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Journal Articles

22A beam production of the uniform negative ions in the JT-60 negative ion source

Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Hatayama, Akiyoshi*; Shibata, Takanori*; Yamamoto, Takashi*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 96-97, p.616 - 619, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:73.32(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In JT-60 Super Advanced for the fusion experiment, 22A, 100s negative ions are designed to be extracted from the world largest ion extraction area of 450 mm $$times$$ 1100 mm. One of the key issues for producing such as high current beams is to improve non-uniform production of the negative ions. In order to improve the uniformity of the negative ions, a tent-shaped magnetic filter has newly been developed and tested for JT-60SA negative ion source. The original tent-shaped filter significantly improved the logitudunal uniformity of the extracted H$$^{-}$$ ion beams. The logitudinal uniform areas within a $$pm$$10 deviation of the beam intensity were improved from 45% to 70% of the ion extraction area. However, this improvement degrades a horizontal uniformity. For this, the uniform areas was no more than 55% of the total ion extraction area. In order to improve the horizontal uniformity, the filter strength has been reduced from 660 Gasus$$cdot$$cm to 400 Gasus$$cdot$$cm. This reduction improved the horizontal uniform area from 75% to 90% without degrading the logitudinal uniformity. This resulted in the improvement of the uniform area from 45% of the total ion extraction areas. This improvement of the uniform area leads to the production of a 22A H$$^{-}$$ ion beam from 450 mm $$times$$ 1100 mm with a small amount increase of electron current of 10%. The obtained beam current fulfills the requirement for JT-60SA.

Journal Articles

Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063006_1 - 063006_9, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:29 Percentile:89.03(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Significant progresses in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams have been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, the new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, the each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the cesium coverage in large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high-transmission of negative ions. A long pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW/m$$^{2}$$ (683 keV, 100 A/m$$^{2}$$) which has reached to the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW/m$$^{2}$$.

JAEA Reports

Disassembly of the NBI system on JT-60U for JT-60 SA

Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Hanada, Masaya; Kawai, Mikito*; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi*; Kojima, Atsushi; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2014-042, 73 Pages, 2015/02

JAEA-Technology-2014-042.pdf:15.1MB

According to the project plan of JT-60 Super Advanced that is implemented as an international project between Japan and Europe, the neutral beam (NB) injectors have been disassembled. The disassembly of the NB injectors started in November, 2009 and finished in January, 2012 without any serious problems as scheduled. This reports the disassembly activities of the NB injectors.

Journal Articles

Improvement of uniformity of the negative ion beams by Tent-shaped magnetic field in the JT-60 negative ion source

Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B314_1 - 02B314_4, 2014/02

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:55.08(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source was improved by modifying an external magnetic field to a tent-shaped magnetic field for reduction of the local heat loads in the source. Distributions of the source plasmas (H$$^{+}$$ ions and H$$^{0}$$ atoms) of the parents of H$$^{-}$$ ions converted on the cesium covered plasma grids were measured by Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. Beam intensities of the H$$^{-}$$ ions extracted from the plasma grids were measured by IR camera from the back of the beam target plate. The tent-shaped magnetic field prevented the source plasmas to be localized by B $$times$$ grad B drift of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments in the arc chamber. As a result, standard derivation of the H$$^{-}$$ ions beams was reduced from 14% (the external magnetic field) to 10% (the tent-shaped magnetic field) without reduction of an activity of the H$$^{-}$$ ion production.

Journal Articles

Origin of non-uniformity of the source plasmas in JT-60 negative ion source

Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 8(Sp.1), p.2405146_1 - 2405146_4, 2013/11

Distributions of H$$^{0}$$ and H$$^{+}$$ in the source plasmas produced at the end-plugs of JT-60 negative ions source were measured by Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy in order to experimentally investigate the cause of lower density of the negative ions extracted from end-plugs in the source. Densities of H$$^{0}$$ and H$$^{+}$$ in end-plugs of the plasma grid in the source were compared with those in the center regions. As a result, lower density of the negative ion at the edge was caused by lower beam optics due to lower and higher density of the H$$^{0}$$ and H$$^{+}$$.

Journal Articles

Complementary characterization of radioactivity produced by repetitive laser-driven proton beam using shot-to-shot proton spectral measurement and direct activation measurement

Ogura, Koichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Orimo, Satoshi; Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(4), p.048003_1 - 048003_2, 2012/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:10.01(Physics, Applied)

A proton beam driven by a repetitive high-intensity-laser is utilized to induce a $$^{7}$$Li(p,n)$$^{7}$$Be nuclear reaction. The total activity of $$^{7}$$Be are evaluated by two different methods. The activity obtained measuring the decay $$gamma$$-rays after 1912 shots at 1 Hz is 1.7$$pm$$0.2 Bq. This is in good agreement with 1.6$$pm$$0.3 Bq evaluated from the proton energy distribution measured using a time-of-flight detector and the nuclear reaction cross-sections. We conclude that the production of activity can be monitored in real time using the time-of-flight-detector placed inside a diverging proton beam coupled with a high-speed signal processing system.

