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Journal Articles

A Systematic radionuclide migration parameter setting approach for potential siting environments in Japan

Hamamoto, Takafumi*; Ishida, Keisuke*; Shibutani, Sanae*; Fujisaki, Kiyoshi*; Tachi, Yukio; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 2019 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference (IHLRWM 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.77 - 82, 2019/04

Journal Articles

Public acceptance as a driver for repository design

McKinley, I. G.*; Masuda, Sumio*; Hardie, S. M. L.*; Umeki, Hiroyuki*; Naito, Morimasa; Takase, Hiroyasu*

Journal of Energy, 2018, p.7546158_1 - 7546158_8, 2018/07

The Japanese geological disposal programme for radioactive waste is based on a volunteering approach to siting, which places particular emphasis on the need for public acceptance. This emphasises the development of a repository project as a partnership with local communities and involves stakeholders in important decisions associated with key milestones in the selection of repository sites and subsequent construction, operation and closure. To date, however, repository concept development has proceeded in a more traditional manner, focusing particularly on ease of developing a post-closure safety case. In the current project, we have attempted to go further by assessing what requirements stakeholders would place on a repository and assessing how these could be used to re-think repository designs so that they meet the desires of the public without compromising critical operational or long-term safety.

Journal Articles

Fukushima cleanup; Status and lessons

Miyahara, Kaname; McKinley, I. G.*; Saito, Kimiaki; Iijima, Kazuki; Hardie, S. M. L.*

Nuclear Engineering International, 60(736), p.12 - 14, 2015/11

Remediation work in Fukushima is based on a comprehensive technical knowledge base, which is translated into actions that enable the rapid return of evacuees but also provides a globally valuable resource for disaster planning and contaminated site remediation.

JAEA Reports

Use of knowledge and experience gained from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident to establish the technical basis for strategic off-site response

Miyahara, Kaname; McKinley, I. G.*; Saito, Kimiaki; Hardie, S. M. L.*; Iijima, Kazuki

JAEA-Review 2015-001, 90 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Review-2015-001.pdf:9.63MB

This report provides a concise overview of knowledge and experience gained from the activities for environmental remediation after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. It is specifically tailored for international use to establish or refine the technical basis for strategic, off-site response to nuclear incidents. It is produced by JAEA, reflecting JAEA's key role in the research associated with both remediation of contaminated areas and the natural processes influencing contamination migration in non-remediated areas, working together with a number of Japanese and international organisations and research institutes. The report also provides a perspective on the future actions required to remediate all areas outside the 1F site.

Journal Articles

Geological disposal:KM challenges and solutions

Umeki, Hiroyuki; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 9(3), p.236 - 244, 2011/09

Journal Articles

A Vision of next generation performance assessment models

Makino, Hitoshi; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 2011 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference (IHLRWMC 2011) (CD-ROM), p.25 - 31, 2011/04

In the Japanese deep geological disposal programme, the goals of applications of performance assessments (PA) have changed considerably from original generic feasibility demonstrations to site-specific comparison of options that may result from the current call for volunteer communities to host a repository. PA will play a key role to support highly sensitive decisions at main milestones, particular associated with ranking different site and design options. The paper will discuss requirements for next generation PA to play the role and associated R&D needs.

Journal Articles

Roles of conceptual model development for realistically quantifying radionuclide migration

Miyahara, Kaname; Tachi, Yukio; Kitamura, Akira; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Sawada, Atsushi; Shibata, Masahiro; Neall, F.*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 2011 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference (IHLRWMC 2011) (CD-ROM), p.292 - 298, 2011/04

As the Japanese deep geological disposal programme prepares for milestones at which volunteer sites need to be compared, it is critical that any supporting post-closure safety assessment is done as realistically as possible. Because of the subtle system understanding needed to integrate diverse theoretical, laboratory, field and analogue models, data and observations into the high-level parameters that are incorporated into performance assessment models, normal QA procedures tend to fail completely. This problem is discussed further in this paper and solutions outlined, which build on recent developments of supporting knowledge engineering tools.

