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Journal Articles

A Phoswich alpha/beta detector for monitoring in the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Morishita, Yuki; Takasaki, Koji; Kitayama, Yoshiharu; Tagawa, Akihiro; Shibata, Takuya; Hoshi, Katsuya; Kaneko, Junichi*; Higuchi, Mikio*; Oura, Masatoshi*

Radiation Measurements, 160, p.106896_1 - 106896_10, 2023/01

 Times Cited Count:0

This study proposes a newly developed phoswich alpha/beta detector that can discriminate alpha and beta particles emitted from the alpha and beta contaminations in the FDNPS site. The phoswich alpha/beta detector is made up of two layers of scintillators that detect alpha and beta particles. The pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method was used to detect alpha particles in high beta particle and high gamma-ray (comparable to gamma-ray dose rate near the FDNPS reactor building) environments. Due to a 23.3% full width at half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution for alpha particles, the detector can be used to distinguish between nuclear fuel materials such as plutonium and its radon progeny (Po-214). Moreover, the detector could distinguish alpha particles from $$^{137}$$Cs gamma rays with a dose rate background up to 9.0 mSv/h. It is the first to demonstrate that the developed phoswich detector can be used to discriminate and measure alpha and beta particles of the actual contaminated FDNPS samples.

Journal Articles

Development of a portable alpha-beta-gamma radioactive material continuous air-monitoring system

Morishita, Yuki

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1027, p.166258_1 - 166258_7, 2022/03

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:71.47(Instruments & Instrumentation)

During the decommissioning process of nuclear facility sites, such as the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), radioactive contamination due to alpha, beta, and gamma nuclides is present. To accurately detect these nuclides, a new phoswich alpha/beta/gamma detector is proposed and developed. A portable alpha/beta/gamma radiation continuous air-monitoring system is also developed using the proposed phoswich detector for detecting unknown radioactive air contamination. The developed phowich detector features a 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm-stilbene scintillator (first layer) and a 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm-Gd$$_{3}$$(Ga, Al)$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$(Ce) (GAGG) scintillator (second layer). The bottom of the GAGG scintillator is optically coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The proposed phoswich detector is capable of successfully separating alpha, beta, and gamma nuclides by applying the pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) technique. The alpha energy resolution of the 5.5 MeV alpha particles using was 22.1% at the full width at half maximum (FWHM), whereas the gamma energy resolution of the 0.662 MeV gamma rays was 10.3% FWHM. The energy spectra obtained from the simulations agree well with those obtained from measurements. Continuous alpha-nuclide air measurements were conducted in the basement of a concrete building, where the $$^{222}$$Rn concentration was approximately 200 Bq/m$$^{3}$$, using the developed portable continuous air-monitoring system. The measured peaks, which correspond to $$^{212}$$Bi (6.1 MeV), $$^{214}$$Po (7.7 MeV), and $$^{212}$$Po (8.8 MeV), were observed in the alpha spectrum by separating beta and gamma rays. Therefore, the developed monitoring system can be potentially efficient for the early detection of unknown released radioactive materials.

JAEA Reports

Stabilization treatment of Pu-bearing organic materials

Morishita, Kazuki; Sato, Takumi; Onishi, Takashi; Seki, Takayuki*; Sekine, Shinichi*; Okitsu, Yuichi*

JAEA-Technology 2021-024, 27 Pages, 2021/10


In the case of Plutonium (Pu)-bearing organic materials, organic materials are decomposed by alpha rays emitted mainly from Pu to generate hydrogen gas and other substances. Therefore, to safely store Pu-bearing organic materials for an extended period of time, organic materials must be eliminated. In addition, carbide and nitride fuels must be converted into oxides for safe storage in order to prevent the exothermal reaction of these fuels with oxygen/moisture in air. A survey of the literature on the stabilization treatment of Pu-bearing organic materials confirmed that organic materials can be decomposed and removed by heating at 950 $$^{circ}$$C (1223.15 K) or greater in air. Furthermore, based on the calculated thermodynamic parameters of oxidation reaction of carbide and nitride fuels in air, it was estimated that these fuels would be oxidized in air at 950 $$^{circ}$$C because the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure in the oxidation reaction at 950 $$^{circ}$$C was lower than 2.1$$times$$10$$^{4}$$ Pa (oxygen partial pressure in air). Therefore, it was decided to stabilize Pu-bearing organic materials by heating at 950 $$^{circ}$$C in air to remove the organic materials and oxidize the carbide and nitride fuels. As a mock-up test to remove the organic materials, thin sheets of epoxy resin were heated in air. The changes in appearance and weight before and after heating in air showed that organic materials can be removed. After the mock-up test, Pu-bearing organic materials were also stabilized by heating in the similar condition.