Journal Articles

Progress in development and design of the neutral beam injector for JT-60SA

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yutaka; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.835 - 838, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:58.2(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Neutral beam (NB) injectors for JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) have been designed and developed. Twelve positive-ion-based and one negative-ion-based NB injectors are allocated to inject 30 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams in total for 100 s. Each of the positive-ion-based NB injector is designed to inject 1.7 MW for 100s at 85 keV. A part of the power supplies and magnetic shield utilized on JT-60U are upgraded and reused on JT-60SA. To realize the negative-ion-based NB injector for JT-60SA where the injection of 500 keV, 10 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams for 100s is required, R&Ds of the negative ion source have been carried out. High-energy negative ion beams of 490-500 keV have been successfully produced at a beam current of 1-2.8 A through 20% of the total ion extraction area, by improving voltage holding capability of the ion source. This is the first demonstration of a high-current negative ion acceleration of $$>$$1 A to 500 keV. The design of the power supplies and the beamline is also in progress. The procurement of the acceleration power supply starts in 2010.

Journal Articles

Development of the JT-60SA Neutral Beam Injectors

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 1390, p.536 - 544, 2011/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:77.65

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Achievement of 500 keV negative ion beam acceleration on JT-60U negative-ion-based neutral beam injector

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(8), p.083049_1 - 083049_8, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:42 Percentile:88.1(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490 keV, 3 A and 510 keV, 1 A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of 2 m$$^{2}$$ for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m$$^{2}$$). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60SA and ITER.

Journal Articles

Demonstration of 500 keV beam acceleration on JT-60 negative-ion-based neutral beam injector

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.

Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/03

Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490keV, 3A and 510 keV, 1A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of $$sim$$ 2 m$$^{2}$$ for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m$$^{2}$$). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60 SA and ITER.

Journal Articles

Laser-driven proton generation with a thin-foil target

Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Yogo, Akifumi; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Ma, J.*; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.

NIFS-PROC-85, p.30 - 33, 2011/02

The experiment of proton generation is performed for developing the laser-driven ion source. We observe proton signals in the laser-plasma interaction by using a thin-foil target. To get higher energy protons the size of the preformed plasma is reduced by changing the laser contrast level. In the high-contrast laser pulse case the maximum energy of the protons generated at rear side of the target increases.

Journal Articles

Proton generation and terahertz radiation from a thin-foil target with a high-intensity laser

Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Yogo, Akifumi; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Ma, J.*; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.

Reza Kenkyu, 38(9), p.702 - 705, 2010/09

High-intensity laser and thin-foil interactions produce high-energy particles, hard X-ray, high-order harmonics, and terahertz (THz) radiation. A proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser has received attention as a compact ion source for medical applications. In this study we have tested simultaneous generation of protons and THz radiation from a thin-foil target. We use a Ti:sapphire laser system (J-KAREN) at JAEA. A laser beam is focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror at the thin-foil target. We observed the high-energy proton in the rear side of the target and THz radiation in the reflected direction. Next, high energy protons are observed by reducing the size of preformed plasma.

Journal Articles

Development and design of the negative-ion-based NBI for JT-60 Super Advanced

Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Inoue, Takashi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Kojima, Atsushi; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.208 - 213, 2010/08

A large negative ion source with an ion extraction area of 110 cm $$times$$ 45 cm has been developed to produce 500 keV, 22 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beams required for JT-60 Super Advanced. To realize the JT-60SA negative ion source, the JT-60 negative ion source has been modified and tested on the negative-ion-based neutral beam injector on JT-60U. A 500 keV H$$^{-}$$ ion beam has been produced at 3 A without a significant degradation of beam optics. This is the first demonstration of a high energy negative ion acceleration of more than one-ampere to 500 keV in the world. The beam current density of 90 A/m$$^{2}$$ is being increased to meet 130 A/m$$^{2}$$ of the design value for JT-60SA by tuning the operation parameters. A long pulse injection of 30 s has been achieved at a injection D$$^{0}$$ power of 3 MW. The injection energy, defined as the product of the injection time and power, reaches 80 MJ by neutralizing a 340 keV, 27 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beam produced with two negative ion sources.

Journal Articles

Ion acceleration using temporally-controlled high-intensity laser pulses

Yogo, Akifumi; Daido, Hiroyuki; Mori, Michiaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Bulanov, S. V.; Bolton, P. R.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Ogura, Koichi; Sagisaka, Akito; Orimo, Satoshi; et al.

Reza Kenkyu, 37(6), p.449 - 454, 2009/06

The acceleration of protons driven by a high-intensity laser is comprehensively investigated via control of the target density by using ASE just before the time of the main-laser interaction. Two cases were investigated for which the ASE intensity differed by three orders of magnitude: In the low contrast case the beam centre for higher energy protons is shifted closer to the laser-propagation direction of 45$$^{circ}$$, while the center of lower-energy beam remains near the target normal direction. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that the characteristic proton acceleration is due to the quasistatic magnetic field on the target rear side with the magnetic pressure sustaining a charge separation electrostatic field.

