Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro
JAEA-Technology 2022-018, 43 Pages, 2022/08
In the liquid mercury target system for the pulsed spallation neutron source of Materials and Life science experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), cavitation that is generated by the high-energy proton beam-induced pressure waves, resulting severe erosion damage on the interior surface of the mercury target vessel. The erosion damage is increased with increasing the proton beam power, and has the possibility to cause the leakage of mercury by the penetrated damage and/or the fatigue failure originated from erosion pits during operation. To achieve the long term stable operation under high-power proton beam, the mitigation technologies for cavitation erosion consisting of surface modification on the vessel interior surface, helium gas microbubble injection, double-walled beam window structure has been applied. The damage on interior surface of the vessel is never observed during the beam operation. Therefore, after the target operation term ends, we have cut out specimen from the target nose of the target vessel to inspect damaged surface in detail for verification of the cavitation damage mitigation technologies and lifetime estimation. We have developed the techniques of specimen cutting out by remote handling under high-radiation environment. Cutting method was gradually updated based on experience in actual cutting for the used target vessel. In this report, techniques of specimen cutting out for the beam entrance portion of the target vessel in high-radiation environment and overview of the results of specimen cutting from actual target vessels are described.
Murase, Kiyoka*; Kataoka, Ryuho*; Nishiyama, Takanori*; Nishimura, Koji*; Hashimoto, Taishi*; Tanaka, Yoshimasa*; Kadokura, Akira*; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro*; Tsutsumi, Masaki*; Ogawa, Yasunobu*; et al.
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate (Internet), 12, p.18_1 - 18_16, 2022/06
We identified two energetic electron precipitation (EEP) events during the growth phase of moderate substorms and estimated the mesospheric ionization rate for an EEP event for which the most comprehensive dataset from ground-based and space-born instruments was available. The mesospheric ionization signature reached below 70 km altitude and continued for ~15 min until the substorm onset, as observed by the PANSY radar and imaging riometer at Syowa Station in the Antarctic region. We also used energetic electron flux observed by the Arase and POES 15 satellites as the input for the air-shower simulation code PHITS to quantitatively estimate the mesospheric ionization rate. Combining the cutting-edge observations and simulations, we shed new light on the space weather impact of the EEP events during geomagnetically quiet times, which is important to understand the possible link between the space environment and climate.
Ogawa, Fumio*; Nakayama, Yuta*; Hiyoshi, Noritake*; Hashidate, Ryuta; Wakai, Takashi; Ito, Takamoto*
Transactions of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (Internet), 7(2), p.549 - 564, 2022/06
The strain energy-based life evaluation method of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel under non-proportional multiaxial creep-fatigue loading is proposed. Inelastic strain energy densities were calculated as the areas inside the hysteresis loops. The effect of mean-stress has been experimentally considered and the relationship between inelastic strain energy densities and creep-fatigue lives was investigated. It was found from the investigation of hysteresis loops, the decrease in maximum stress leads to prolonged failure life, while stress relaxation during strain holding causes strength reduction. The correction method of inelastic strain energy density was proposed considering the effect of maximum stress in hysteresis loop and minimum stress during strain holding, and strain energy densities for uniaxial and non-proportional multiaxial loading were obtained. Based on these results, the mechanisms governing creep-fatigue lives under non-proportional multiaxial loading have been discussed.
Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/03
The cross-flow type target was developed as the basic design of mercury target in J-PARC, and the design has been improved to realize the MW-class pulsed spallation neutron source. When the high-power and short-pulsed proton beam is injected into the mercury target, pressure waves are generated in mercury by rapid heat generation. The pressure waves induce the cavitation damages on the target vessel. Two countermeasures were adopted, namely, the injection of microbubbles into mercury and the double walled structure at the beam window. The bubble generator was installed in the target vessel to absorb the volume inflation of mercury and mitigate the pressure waves. Also, the double walled target vessel was designed to suppress the cavitation damage by the large velocity gradient of rapid mercury flow in the narrow channel of double wall. Finally, we could attain 1 MW beam operation with the duration time of 36.5 hours in 2020, and achieved the long term stable operation with 740 kW from April in 2021. This report shows the technical development of the high-power mercury target vessel in view of thermal hydraulics to attain 1 MW operation.