Journal Articles

Observation of vibration characteristics of a cylindrical water tank by a phase-shifted optical pulse interference sensor

Morishita, Hideki*; Yoshida, Minoru*; Nishimura, Akihiko; Matsudaira, Masayuki*; Hirayama, Yoshiharu*; Sugano, Yuichi*

Hozengaku, 20(1), p.101 - 108, 2021/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Plutonium dioxide particle imaging using a high-resolution alpha imager for radiation protection

Morishita, Yuki; Kurosawa, Shunsuke*; Yamaji, Akihiro*; Hayashi, Masateru*; Sasano, Makoto*; Makita, Taisuke*; Azuma, Tetsushi*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.5948_1 - 5948_11, 2021/03


 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The internal exposure of workers who inhale plutonium dioxide particles in nuclear facilities is a crucial matter for human protection from radiation. To determine the activity median aerodynamic diameter values at the working sites of nuclear facilities in real time, we developed a high-resolution alpha imager using a ZnS(Ag) scintillator sheet, an optical microscope, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. Then, we designed and applied a setup to measure a plutonium dioxide particle and identify the locations of the individual alpha particles in real time. Employing a Gaussian fitting, we evaluated the average spatial resolution of the multiple alpha particles was evaluated to be 16.2 umFWHM with a zoom range of 5 x. Also, the spatial resolution for the plutonium dioxide particle was 302.7 umFWHM due to the distance between the plutonium dioxide particle and the ZnS(Ag) scintillator. The influence of beta particles was negligible, and alpha particles were discernible in the alpha-beta particle contamination. The equivalent volume diameter of the plutonium dioxide particle was calculated from the measured count rate. These results indicate that the developed alpha imager is effective in the plutonium dioxide particle measurements at the working sites of nuclear facilities for internal exposure dose evaluation.

Journal Articles

Development of an alpha- and beta-imaging detector using a thin-stilbene plate for radon-222 progeny measurements

Morishita, Yuki

Radiation Measurements, 140, p.106511_1 - 106511_7, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:30.57(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Radon-222 ($$^{222}$$Rn) is a naturally-occurring radioactive gas, and the measurement of this isotope and its progeny is of interest from the viewpoint of protection against internal exposure. We have developed a new alpha beta-imaging detector combined with a waveform digitizer capable of imaging alpha- and beta-particle locations simultaneously. This detector is used for $$^{222}$$Rn -progeny measurements. The thin-stilbene plate was optically coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT), and the analog signals from the PSPMT were transferred in parallel to the waveform digitizer. For 5.5-MeV alpha particles, the detection efficiency was 97.2% for 2$$pi$$ steradians, and the energy resolution was 21.6% full width at half maximum (FWHM). The imaging detector was able to discriminate between alpha and beta particles via the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD) technique, as well as being capable of alpha- and beta-particle imaging. When measuring the $$^{222}$$Rn progeny, both $$^{214}$$Bi and $$^{214}$$Po are imaged simultaneously, and a correlation is found between the positions of $$^{214}$$Bi and $$^{214}$$Po. The developed detector will be useful as a $$^{222}$$Rn detector and in alpha-continuous-air monitoring for nuclear-fuel facilities.

