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Hasegawa, Yuta; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Naoyuki

EPJ Web of Conferences, 302, p.03005_1 - 03005_9, 2024/10

We implemented the ensemble data assimilation (DA) method, the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF), into the mesh-refined lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for turbulent flows. Both the LETKF and the mesh-refined LBM were fully implemented on GPUs, so that they are efficiently computed on modern GPU-based supercomputers. We examined the DA accuracy against the flow around a cylinder. The result showed that our method enabled accurate DA with spatially- and temporarily-sparse observation data; the error of the assimilated velocity field with the observation interval of and the observation resolution (1.56% of the total computational grids) was smaller than the amplitude of the observation noise, where is the period of the Krmn vortex and is diameter of the square cylinder.

Sitompul, Y.; Sugihara, Kenta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro

EPJ Web of Conferences, 302, p.05004_1 - 05004_10, 2024/10

In fast reactor designs, it is of critical importance to avoid gas entrainment phenomena due to free-surface vortices. Numerical analysis is one of the key methods to understand these phenomena. However, the challenges in computational efficiency and accuracy of the previous numerical methods lead to exploring the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) as an alternative, known for its computational efficiency and capability in simulating complex flows. In this study, we implement free-surface LBM to accelerate gas entrainment analysis, significantly reducing computational costs while maintaining accuracy compared to traditional methods. Simulation results using LBM align well with experimental data, offering a promising avenue for faster analysis in future fast reactor designs.

Watanabe, Tsutomu*; Ishikawa, Shuhei*; Kawashima, Masayuki*; Shimoyama, Ko*; Onodera, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Yuta; Inagaki, Atsushi*

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 250, p.105783_1 - 105783_17, 2024/07

Times Cited Count：1 Percentile：0.00(Engineering, Civil)This paper presents simulations of drifting snow using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled with a large-eddy simulation code. The model accurately replicates observed features such as mass transport rate dependency on flow velocity and variations in particle size distribution. It also shows that the saltation layer height increases monotonically with flow velocity, contrary to conventional estimates. Additionally, the study confirms the transition from saltation to suspension near the estimated saltation layer height and finds that dense snow streamers are linked to small-scale low-speed streaks in near-surface flows.

Onodera, Naoyuki; Sugihara, Kenta; Ina, Takuya; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 29, 3 Pages, 2024/06

Gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis is one of the most important research topics in nuclear engineering because it is essential for safety evaluation and reactor design. However, it requires large-scale multi-scale simulations, and advanced numerical approaches are needed. To meet this challenge, we have continued to develop the Poisson solver for the multiphase flow analysis code JUPITER. In this study, we aim to improve the convergence of the pressure Poisson solver by formulating the Navier-Stokes equation without using the incompressible approximation. The convergence performance was measured on 8 GPUs for bubbly flow analysis in a circular tube. The results show that the computation time and the number of iterations are reduced by half compared to those using the incompressible approximation, which indicates the usefulness of the formulation in the present study.

Hasegawa, Yuta; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Naoyuki

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 29, 4 Pages, 2024/06

We implemented the ensemble data assimilation (DA) of turbulence by using the mesh-refined lattice Boltzmann method with the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LBM-LETKF). We examined the accuracy of the data assimilation against a turbulent flow around a three-dimensional square cylinder. The DA error was comparable or less than the observation noise when the observation interval was a half of the period of the Krmn vortex street and the number of observation points was 0.195% of computational grid points. The LBM-LETKF enables DA of turbulence with spatially- and temporally- sparse observations.

Hasegawa, Yuta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Asahi, Yuichi; Ina, Takuya; Imamura, Toshiyuki*; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Fluid Dynamics Research, 55(6), p.065501_1 - 065501_25, 2023/11

Times Cited Count：1 Percentile：0.00(Mechanics)We investigate the applicability of the data assimilation (DA) to large eddy simulations (LESs) based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We carry out the observing system simulation experiment of a two-dimensional (2D) forced isotropic turbulence, and examine the DA accuracy of the nudging and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with spatially sparse and noisy observation data of flow fields. The advantage of the LETKF is that it does not require computing spatial interpolation and/or an inverse problem between the macroscopic variables (the density and the pressure) and the velocity distribution function of the LBM, while the nudging introduces additional models for them. The numerical experiments with grids and 10% observation noise in the velocity showed that the root mean square error of the velocity in the LETKF with observation points ( of the total grids) and 64 ensemble members becomes smaller than the observation noise, while the nudging requires an order of magnitude larger number of observation points to achieve the same accuracy. Another advantage of the LETKF is that it well keeps the amplitude of the energy spectrum, while only the phase error becomes larger with more sparse observation. From these results, it was shown that the LETKF enables robust and accurate DA for the 2D LBM with sparse and noisy observation data.

