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JAEA Reports

Studies on the reconstruction of the concept of rock mass around the tunnel; Japanese fiscal year, 2014 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Murakami, Hiroaki; Sasao, Eiji

JAEA-Research 2015-017, 54 Pages, 2015/12

JAEA-Research-2015-017.pdf:17.3MB

This report is concerned with research to reconstruct more realistic near-field (NF) concept for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This year is the final year of this committee activities. So we have carried out the summary on Re-thinking of NF concept and its technical basis. Cooperation between the study fields and combination of various science and technology and evaluation methods are one of the important technical bases of NF concept. In addition, since the "Great East Japan Earthquake 2011", the safety paradigm has shifted dramatically. In the reconstruction of realistic NF concept, it is necessary to analyze what security matters whether society has become unacceptable for geological disposal. Committee, we also exchange views on such matters and presented the direction of future research and development for geological disposal.

JAEA Reports

Studies on the reconstruction of the concept of rock mass around the tunnel; Japanese fiscal year, 2013 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Ogata, Nobuhisa

JAEA-Research 2014-011, 43 Pages, 2014/09

JAEA-Research-2014-011.pdf:56.68MB

This report is concerned with research to reconstruct more realistic near-field (NF) concept for the geological disposal. In previous year, we examined the realistic concept for near-field, including rock mass around the tunnel, particularly based on the nuclide migration scenario. The time-series change of the field was divided into five stages of 0 to IV through the process of geological disposal (Excavation, Operation and Post-closure). Then at each respective stage, post-closure stage in particular; we examined interaction between environmental factors and exhaustive extraction of those factors affecting the near-field, focusing on each scale-time cross-section. In the reconstruction of realistic near-field concept, it is necessary to analyze security matters are unacceptable by society, regarding geological disposal. We also exchanged views on those matters and presented the future direction of research and development for geological disposal.

JAEA Reports

Studies on the reconstruction of the concept of rock mass around the tunnel; Fiscal year, 2012 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Ogata, Nobuhisa

JAEA-Research 2013-015, 21 Pages, 2013/11

JAEA-Research-2013-015.pdf:10.41MB

This report is concerned with research to reconstruct more realistic near-field concept for the geological disposal. In chapter, we examined the realistic concept for near field, including rock around the tunnel, based on the nuclide migration scenario in particular. The time-series change of the field was divided into five stages of 0$$sim$$IV through the process of geological disposal (Excavation, Operation and Post-closure). Then, for each stage respectively, we examined interaction between environmental factors and extraction of those factors changing the "field". The Goal of this year is to set up the state in the realistic "field" exhaustively, by focusing on the scale-time cross-section of each stage, especially post-closure stage, and to present the assignment of the next fiscal year.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for HLW disposal in Japan, 4; Planning and results of in-situ grouting test

Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Uyama, Masao*; Ishida, Tomoko*; Nakanishi, Tatsuro; Onishi, Yuzo*

Proceedings of 7th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-7) (USB Flash Drive), p.702 - 711, 2012/10

This paper describes the planning, material selection, execution and interpretation of the grout injection test carried out at the end of 2011 at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as part of grouting technology project of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Based on the findings of the rockmass characterization part of the GTS grouting study (Nakanishi et al, 2012, Bruines et al., 2012), it was decided to perform the grout injection test in a 5 m interval with the highest expected hydraulic conductivity. During the grouting test the viscosity of the grout was continuously measured. Both the injected volume and pressure in the injection section were recorded. In the observation sections the pressure over time as well as the electric conductivity, which can be used to measure the arrival of the higher salinity silica grout, was recorded. As the grout reached the observation sections before the grout hardened the grout injection test was a success. The gathered data of the grouting test presents an important data set for further modeling efforts of the grouting process.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for HLW disposal in Japan, 3; Development of a hydrogeological model using discrete fracture network

Bruines, P.*; Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Hashimoto, Shuji*; Kuzuha, Yuji; Onishi, Yuzo*

Proceedings of 7th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-7) (USB Flash Drive), p.692 - 701, 2012/10

This paper describes the characterization of the rock mass and how data obtained has been used to make a discrete fracture network (DFN) model and to calculate an up-scaled equivalent continuous porous media model for the purpose of numerical simulation of the grout injection process. DFN models have been constructed using mainly the BTV and hydraulic test data from the boreholes drilled in this project. The generated DFN model and the up-scaled model was able to reproduce the measured fracture characteristics as well as the hydraulic behavior observed in the field and has proven to be suitable for modeling grouting behavior. DFN model has been gradually refined step by step with the site characterization stages: the preparative stage in 2009, pre-investigation stage in 2010 and grouting test stage in 2011. Each version of the DFN model shows the understanding of the geological environment and identifies issues to be resolved in the next stage. The DFN models proved to be an essential tool for the site characterization program planning process, such as identifying the best layout of subsequent boreholes and placement of test intervals.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for HLW disposal in Japan, 5; Development and application of numerical model for grout injection process during in-situ grouting test