Yamane, Ikumi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Sawayama, Kengo; Nishiwaki, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Ogawa, Jumpei; Nomura, Mitsuo; Arima, Tatsumi*
JAEA-Technology 2021-038, 18 Pages, 2022/02
We have dismantled uranium enrichment facilities in Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center since their operation finished in 2001, and the total amount of metallic wastes is estimated to be about 130 thousand tons. Eighty percent of them can be disposed as nonradioactive waste (NR), but there are some steel parts possibly uranium-contaminated. We need removing painted surface of such steels and radiologically surveying to dispose them as NRs. Though painted surfaces have been conventionally removed through hand working with grinders, this manual work requires installation of green house, protective clothing, and full-face mask, in order to prevent dispersion and inhalation of airborne dusts. We desire further developments of surface cleaning techniques to reduce time, cost, workload, and secondary waste generation caused by excessive grinding. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the laser cleaning technology used for the separation and removal of paint films at construction sites. In order to improve the coating separation and removal technology for NR objects, we evaluated the coating separation and removal performance of NR steel surface by laser cleaning system, observed the coating scattering behavior by high-speed camera and investigated the coating recovery method, evaluated the laser separation and removal performance of steel surface powder, and thermodynamically evaluated the uranium compounds on steel surface. We additionally evaluated the feasibility of laser cleaning techniques in our works basing on these results, and discussed future work plans for further developments of laser cleaning techniques.
Nakayama, Yuta*; Ogawa, Fumio*; Hiyoshi, Noritake*; Hashidate, Ryuta; Wakai, Takashi; Ito, Takamoto*
ISIJ International, 61(8), p.2299 - 2304, 2021/08
This study discusses the creep-fatigue strength for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel at a high temperature under multiaxial loading. A low-cycle fatigue tests in various strain waveforms were performed with a hollow cylindrical specimen. The low cycle fatigue test was conducted under a proportional loading with a fixed axial strain and a non-proportional loading with a 90-degree phase difference between axial and shear strains. The low cycle fatigue tests at different strain rates and the creep-fatigue tests at different holding times were also conducted to discuss the effects of stress relaxation and strain holding on the failure life. In this study, two types of multiaxial creep-fatigue life evaluation methods were proposed: the first method is to calculate the strain range using Manson's universal slope method with considering a non-proportional loading factor and creep damage; the second method is to calculate the fatigue damage by considering the non-proportional loading factor using the linear damage law and to calculate the creep damage from the improved ductility exhaustion law. The accuracy of the evaluation methods is much better than that of the methods used in the evaluation of actual machines such as time fraction rule.
Hirota, Takatoshi*; Nagoshi, Yasuto*; Hojo, Kiminobu*; Okada, Hiroshi*; Takahashi, Akiyuki*; Katsuyama, Jinya; Ueda, Takashi*; Ogawa, Takuya*; Yashirodai, Kenji*; Ohata, Mitsuru*; et al.
Proceedings of ASME 2021 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2021) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/07
Hashimoto, Makoto; Kinase, Sakae; Munakata, Masahiro; Murayama, Takashi; Takahashi, Masa; Takada, Chie; Okamoto, Akiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sukegawa, Masato; Kume, Nobuhide*; et al.
JAEA-Review 2020-071, 53 Pages, 2021/03
In the case of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and the Armed Attack Situation Response Law, undertakes technical supports to the national government and local governments. The JAEA is requested to support to evaluate radiation doses to residents in a nuclear emergency, which is specified in the Basic Disaster Management Plan and the Nuclear Emergency Response Manual. For the dose evaluation, however, its strategy, target, method, structure and so on have not been determined either specifically or in detail. This report describes the results of investigation and consideration discussed in the "Working Group for Radiation Dose Evaluation at a Nuclear Emergency" established within the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center to discuss technical supports for radiation dose evaluation to residents in the case of a nuclear emergency, and aims at contributing to specific and detailed discussion and activities in the future for the national government and local governments, also within the JAEA.
Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi
Materials Science Forum, 1024, p.111 - 120, 2021/03
The mercury target vessel for the at the J-PARC neutron source is severely damaged by the cavitation caused by proton beam-induced pressure waves in mercury. To mitigate the cavitation damage, we adopted a double-walled structure with a narrow channel for the mercury at the beam window of the vessel. In addition, gas microbubbles were injected into the mercury to suppress the pressure waves. The front end of the vessel was cut out to inspect the effect of the damage mitigation technologies on the interior surface. The results showed that the double-walled target facing the mercury with gas microbubbles operating at 1812 MWh for an average power of 434 kW had equivalent damage to the single-walled target without microbubbles operating 1048 MWh for average power of 181 kW. The erosion depth due to cavitation in the narrow channel was clearly smaller than it was on the wall facing the bubbling mercury
Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Hanano, Kohei*; Haga, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Tsubasa*; Kanomata, Kenichi*
Materials Science Forum, 1024, p.145 - 150, 2021/03
To realize a high beam power operation at the J-PARC, a mercury target vessel covered with water shroud was developed. In the first step, to realize an operation at 500 kW, the basic structure of the initial design was followed and the connection method between the mercury vessel and the water shroud was changed. Additionally, the operation at a beam power of 500 kW was realized in approximately eight months. In the second step, to realize the operation at 1 MW, the new structure in which only rear ends of vessels were connected was investigated. Cooling of the mercury vessel is used to reduce thermal stress and thick vessels of the water shroud are used to increase stiffness for the internal pressure; therefore, it was adopted. The stress in each vessel was lower than the allowable stress based on the pressure vessel code criteria prescribed in the Japan Industrial Standard, and confirmation was obtained that the operation with a beam power of 1 MW could be conducted.
Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 982, p.164566_1 - 164566_6, 2020/12
A liquid mercury target for the spallation neutron source is installed in the J-PARC. The liquid mercury is enclosed with the multi-walled stainless steel vessel. At the time of highly intense proton beams hits the target at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, pressure waves, that causes cavitation erosion, are generated owing the rapidly thermal expansion of mercury. We have installed the target diagnostic system consisting of a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and a dynamic microphone to remotely investigate the structural integrity of the target under high-radiation environment. In this study, aiming to understand correlation between the acoustic vibration and the operation conditions such as the proton beam power and beam profile, proton beam induced acoustic vibration was measured by parametrically changing the target operation conditions. The result showed that the sound is well correlated with the operation conditions.
Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.487 - 494, 2020/05
Neutron flux per pulse reached world record at neutron source in the J-PARC. In the J-PARC, mercury target system is used as a spallation neutron source. A target vessel has the multi-walled protection system that comprises a mercury vessel enclosed with a double-walled water shroud. This is to prevent the leakage of the mercury outside the mercury vessel. The multi-walled structure needed to be complicated with a lot of welding lines. However, during the operation, we faced an unscheduled shutdown due to water leakage to the intermediate layer between the mercury vessel and water shroud. An investigation on the cause of the leakage was carried out. It is deduced that the leakage path was formed due to the crack propagation from welding defects that is caused by the complicated multi-walled structure. The crack propagation is attributed to the repeated stress by pressure waves generated in the mercury target. Based on the investigation results, the design was improved to remove the welding line on the complicated structure and to realize the stable operation with 1 MW proton beam.
Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081004_1 - 081004_6, 2020/02
The beam window of the mercury target vessel in J-PARC is severely damaged by the cavitation. The cavitation damage is a crucial factor to limit lifetime of the target because it increases with the beam power. Therefore, mitigating cavitation damage is an important issue to operate the target stably for long time at 1 MW. At J-PARC, to mitigate the cavitation damage: gas microbubbles are injected into mercury for suppressing pressure waves, and double-walled structure with a narrow channel of 2 mm in width to form high-speed mercury flow (4m/s) has been adopted. After operation, the beam window was cut to inspect the effect of the cavitation damage mitigation on inner wall. We optimized cutting conditions through the cold cutting tests, succeeding in cutting the target No.2 (without damage mitigation technologies) smoothly in 2017, and target No.8 with damage mitigation technologies. In the workshop, progress of cavitation damage observation for the target vessel will be presented.
Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Hanano, Kohei; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Shimada, Tsubasa*; Kanomata, Kenichi*
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081002_1 - 081002_6, 2020/02
A mercury target vessel of J-PRAC is designed with a triple-walled structure consisting of the mercury vessel and a double-walled water shroud with internal and external vessels. During the beam operation at 500 kW in 2015, small water leakages from a water shroud of the mercury target vessel occurred twice. Design, fabrication and inspection processes were improved based on the lessons learned from the target failures. The total length of welding lines at the front of the mercury target vessel decreases drastically to approximately 55% by adopting monolithic structure cut out from a block of stainless steel by the wire-electrical discharge machining. Thorough testing of welds by radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing was conducted. The fabrication of the mercury target vessel #8 was finished on September 2017 and the beam operation using it started. Stable beam operation at 500 kW has been achieved and it could experience the maximum beam power of 1 MW during a beam test.
Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Nobuatsu*; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 4, p.17 - 21, 2019/08
We have introduced the following two techniques to mitigate the pressure wave-induced cavitation damage in the mercury target. One is the gas microbubble injection into the flowing mercury, and the other is the double-walled structure with a narrow gap channel at the proton beam entrance portion of the mercury vessel. The latter is expected to mitigate the cavitation damage due to the high-speed liquid flow ( 4 m/s) and the narrow gap boundary (2 mm). To quantitatively investigate the effect of double-walled structure on cavitation damage, cavitation damage tests were conducted by parametrically changing mercury flow velocity and gap width of the channel wall. The results showed that the damage evaluated as a surface roughness was reduced by increasing the flow velocity. By contrast, the effect of gap width on cavitation damage was hardly observed under flowing conditions.
Wakui, Takashi; Ishii, Hideaki*; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakai, Eiichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Materials Transactions, 60(6), p.1026 - 1033, 2019/06
The mercury target has large size as 22.214.171.124 m. In view of reducing the amount of wastes, we studied the structure so that the fore part could be separated. The flange is required to have high seal performance less than 110 Pa m/s. Invar with low thermal expansion is a candidate. Due to its low stiffness, however, the flange may deform when it is fastened by bolts. Practically invar is reinforced with stainless steel where all interface between them has to be bonded completely with the HIP bonding. In this study, we made specimens at four temperatures and conducted tensile tests. The specimen bonded at 973 K had little diffusion layer, and so fractured at the interface. The tensile strength reduced with increasing the temperature, and the reduced amount was about 10% at 1473 K. The analyzed residual stresses near the interface increased by 50% at maximum. Then, we concluded that the optimum temperature was 1173 K.
Kanayama, Hideyuki*; Hiyoshi, Noritake*; Ogawa, Fumio*; Kawabata, Mie*; Ito, Takamoto*; Wakai, Takashi
Zairyo, 68(5), p.421 - 428, 2019/05
This study presents creep damage assessment method for Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel by sampling creep testing with thin plate specimen. Tensile creep rupture tests were performed using three different sizes of specimen under two different test environments to verify the creep testing with the thin plate specimen. Time to rupture of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel using three different sizes were almost same. In addition, there was no effect of environment on time to rupture. Pre-damaged thin plate specimens were machined from a bulk specimen's gage section that pre-damage test was performed with. Pre-damage based on life fraction rule were 8%, 16% and 25%. No effect of the process of machining pre-damaged specimen on time to rupture was confirmed by verification tests in same test condition as pre-damage test. Stress acceleration creep rupture tests were performed to estimate creep damage assessment. Creep damage assessment by stress acceleration creep rupture tests was sufficiently accurate estimate. Creep damage assessments by Vickers hardness and lath width were compared with the assessment by stress acceleration creep rupture tests to study applicability of these methods.
Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu
Materials, 12(4), p.681_1 - 681_15, 2019/02
Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Shintaku, Yohei*; Li, T.*; Kanomata, Kenichi*
Choompa Techno, 30(5), p.16 - 20, 2018/10
A mercury target vessel has been used for the spallation neutron source at J-PARC. It has a complicated multi-layered structure composed of a mercury target and a surrounding double-walled water shroud, which is assembled with thin plates (minimum thickness of 3 mm) by welding. Thus, welding inspection during the manufacturing process is important. We investigated the applicability of new ultrasonic inspections using specimens (thickness of 3 mm) with defects to improve the accuracy of welding inspection for the mercury target vessel. Immersion ultrasonic testing using a probe (frequency of 50 MHz) could detect a spherical defect with a diameter of 0.2 mm. The size was smaller than target value of 0.4 mm. The length of unwelded region estimated using the phased array ultrasonic testing corresponded with the actual length (0.8 - 1.5 mm).
Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi
Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 3, p.123 - 128, 2018/08
A mercury target vessel, composed of SUS316L, is used for the pulsed neutron source and is assembled via TIG welding. While in operation, the target vessel suffers ca. 10 loading cycles with a high strain rate of ca. 50 s because of the proton-beam-induced pressure waves in mercury. The gigacycle fatigue strength for solution annealed SUS316L stainless steels and its welded specimens were investigated through ultrasonic fatigue tests. The experimental results showed that an obvious fatigue limit was not observed at fewer than 10 cycles for the base metal. In the case of no weld defects observed via penetration tests, the fatigue strength of the removed-weld-bead specimen, in which the weld lines were arranged at the center of the specimen, appeared to be slightly higher than that of the base metal. By contrast, as-welded specimens with the weld bead intact showed apparent degradation of the fatigue strength owing to the stress concentration around the weld toe.