Sugihara, Kenta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Susumu

JAEA-Research 2023-006, 47 Pages, 2023/10

This report presents a new surface capturing method based on the phase field model for gas-liquid two-phase flows simulation. In the conventional phase field model, the interface correction strength parameter was determined from the maximum flow velocity in the computational domain, but because the interface correction was applied uniformly to the entire space, it was also applied to locations that did not require correction. In the new method, the phase field parameter or the intensity of the phase field model is extended to have a spatial distribution, allowing us to set the optimal parameters depending on the local flow velocity fields. We also propose a method to derive the optimal phase field parameter based on systematic parameter scans using error analysis of the interface advection test and bubble rising calculations. Through benchmark tests of gas-liquid two-phase flows, the proposed model is verified, and it is shown that the proposed model has higher accuracy than the conventional phase field model.

Hasegawa, Yuta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Asahi, Yuichi; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 28, 5 Pages, 2023/05

We implemented and investigated the data assimilation (DA) of two-dimensional isotropic turbulence using the lattice Boltzmann method and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LBM-LETKF). We carried out the numerical experiment with 256 grids, 256 or less observation points, 10% root mean square (RMS) observation noise in the velocity observation, and 4, 16, or 64 ensemble members. The numerical experiment showed that the accuracy of the LETKF was better than the nudging DA with both dense and sparse observation. The lack of observation points caused the numerical instability in the LETKF, but such a numerical instability can be suppressed by increasing the number of ensemble members. In the sparse observation case (88 observation points) with 64 ensemble members, the root means squared error (RMSE) of the velocity in the LBM-LETKF was smaller than the RMS of the observation noise, while the nudging DA required 3232 observation points to obtain the same accuracy. Overall, the LETKF with sufficiently large number of ensemble members was highly accurate and robust, thus, the LETKF was a good choice for the DA of turbulent flows using the LBM.

Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuta; Asahi, Yuichi; Inagaki, Atsushi*; Shimose, Kenichi*; Hirano, Kohin*

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 28, 4 Pages, 2023/05

We have developed a multi-scale wind simulation code named CityLBM that can resolve entire cities to detailed streets. CityLBM enables a real time ensemble simulation for several km square area by applying the locally mesh-refined lattice Boltzmann method on GPU supercomputers. On the other hand, real-world wind simulations contain complex boundary conditions that cannot be modeled, so data assimilation techniques are needed to reflect observed data in the simulation. This study proposes an optimization method for ground surface temperature bias based on an ensemble Kalman filter to reproduce wind conditions within urban city blocks. As a verification of CityLBM, an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is conducted for the central Tokyo area to estimate boundary conditions from observed near-surface temperature values.

Asahi, Yuichi; Onodera, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Yuta; Shimokawabe, Takashi*; Shiba, Hayato*; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 186(3), p.659 - 692, 2023/03

Times Cited Count：2 Percentile：47.50(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)We develop a Transformer-based deep learning model to predict the plume concentrations in the urban area under uniform flow conditions. Our model has two distinct input layers: Transformer layers for sequential data and convolutional layers in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image-like data. Our model can predict the plume concentration from realistically available data such as the time series monitoring data at a few observation stations and the building shapes and the source location. It is shown that the model can give reasonably accurate prediction with orders of magnitude faster than CFD simulations. It is also shown that the exactly same model can be applied to predict the source location, which also gives reasonable prediction accuracy.