Journal Articles

Proton-induced nuclear reactions using compact high-contrast high-intensity laser

Ogura, Koichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Orimo, Satoshi; Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 2(6), p.066001_1 - 066001_3, 2009/05

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:52.43(Physics, Applied)

Protons with energies up to 3.5 MeV have been generated by a 10 Hz compact laser with an intensity of about 10$$^{20}$$ W/cm$$^{2}$$, focused on a 7.5 mm thick polyimide target. These protons were used to induce a nuclear reaction of $$^{11}$$B(p,n)$$^{11}$$C. A total activity of 11.1 Bq was created after 60-shot laser irradiation. The possibility of thin layer activation (TLA) using a high-intensity ultra-short pulsed laser is discussed.

Journal Articles

Focusing and spectral enhancement of a repetition-rated, laser-driven, divergent multi-MeV proton beam using permanent quadrupole magnets

Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Daito, Izuru; Ikegami, Masahiro; Daido, Hiroyuki; Mori, Michiaki; Orimo, Satoshi; Ogura, Koichi; Sagisaka, Akito; Yogo, Akifumi; Pirozhkov, A. S.; et al.

Applied Physics Letters, 94(6), p.061107_1 - 061107_3, 2009/02

 Times Cited Count:54 Percentile:87.76(Physics, Applied)

A pair of conventional permanent magnet quadrupoles is used to focus a 2.4 MeV laser-driven proton beam at a 1 Hz repetition rate. The magnetic field strengths are 55 T/m and 60 T/m for the first and second quadrupoles respectively. The proton beam is focused to a spot size (full width at half maximum) of 2.7$$times$$8 mm$$^{2}$$ at a distance of 650 mm from the source. This result is in good agreement with a Monte Carlo particle trajectory simulation.

Journal Articles

New method to measure the rise time of a fast pulse slicer for laser ion acceleration research

Mori, Michiaki; Yogo, Akifumi; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Ma, J.*; Sagisaka, Akito; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Kondo, Shuji; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4), p.1872 - 1877, 2008/08

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:30.94(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

A dependence of cut-off proton kinetic energy on laser prepulse duration has been observed. ASE pedestal duration is controlled by a fast electro-optic pulse slicer where the risetime is estimated to be 130 ps. We demonstrate a new correlated spectral technique for determining this risetime using a stretched, frequency chirped pulse.

Journal Articles

Simultaneous proton and X-ray imaging with femtosecond intense laser driven plasma source

Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Daido, Hiroyuki; Yogo, Akifumi; Ogura, Koichi; Sagisaka, Akito; Li, Z.*; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1, 46(9A), p.5853 - 5858, 2007/09

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:55.33(Physics, Applied)

A laser-driven proton beam with a maximum energy of a few MeV is stably obtained using an ultra-short and high-intensity Titanium Sapphire laser. At the same time, keV X-ray is also generated at almost the same place where protons are emitted. Here, we show the successful demonstration of simultaneous proton and X-ray projection images of a test sample placed close to the source with a resolution of $$sim$$10$$mu$$m, which is determined from the source sizes. Although the experimental configuration is very simple, the simultaneity is better than a few hundreds of ps. A CR-39 track detector and imaging plate, which are placed as close as possible to the CR-39, are used as detectors of protons and X-ray. The technique is applicable to the precise observation of microstructures.

Journal Articles

Development of laser driven proton sources and their applications

Daido, Hiroyuki; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Mori, Michiaki; Ma, J.-L.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.

Proceedings of 7th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR 2007) (CD-ROM), p.77 - 79, 2007/00

We are developing a proton accelerator using an intense lasers with a focused intensity of $$>$$ 10$$^{17}$$ W/cm$$^{2}$$. To monitor proton energy spectra as well as plasma parameters at each laser shot, we are using real time detectors. The proton energy of MeV is stably obtained for applications.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of heat exchange performance for secondary pressurized water cooler in HTTR

Tochio, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shuji; Saikusa, Akio; Oyama, Sunao; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Shinohara, Masanori; Isozaki, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki

JAEA-Technology 2006-005, 83 Pages, 2006/02

JAEA-Technology-2006-005.pdf:6.09MB

In High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the rated thermal power of 30MW, the generated heat at reactor core is finally dissipated at the air-cooler by way of the heat exchangers of the primary cooling system, such as the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the secondary pressurized water cooler (SPWC). The heat exchangers in the main cooling system are required the heat exchange performance to remove the reactor-generated-heat of 30MW under the condition of reactor coolant outlet temperature of 850 $$^{circ}$$C/ 950 $$^{circ}$$C. Therefore, the heat exchanges are required to satisfy the design criteria of heat exchange performance. In this report, heat exchange performance of the SPWC in the main cooling system was evaluated with the rise-to-power-up test and the in-service operation data. Moreover, evaluated value is compared with designed one, it is confirmed that the SPWC has required heat exchange performance.

54 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)