Koyama, Tomofumi*; Katayama, Tatsuo*; Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Kuzuha, Yuji; Onishi, Yuzo*

Proceedings of 7th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-7) (USB Flash Drive), p.712 - 720, 2012/10

Grouting is commonly used to decrease the hydraulic conductivity of the fractured rock masses and control the groundwater inflow. Since underground facilities were constructed in various geological conditions, different types of grout material and mixing/injection methods were developed for effective and economical grout injection. It is also important to evaluate the grout arrival distance and the range of altered hydraulic conductivity field after grout injection. However, the mechanism of grout injection process has not been clarified sufficiently yet due to complicated chemical and physical processes of grout. In this study, to simulate the grout injection process, the three-dimensional numerical model based on equivalent continuum approach was developed and applied to the in-situ grout injection tests at Grimsel test site, Switzerland. In the simulations, the injection pressure and/or injection rate was given as a boundary condition and total amount of injected grout (silica sol) was calculated. The simulation results were also compared with the ones obtained from in-situ measurements/monitoring and show qualitatively good agreement.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for HLW disposal in Japan, 2; In-situ grouting test program and site investigation results at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland

Nakanishi, Tatsuro; Tsuda, Hidenori; Abumi, Kensho*; Uyama, Masao*; Onishi, Yuzo*

Proceedings of 7th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-7) (USB Flash Drive), p.682 - 691, 2012/10

JAEA has been developing grouting materials and technologies with the consideration of long term chemical interaction between the grout material and the rock mass as a natural barrier. This paper describes the in-situ grout injection test program carried out in the fractured granite of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland, which has been set up to increase knowledge and understanding of the design of grouting in order to reduce the grout penetration area into the rock mass and of the results of the site investigation. The grout injection test project at the GTS has been carried out in several stages. The site investigation results of all six boreholes were then used to determine the best location for the final grout injection test. The staged approach proved to be a good way not only to determine the best location for the grout injection test, but also to focus on the best approach in the next stages by identifying and mitigating possible problems before they occurred.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for HLW disposal in Japan, 1; Overall program and key engineering technologies

Fujita, Tomo; Kawaguchi, Masanao; Walker, C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Onishi, Yuzo*

Proceedings of 7th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-7) (USB Flash Drive), p.675 - 681, 2012/10

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency started new grout project for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in 2007. This study presented the overall JAEA grout project program and an example of how to apply key engineering technologies to the construction and operation of an underground facility for the geological disposal of HLW.

Journal Articles

The JAEA grouting test at the Grimsel test site; Numerical simulation of the grout injection process of silica sol in fractured rock mass

Koyama, Tomofumi*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Bruines, P.*; Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Hasui, Akinori*; Katayama, Tatsuo*; Kishi, Hirokazu; Kuzuha, Yuji

Proceedings of 2012 ISRM International Symposium; Rock Engineering and Technology for Sustainable Underground Construction (EUROCK 2012) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2012/05

Grouting, which involves injection of grout material, is commonly used to decrease the hydraulic conductivity of the fractured rock masses and control the groundwater inflow. However, the mechanism of grout injection process has not been clarified sufficiently yet due to complicated chemical and physical processes of grout. In this study, to simulate the grout injection process, the three-dimensional numerical model based on equivalent continuum approach was developed.

Journal Articles

The JAEA grouting test at the Grimsel test site; Site characterization of a fractured rockmass and preparation of DFN model and its equivalent continuous porous media model

Bruines, P.*; Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Koyama, Tomofumi*; Kishi, Hirokazu; Nakanishi, Tatsuro; Onishi, Yuzo*

Proceedings of 2012 ISRM International Symposium; Rock Engineering and Technology for Sustainable Underground Construction (EUROCK 2012) (USB Flash Drive), 15 Pages, 2012/05

To better understand the grouting process and the effect of grouting on the performance of a nuclear waste repository, the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has initiated a grouting test carried out in the fractured granite of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) located in the Swiss Alps. This paper describes the characterization of the rock mass, how the data obtained has been used to make a discrete fracture network (DFN) model and how an up-scaled equivalent continuous porous media (ECPM) model for the purpose of numerical simulation of the grout injection process is generated. The generated DFN model and the up-scaled ECPM model was able to reproduce the measured fracture characteristics (e.g. orientation, density) as well as the hydraulic behavior observed in the field (e.g. transmissivity distribution, anisotropy, heterogeneity) and has proven to be suitable for modeling grouting behavior.