Journal Articles

Development of a Gd$$_{2}$$Si$$_{2}$$O$$_{7}$$ (GPS) scintillator-based alpha imaging detector for rapid plutonium detection in high-radon environments

Morishita, Yuki; Izaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Junichi*; Yamamoto, Seiichi*; Higuchi, Mikio*; Torii, Tatsuo

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 67(10), p.2203 - 2208, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:67.23(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

We developed a Gd$$_{2}$$Si$$_{2}$$O$$_{7}$$ (GPS) scintillator-based alpha imaging detector and demonstrated its effectiveness by evaluating actual Pu particle and $$^{222}$$Rn progeny. The GPS scintillator plate was prepared by a sintering method. The outer dimensions of the GPS scintillator plate were 5 $$times$$ 5 cm, and the scintillator layer was approximately 50 $$mu$$m on a 3-mm-thick high-transparency glass. The plate was optically coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with silicone grease. The developed imaging detector exhibited good uniformity. Pu particle activities were accurately evaluated at 14 different positions, and the difference in activity was within 6%. Radon-222 ($$^{222}$$Rn) progeny counts were reduced by 65.3% by applying an energy window. Although the Pu/$$^{222}$$Rn progeny activity ratio was 1/51, the Pu particle was successfully identified among $$^{222}$$Rn progeny within the 5 min-measurement time. The imaging detector has an excellent ability for detecting Pu among $$^{222}$$Rn progeny. Thus, this detector is useful for alpha contamination monitoring in high-radon-background environments.

Journal Articles

Radon measurements with a compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer

Morishita, Yuki; Ye, Y.*; Mata, L.*; Pozzi, S. A.*; Kearfott, K. J.*

Radiation Measurements, 137, p.106428_1 - 106428_7, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:58.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have developed a compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer for radon measurements and have characterized it using a unique, small radon chamber. The spectrometer is composed of a through-silicon via (TSV) silicon photomultiplier (or SiPM) and a 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm stilbene crystal cube. Analog signals from the SiPM are sent to a digitizer. The detector is housed in a light-tight box, with a stacked air filter installed in one side of the box to enable $$^{222}$$Rn gas to diffuse to the inside. We conducted one experiment with the spectrometer and an AlphaGUARD detector placed in a basement at the University of Michigan, and we conducted other experiments with both detectors placed in a small radon chamber together with $$^{226}$$Ra sources. By applying a pulse-shape-discrimination technique, we were able to separate the alpha and beta spectra simultaneously and clearly and to measure them quantitatively. We found two peaks in the measured alpha spectrum: a lower-energy peak due to $$^{218}$$Po and a higher-energy peak due to $$^{214}$$Po. We found a linear relation between the radon concentration y from AlphaGUARD and the counting rates from the stilbene-SiPM detector. The alpha/beta spectrometer is less than 10 mm thick, and we expect that it will be easy to increase the sensitivity with future device construction. Thus, this compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer shows promise for use in novel radon-detection systems.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of an ultra-thin plastic scintillator to detect alpha and beta particle contamination

Morishita, Yuki; Hoshi, Katsuya; Torii, Tatsuo

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 966, p.163795_1 - 163795_8, 2020/06

To date, alpha and high beta particle emitters have been detected in the reactor buildings of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Since the beta radiation levels in the FDNPS buildings are extremely high, a commercial beta survey meter, such as a Geiger-Muller (GM) counter, would no longer have the ability to measure the beta contamination levels. In order to solve this issue, we utilized ultra-thin plastic scintillators to increase the detection rate of alpha and beta contamination. In this study, ultra-thin plastic scintillators with varied thicknesses of 7, 22, 24, 31, 39, and 55 um were prepared. To test their sensitivity, each scintillator was optically coupled to a glass plate and a 2-in square position-sensitive photomultiplier tube, and exposed to either an alpha, beta, or gamma source. Results from alpha spectrometry show that only the 55 um-thick plastic scintillator fully absorbed the alpha particles (5.5 MeV) with a 16.7% Full Width at Half Maximum. For alpha imaging under a high beta background, the 7 um-thick plastic scintillator was found to be the best choice, with an alpha to beta ratio of 652. This plastic scintillator also had the lowest sensitivity to beta particles, measuring only 41.74 cps when exposed to a 1 MBq $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y source in contact. It would therefore be possible to use the 7 um-thick plastic scintillator, to directly measure the surface contamination levels at the FDNPS site in real-time, where previous methods have fallen short. Thus, the developed detector would be a useful tool for the detection of alpha and beta contamination in the FDNPS.

