transition from the planar dislocation slip to twinning.


Tensile response of as-cast CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys

Lam, T.-N.*; Luo, M.-Y.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Jain, J.*; Lee, S.-Y.*; Yeh, A.-C.*; Huang, E.-W.*

Crystals (Internet), 12(2), p.157_1 - 157_9, 2022/02

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:82.34(Crystallography)

In this research, we systematically investigated equiatomic CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Both of these HEA systems are single-phase, face-centered-cubic (FCC) structures. Specifically, we examined the tensile response in as-cast quaternary CoCrFeNi and quinary CoCrFeMnNi HEAs at room temperature. Compared to CoCrFeNi HEA, the elongation of CoCrFeMnNi HEA was 14% lower, but the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were increased by 17% and 6%, respectively. The direct real-time evolution of structural defects during uniaxial straining was acquired via in situ neutron-diffraction measurements. The dominant microstructures underlying plastic deformation mechanisms at each deformation stage in as-cast CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi HEAs were revealed using the Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) software for peak-profile fitting. The possible mechanisms are reported.


Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of non-equiatomic (CoNi)$$_{74.66}$$Cr$$_{17}$$Fe$$_{8}$$C$$_{0.34}$$ high-entropy alloy

Kim, Y. S.*; Chae, H.*; Huang, E.-W.*; Jain, J.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Hong, S. I.*; Lee, S. Y.*

Materials, 15(4), p.1312_1 - 1312_11, 2022/02

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Physical)

In this study, we manufactured a non-equiatomic (CoNi)$$_{74.66}$$Cr$$_{17}$$Fe$$_{8}$$C$$_{0.34}$$ high-entropy alloy (HEA) consisting of a single-phase face-centered-cubic structure. The non-equiatomic (CoNi)$$_{74.66}$$Cr$$_{17}$$Fe$$_{8}$$C$$_{0.34}$$ HEA revealed a good combination of strength and ductility in mechanical properties compared to the equiatomic CoNiCrFe HEA, due to both stable solid solution and precipitation-strengthened effects. The non-equiatomic stoichiometry resulted in not only a lower electronegativity mismatch, indicating a more stable state of solid solution, but also a higher stacking fault energy (SFE, $$sim$$50 mJ/m$$^{2}$$) due to the higher amount of Ni and the lower amount of Cr. This higher SFE led to a more active motion of dislocations relative to mechanical twinning, resulting in severe lattice distortion near the grain boundaries and dislocation entanglement near the twin boundaries.


Investigation of the ground-state spin inversion in the neutron-rich $$^{47,49}$$Cl isotopes

Linh, B. D.*; Corsi, A.*; Gillibert, A.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Barbieri, C.*; Chen, S.*; Chung, L. X.*; Duguet, T.*; G$'o$mez-Ramos, M.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 104(4), p.044331_1 - 044331_16, 2021/10


 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:56.39(Physics, Nuclear)



Spin-flop phase in a honeycomb antiferromagnet Mn$$_{0.84}$$Mg$$_{0.16}$$TiO$$_{3}$$

社本 真一; 山内 宏樹; 池内 和彦*; Lee, M. K.*; Chang, L.-J.*; Garlea, V. O.*; Hwang, I. Y.*; Lee, K. H.*; Chung, J.-H.*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 90(9), p.093703_1 - 093703_4, 2021/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Spin wave excitations in honeycomb antiferromagnet MnTiO$$_{3}$$

Hwang, I. Y.*; Lee, K. H.*; Chung, J.-H.*; 池内 和彦*; Garlea, V. O.*; 山内 宏樹; 赤津 光洋*; 社本 真一

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 90(6), p.064708_1 - 064708_6, 2021/06

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:36.98(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Pairing forces govern population of doubly magic $$^{54}$$Ca from direct reactions

Browne, F.*; Chen, S.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; 緒方 一介*; 宇都野 穣; 吉田 数貴; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; Calvet, D.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(25), p.252501_1 - 252501_7, 2021/06

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:76.2(Physics, Multidisciplinary)


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