JAEA Reports

Interdisciplinary approach to improve and systematize the investigation and evaluation techniques on geological environment in relation to radioactive waste repository; Japanese fiscal year, 2010 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Watanabe, Kunio*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Shimada, Jun*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Ogata, Nobuhisa; et al.

JAEA-Research 2011-033, 126 Pages, 2012/02

JAEA-Research-2011-033.pdf:31.33MB

The next advancements for the research of radioactive waste repository was started to improve and systematize the investigation and evaluation techniques on geological environment in consideration of intra-field of science and technology. Intra-field means the various fields among each study area of (a) geological environment, (b) design and engineering, (c) safety evaluation for radioactive waste repository, here. The following items were studied and discussed this year. (1) To Reconstruct Near Field (NF) Concept in consideration of coupled phenomena on geological environment. (2) To develop systematic investigation techniques on the geological environment in consideration of intra-field among each study area above mentioned (a), (b) and (c). Regarding (1), examination of NF concept focused on the realistic crystalline rock was carried out. Also through the overall discussion in the committee, comments from the all commissioners in relation to the intra-field of their study area were made to reflect on reconstruction of NF concept. Regarding (2), the research and development in consideration of NF and intra-field among each study area were conducted.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan, 1; Preliminary study for in-situ grout injection test in crystalline rock mass test site

Nakanishi, Tatsuro; Fujita, Tomo; Tsuda, Hidenori; Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Uyama, Masao*; Onishi, Yuzo*

Dai-41-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.71 - 76, 2012/01

Grouting technology is fundamental to the safe and efficient construction of underground facilities for the geological disposal of high level waste in Japan. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing grouting materials and technologies with consideration to the long term chemical interactions between the grout material and the natural barrier rock mass. An in-situ grout injection test has been carried out at the Grimsel Test Site to optimize grouting design.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan, 3; Numerical simulation for grout injection using equivalent continuum model

Koyama, Tomofumi*; Katayama, Tatsuo*; Hasui, Akinori*; Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Kishi, Hirokazu; Onishi, Yuzo*

Dai-41-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.83 - 88, 2012/01

In this study, to simulate the grout injection process, the 3-D numerical model based on equivalent continuum approach was developed. The viscosity measurements for silica sol was performed to measure the time-dependent viscosity. The developed numerical model was applied to the planned in-situ grout injection tests at Grimsel test site (GTS), Switzerland. The rock type is fractured granite and the equivalent porous media was created from the DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) based on the frature data obtained from the observation boreholes. The preliminary simulation was carried out to determine the suitable grout injection pressure and investigate the arrival distance of grout from injection boreholes.

Journal Articles

Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan, 2; Hydrogeological descriptive modeling by discrete fracture network in crystalline rock mass test site

Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Bruines, P.*; Abumi, Kensho*; Hashimoto, Shuji*; Kuzuha, Yuji; Onishi, Yuzo*

Dai-41-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.77 - 82, 2012/01

This study aims to establish grouting techniques and evaluation of the effects of grouting in the geological environment of crystalline rock. A hydrogeological model has been generated using discrete fracture networks based on the data obtained by the short-borehole investigation campaign performed at at Grimsel test site in Switzerland to support the design of planned in-situ grouting test. The equivalent porous media with the consideration of hydraulic heterogeneity has been created from the DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) in order to be provided for the simulation of the grout injection process. Uncertainties and remaining issues associated with the assumption in interpreting the data and its modeling were addressed in a systematic way.

JAEA Reports

Study on systemizing of technology for investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment; Japanese fiscal year, 2009 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Watanabe, Kunio*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Shimada, Jun*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Ogata, Nobuhisa; et al.

JAEA-Research 2010-049, 282 Pages, 2011/02

JAEA-Research-2010-049.pdf:29.88MB

This report summarizes studies that have been carried out with the aim of assessing and systemizing the technology used for the investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste. The main studies were: (1) a study on the research and development (R&D) topics proven to have practical application for the investigation, and analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment, and, (2) a study on leading edge technology that can provide the advanced technical basis for the investigation, analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment. Regarding the R&D topics (1, above), specific investigations, measurements, numerical analyses and chemical analyses were performed and reviewed with respect to the topics, (a) Repository design, engineering technology (b) Geological environment and (c) Safety evaluation. Based on the result of the review, topics requiring collaboration research in overlapping research fields, including safety assessment, were identified. Also, the near field concept (NFC) was reconsidered in terms of its realistic construction model. Regarding advanced technology (2, above), based on the objectives of the JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented considering previous R&D results and detailed research result at the research site and thus an assessment of the need for advanced technical basis for investigation and analysis. This study contributed to the R&D development and its practical application.