Journal Articles

A Remote continuous air monitoring system for measuring airborne alpha contamination

Morishita, Yuki; Usami, Hiroshi; Furuta, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Katsunori; Tsurudome, Koji; Hoshi, Katsuya; Torii, Tatsuo

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(2), p.172 - 181, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

We developed a remote continuous air monitoring (RCAM) system. The RCAM system consisted of a personal air monitor and a robot. The personal air monitor (poCAMon, SARAD, Germany) had a 400 mm$$^{2}$$ ion-injected silicon detector and a membrane air filter with 25 mm-diameter. The personal air monitor provides the alpha energy spectra for any measurement time interval. Demonstration measurements were taken underground at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) and at a poorly ventilated concrete building. The RCAM system was remotely operated and successfully measured the $$^{222}$$Rn progeny even though the relative humidity (RH) was almost 100%. In the measured alpha spectra, the peaks of $$^{218}$$Po (6.0 MeV alpha) and $$^{214}$$Po (7.7 MeV alpha) were clearly identified. Our developed monitor is promising for alpha dust monitoring in a high gamma-ray environment or contaminated areas where a worker cannot safely physically enter.

Journal Articles

Imaging of plutonium particles using a CCD-camera-based alpha-particle imaging system

Morishita, Yuki

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 954, p.161708_1 - 161708_5, 2020/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:34.22(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Upgrade of the 3-MeV linac for testing of accelerator components at J-PARC

Kondo, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Koichiro; Ito, Takashi; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Ryo; Morishita, Takatoshi; Oguri, Hidetomo; Okoshi, Kiyonori; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Shinto, Katsuhiro; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1350, p.012077_1 - 012077_7, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:53.97

We have upgraded a 3-MeV linac at J-PARC. The ion source is same as the J-PARC linac's, and the old 30-mA RFQ is replaced by a spare 50-mA RFQ, therefore, the beam energy is 3 MeV and the nominal beam current is 50 mA. The main purpose of this system is to test the spare RFQ, but also used for testing of various components required in order to keep the stable operation of the J-PARC accelerator. The accelerator has been already commissioned, and measurement programs have been started. In this paper, present status of this 3-MeV linac is presented.

Journal Articles

Development of inter-digital H-mode drift-tube linac prototype with alternative phase focusing for a muon linac in the J-PARC muon g-2/EDM experiment

Nakazawa, Yuga*; Iinuma, Hiromi*; Iwata, Yoshiyuki*; Iwashita, Yoshihisa*; Otani, Masashi*; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; Mibe, Tsutomu*; Yamazaki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro*; Kitamura, Ryo; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1350, p.012054_1 - 012054_7, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:92.52

An inter-digital H-mode drift-tube linac (IH-DTL) is developed in a muon linac at the J-PARC E34 experiment. IH-DTL will accelerate muons from 0.34 MeV to 4.5 MeV at a drive frequency of 324 MHz. Since IH-DTL adopts an APF method, with which the beam is focused in the transverse direction using the rf field only, the proper beam matching of the phase-space distribution is required before the injection into the IH-DTL. Thus, an IH-DTL prototype was fabricated to evaluate the performance of the cavity and beam transmission. As a preparation of the high-power test, tuners and coupler are designed and fabricated. In this paper, the development of the tuner and the coupler and the result of the low-power measurement will be presented.