Journal Articles

Consequence analysis of fluvial erosion scenarios for a HLW repository

Miyahara, Kaname; Kawamura, Makoto*; McKinley, I. G.*; Inagaki, Manabu*; Ebina, Takanori*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 48(7), p.1069 - 1076, 2011/00

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:78.83(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In Japan, uplift/erosion scenarios must be analysed even if they occur far in the future, as no assessment cut-off times have yet been defined. For this purpose, the geological record of river terrace formation and their long term evolution has been studied further, with the aim of constructing a more realistic fluvial erosion model compared with the original, rather simple cyclic fluvial erosion model developed in a previous study. The model allows the consequences of erosion of the repository to be assessed, as before using comparisons with natural radionuclide fluxes. This paper describes a conceptual model based on a generalization of field observations in relevant settings and discusses resultant analyses, which again illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the reference HLW disposal system.

Journal Articles

Use of the safety case to focus KMS application

Osawa, Hideaki; Hioki, Kazumasa; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM '09/DECOM '09) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2009/10

The paper will review progress to date in this work with illustrative examples of argumentation networks. An outline of future developments and challenges will also be provided, for example considering how confidence in arguments can be assessed, the weakest links in argumentation chains can be identified, arguments can be developed interactively at a level appropriate to all users, etc. Two companion papers demonstrate how these can be applied to critical areas of a repository programme, performance assessment and "geosynthesis". The link to the safety case forms a basis for decision making in the inevitable cases where conflicts between programme requirements arise. The long-term evolution of the safety case also forms a pathway for focusing the future challenges described in the final paper in this set.

Journal Articles

Practical application of the KMS, 1; Total system performance assessment

Makino, Hitoshi; Hioki, Kazumasa; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Yang, H.*; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM '09/DECOM '09) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2009/10

This paper will outline the reformulation of PA as a Knowledge Management (KM) task, discuss application of knowledge management technologies to PA tasks, and illustrate how these can be handled electronically in a "Performance assessment All-In-one Report System (PAIRS)" utilising hyperlinks and embedded tools to minimise duplication of material, ease Quality Assurance (QA) and facilitate the regular updating required in the Japanese programme.

Journal Articles

Challenges for the JAEA KMS; Fostering inventive design and problem solving

Makino, Hitoshi; Hioki, Kazumasa; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Shoko*; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM '09/DECOM '09) (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2009/10

The JAEA Knowledge Management System (KMS) is being developed to be flexible and able to respond to potential changes of boundary conditions. On a shorter timescale, the KMS must encourage flexibility in the methodology used for carrying out and presenting performance assessments. This is closely linked to development of advanced repository concepts; considering the requirements for a safe and practical repository tailored to specific site conditions, which reflects evolving technology. These coupled development tasks were, in the past, carried out by expert teams in a rather informal manner. As the technical challenges increase - and the need for transparency is accepted - a more formal method of developing innovative design solutions is needed. A knowledge engineering approach (TRIZ) that is used in other financial and industrial applications has thus been tested for its usefulness for such tasks.

Journal Articles

Practical application of the KMS, 2; Site characterisation

Semba, Takeshi; Osawa, Hideaki; Hioki, Kazumasa; Tachibana, Shoko*; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM '09/DECOM '09) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2009/10

To provide support for the Japanese implementer and also the regulator, a JAEA team is attempting to capture both Japanese and international geosynthesis experience within a KMS framework, which is termed ISIS. This is a hybrid system that combines "smart" software with human experts, although an aim is to capture tacit knowledge within expert systems to the maximum extent practicable. Initial tests, based mainly on field work carried out by JAEA at the sites of the Mizunami and Horonobe underground research laboratories.