JAEA Reports

Study on systemizing of technology for investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment; Japanese fiscal year 2008 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Watanabe, Kunio*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Shimada, Jun*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Ogata, Nobuhisa; et al.

JAEA-Research 2009-055, 145 Pages, 2010/02

JAEA-Research-2009-055.pdf:55.53MB

This report summarizes studies that were carried out with the aim of assessing and systemizing the technology used for the investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste. The main studies were: (1) a study on the research and development (R&D) topics proven to have practical application for the investigation, analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment, and, (2) a study on leading edge technology that can provide the advanced technical basis for the investigation, analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment. The principal results obtained from the studies are as follows: Regarding the R&D topics (1, above), the specific investigations, measurements, numerical and chemical analyses were reviewed with respect to engineering technology and the geological environment in this year. Based on the results of the review, topics requiring collaboration research in overlapping research fields, including safety assessment, were identified. Also, the near field concept (NFC) was reconsidered in terms of both the generic model and for crystalline rock. Regarding advanced technology (2, above), based on the objectives of the JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented considering previous R&D results and detailed research result at the research site and thus an assessment of the need for advanced technical basis for investigation and analysis. This study contributed to the R&D development and its practical application.

Journal Articles

Study on permeability characteristics of rock discontinuities under shear deformation using lattice-gas automaton method

Nishiyama, Satoshi*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Sawada, Atsushi; Yano, Takao*

Doboku Gakkai Rombunshu, C, 65(4), p.776 - 788, 2009/10

This paper describes the simulation method to explain the mechanism of the permeability characteristics of specimens with single discontinuties under shear through shear-flow coupling tests, showing that on the shear stress-displacement curve obtained by the constant normal load testing, the water flowing through the discontinuties have different transmissibility-aperture width relation before or after the yield range. As a technique to serve this purpose, the lattice gas method, which is to substitute the fluid with particles and repeat letting them collide. With this technique, the factors of surface structure of discontinuties that determine the shear/permeability characteristics are identified.

JAEA Reports

Study on systemizing technology on investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment; Japanese fiscal year, 2007 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Watanabe, Kunio*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Shimada, Jun*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Ogata, Nobuhisa; et al.

JAEA-Research 2008-099, 171 Pages, 2009/03

JAEA-Research-2008-099-1.pdf:28.65MB
JAEA-Research-2008-099-2.pdf:49.14MB

In this year, the following studies were carried out with the aim of systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand the deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R&D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. The results obtained from the studies are as follows: Regarding (1), the specific investigations, measurements, numerical and chemical analyses were performed particularly for research subjects: (a) the repository design and engineering technology and (b) geological environment. Based on the results on (1), (c) tasks of collaboration research on niche area between the research fields, including the safety assessment field, were selected. Also subject's items of the NFC (Near Field Concept) redefinition were discussed. Regarding (2), based on the extraction tasks of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented with applying previous R&D results and detailed research at the research field was carried out. This study contributed to the R&D development for its practical application.

Journal Articles

Hydraulic modelling of unsaturated zones around three openings at the argillaceous Tournemire site (France)

Uehara, Shinichi*; Kobayashi, Akira*; Chijimatsu, Masakazu*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Fujita, Tomo; Rejeb, A.*

Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Coupled T-H-M-C Processes in Geo-systems; Fundamentals, Modeling, Experiments and Applications (GeoProc 2008), p.419 - 425, 2008/06

JAEA Reports

Study on systemizing technology on the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment; Japanese fiscal year, 2006 (Contract research)

Kojima, Keiji*; Onishi, Yuzo*; Watanabe, Kunio*; Nishigaki, Makoto*; Tosaka, Hiroyuki*; Shimada, Jun*; Aoki, Kenji*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Yoshida, Hidekazu*; Ogata, Nobuhisa; et al.

JAEA-Research 2008-042, 236 Pages, 2008/04

JAEA-Research-2008-042.pdf:23.43MB

The following study was done with the aim of systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to grasp deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R&D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis of the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. It continued in the former year and got the following results. Concerning (1), the concrete investigation, measurements, numerical analyses and chemical analyses were enforced about the following item and extracted some subjects with the viewpoint of radioactive waste disposal. Concerning (2), the evaluation of the results and a way to the practical use were discussed on the R&D activities of the following item. The R&D activities of the study group concerning (2) are related to the fundamental and elemental technology. It was discussed if these results could be taken into the practical investigation programs which characterize the geological environment and engineering technology in the Tono Geoscience Center. The Study group also discussed and gave the comment on the 2nd phase (the shaft construction phase of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program in the JAEA.

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