Journal Articles

Negative muonium ion production with a C12A7 electride film

Otani, Masashi*; Fukao, Yoshinori*; Futatsukawa, Kenta*; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; Matoba, Shiro*; Mibe, Tsutomu*; Miyake, Yasuhiro*; Shimomura, Koichiro*; Yamazaki, Takayuki*; Hasegawa, Kazuo; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1350, p.012067_1 - 012067_6, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:53.97

Negative muonium atom ($$mu^+$$e$$^-$$e$$^-$$, Mu$$^-$$) has unique features stimulating potential interesting for several scientific fields. Since its discovery in late 1980's in vacuum, it has been discussed that the production efficiency would be improved using a low-work function material. C12A7 was a well-known insulator as a constituent of alumina cement, but was recently confirmed to exhibit electric conductivity by electron doping. The C12A7 electride has relatively low-work function (2.9 eV). In this paper, the negative muonium production measurement with several materials including a C12A7 electride film will be presented. Measured production rate of the Mu$$^-$$ were 10$$^{-3}$$/s for all the Al, electride, and SUS target. Significant enhancement on electride target was not observed, thus it is presumed that the surface condition should be more carefully treated. There was no material dependence of the Mu$$^-$$ averaged energy: it was 0.2$$pm$$0.1keV.

Journal Articles

Detection of alpha emitters originating from Fukushima Daiichi Power Station using an alpha imaging detector

Morishita, Yuki; Usami, Hiroshi; Torii, Tatsuo

Isotope News, (765), p.10 - 13, 2019/10

This paper reports the development of an alpha particle imaging detector to detect alpha emitters originating from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and the actual measurement of smear papers.

Journal Articles

Organic scintillator-based alpha/beta detector for radiological decontamination

Morishita, Yuki; Di Fulvio, A.*; Clarke, S. D.*; Kearfott, K. J.*; Pozzi, S. A.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 935, p.207 - 213, 2019/08

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:79.25(Instruments & Instrumentation)

We developed a prototype alpha/beta particle detector using a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capable organic scintillator, a silicon photomultiplier, and a waveform digitizer. The charge integration PSD technique was used to separate alpha and beta particles. We compared the PSD figure of merit (FOM) values of two scintillators (EJ-299-33 and stilbene), and found that the stilbene (FOM =1.61) performance was superior to the EJ-299-33 (FOM = 0.56) performance, measured using an $$^{241}$$Am source (5.5 MeV alpha particle emission) and a $$^{90}$$Sr source. Additionally, the stilbene showed good energy resolution (23.6% FWHM for 5.5 MeV alpha particles). In the pulse height spectrum for the $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y source, the lower energy portion ($$^{90}$$Sr) and the higher energy portion ($$^{90}$$Y) could be separated.

Journal Articles

Development of an alpha dust monitor using a GPS scintillator plate

Morishita, Yuki; Kaneko, Junichi*; Higuchi, Mikio*; Izaki, Kenji; Yajima, Tatsuo*; Matsuura, Mitsugu*; Tamura, Ken; Torii, Tatsuo

Radiation Measurements, 122, p.115 - 120, 2019/03

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:65.49(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Prototype of an Inter-digital H-mode Drift-Tube Linac for muon linac

Nakazawa, Yuga*; Iinuma, Hiromi*; Iwata, Yoshiyuki*; Iwashita, Yoshihisa*; Otani, Masashi*; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; Mibe, Tsutomu*; Yamazaki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro*; Kitamura, Ryo*; et al.

Proceedings of 29th International Linear Accelerator Conference (LINAC 2018) (Internet), p.180 - 183, 2019/01

We have developed an Interdigital H-mode (IH) Drift-Tube Linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from beta 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 $$pi$$ and 0.195 $$pi$$ mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

Journal Articles

Detection of alpha particle emitters originating from nuclear fuel inside reactor building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Morishita, Yuki; Torii, Tatsuo; Usami, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki*; Utsugi, Wataru*; Takahira, Shiro*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 9, p.581_1 - 581_14, 2019/01

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:91.15(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Journal Articles

Spectroscopic measurements of L X-rays with a TES microcalorimeter for a non-destructive assay of transuranium elements

Nakamura, Keisuke; Morishita, Yuki; Takasaki, Koji; Maehata, Keisuke*; Sugimoto, Tetsuya*; Kiguchi, Yu*; Iyomoto, Naoko*; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa*

Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 193(3-4), p.314 - 320, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Applied)

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