Journal Articles

Overview of the JAEA knowledge management system supporting implementation and regulation of geological disposal in Japan

Umeki, Hiroyuki; Hioki, Kazumasa; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM '09/DECOM '09) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2009/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Disruptive effects on a HLW repository due to uplift-erosion in the distant future

Miyahara, Kaname; Inagaki, Manabu; Kawamura, Makoto; Ebina, Takanori*; McKinley, I. G.*

Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.1193, p.177 - 184, 2009/05

Uplift and erosion cannot be generally precluded in Japan, therefore needs to be treated. In particular, uplift and erosion will cause major disruption of the engineered and natural barriers when the repository is exposed at the ground surface, although erosion of the repository should be excluded for very long times by careful siting and design. In Japan, uplift/erosion scenarios must be analysed, even if they occur far in the future as no assessment cut-off times have yet been defined. For this purpose, an argumentation method is being developed to allow sensible scenarios to be constructed. This paper discusses procedures to derive relevant conceptual models and resultant analyses in a credible manner which illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the HLW disposal system, using relevant yardsticks based on natural radionuclide fluxes.

Journal Articles

Development of next-generation technology for integrated site characterization of deep geological repositories

Osawa, Hideaki; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Shinji; Semba, Takeshi; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of International Waste Management Symposium 2009 (WM '09) (CD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2009/03

The focus of this paper is development of advanced technology from the field of Knowledge engineering, termed the Information Synthesis and Interpretation System (ISIS), which incorporates past experience and know-how currently being obtained in complex URL projects within Expert System (ES) modules in 2009.

Journal Articles

The Challenge of development of a holistic waste management approach to support the Nuclear Renaissance

Makino, Hitoshi; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Hioki, Kazumasa; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of International Waste Management Symposium 2009 (WM '09) (CD-ROM), 15 Pages, 2009/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Design concept of a knowledge management system of geological disposal technology

Osawa, Hideaki; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hitoshi; Takase, Hiroyasu*; McKinley, I. G.*; Okubo, Hiroo*

Karyoku Genshiryoku Hatsuden, 59(6), p.512 - 519, 2008/06

The information explosion resulting from modern technology is identified as a critical problem for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). A paradigm shift is needed in the basic concept for information management. This recognition had led to the development of a next generation Knowledge Management System (the JAEA KMS) that makes maximum use of recent developments in Information Technology (IT) and the methodology of Knowledge Engineering (KE) as applied in other technical fields. This paper provides a brief outline of the design concept of the JAEA KMS and then overviews recent progress towards development of an operational system.

Journal Articles

Knowledge management; The Cornerstone of a 21st century safety case

Umeki, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Hideaki; Naito, Morimasa; Nakano, Katsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of Safety Cases for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste; Where do we stand ?, p.211 - 219, 2008/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Establishing priorities for HLW R&D in the 21$$^{st}$$ century

Umeki, Hiroyuki; Naito, Morimasa; Makino, Hitoshi; Osawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Katsushi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; McKinley, I. G.*

Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-15) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Alternative repository design concepts for HLW disposal; Challenges and initiatives

Masuda, Sumio*; Kawamura, Hideki*; McKinley, I. G.*; Kitayama, Kazumi*; Umeki, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of Radioactive Waste Management; The Next Step: Confidence, Safety and Implementation, 8 Pages, 2006/06

Many of the "standard" designs for deep geological radwaste repositories were developed decades ago and have altered little since. Changing boundary conditions - both technical and socio-economic - are driving increasing interest in the consideration of alternatives, particularly for disposal of higher activity and longer-lived wastes. This was particularly the case in Japan, following the decision by NUMO to proceed with site selection based on a volunteering process. The work by NUMO to examine alternatives provides a good illustration of the range of possibilities which are available to allow flexible tailoring of design to fit both the characteristics of volunteer sites and the desires of local communities. On an even larger scale, however, the 21st century can be expected to bring challenges that will affect the future nuclear power generation at both national and global levels. As repository project are planned and implemented over timescales of many decades, such uncertainties should be taken into account to ensure that waste disposal projects initiated now remain appropriate to the future generations who will build, operate and close them.

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