Nakayama, Hiromasa; Onodera, Naoyuki; Satoh, Daiki

Isotope News, (785), p.20 - 23, 2023/02

We developed the local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment system (LHADDAS) for safety and consequence assessment of nuclear facilities and emergency response to nuclear accidents or deliberate releases of radioactive materials in built-up urban areas. This system comprises three parts, namely, preprocessing of input files, main calculation by a local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation (LOHDIM-LES) or a real-time urban dispersion simulation model based on a lattice Boltzmann method (CityLBM), and postprocessing of dose calculation by a simulation code powered by lattice dose-response functions (SIBYL). LHADDAS has a broad utility and performs excellently in (1) simulating turbulent flows, plume dispersion, and dry deposition under realistic meteorological conditions; (2) simulating real-time tracer dispersion using a locally mesh-refined lattice Boltzmann method; and (3) estimating the air dose rates of radionuclides from air concentrations and surface deposition in consideration of the influence of individual buildings and structures. This system is promising for use in safety assessment of nuclear facilities (as an alternative to wind tunnel experiments), detailed pre/post-analyses of local-scale radioactive plume dispersion in case of nuclear accidents, and quick response to emergency situations resulting from deliberate release of radioactive materials by terrorist attacks in central urban district areas.

Ina, Takuya; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Toshiyuki*; Onodera, Naoyuki

Proceedings of International Conference on High Performance Computing in Asia-Pacific Region (HPC Asia 2023) (Internet), p.29 - 34, 2023/02

Mixed precision Krylov solvers with the Jacobi preconditioner often show significant convergence degradation when the Jacobi preconditioner is computed in low precision such as FP16 and BF16. It is found that this convergence degradation is attributed to loss of diagonal dominance due to roundoff errors in data conversion. To resolve this issue, we propose a new data conversion method, which is designed to keep diagonal dominance of the original matrix data. The proposed method is tested by computing the Poisson equation using the conjugate gradient method, the general minimum residual method, and the biconjugate gradient stabilized method with the FP16/BF16 Jacobi preconditioner on NVIDIA V100 GPUs. Here, the new data conversion is implemented by switching the round-nearest, round-up, round-down, and round-towards-zero intrinsics in CUDA, and is called once before the main iteration. Therefore, the cost of the new data conversion is negligible. When the coefficients of matrix is continuously changed by scaling the linear system, the conventional data conversion based on the round-nearest intrinsic shows periodic changes of the convergence property depending on the difference of the roundoff errors between diagonal and off-diagonal coefficients. Here, the period and magnitude of the convergence degradation depend on the bit length of significand. On the other hand, the proposed data conversion method is shown to fully avoid the convergence degradation, and robust mixed precision computing is enabled for the Jacobi preconditioner without extra overheads.

Sugihara, Kenta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Susumu

Dai-36-Kai Suchi Ryutai Rikigaku Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 5 Pages, 2022/12

The conventional Allen-Cahn type multi-phase field method was modified to conserve not only the sum of the masses of all phases but also the mass of each phase. The interface advection calculations within a two-dimensional rotational velocity field were performed as a verification problem, and the conservation was successfully achieved. The proposed method was used to calculate the horizontally aligned pair of bubbles rising, and it was found that the bouncing phenomenon between bubbles can be calculated at 1/50 resolution of the high-resolution calculation by Zhang et al. using the volume of fluid method.

Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuta; Nakayama, Hiromasa

Dai-36-Kai Suchi Ryutai Rikigaku Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2022/12

We have developed a wind simulation code named CityLBM to realize wind digital twins. Mesoscale wind conditions are given as boundary conditions in CityLBM by using a nudging data assimilation method. It is found that conventional approaches with constant nudging coefficients fail to reproduce turbulent intensity in long time simulations, where atmospheric stability conditions change significantly. We propose a dynamic parameter optimization method for the nudging coefficient based on an ensemble Kalman filter. CityLBM was validated against plume dispersion experiments in the complex urban environment of Oklahoma City. The nudging coefficient was updated to reduce the error of the turbulent intensity between the simulation and the observation. The mean error of velocity variance is reduced by 10% compared to the conventional nudging method with a constant nudging coefficient.

Hasegawa, Yuta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Asahi, Yuichi; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Dai-36-Kai Suchi Ryutai Rikigaku Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 5 Pages, 2022/12

This study implemented and tested the ensemble data assimilation (DA) of turbulent flows using the lattice Boltzmann method and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LBM-LETKF). The computational code was implemented fully on GPUs. The test was carried out for the 3D turbulent flow around a square cylinder with meshes and 32 ensemble members using 32 GPUs. The time interval of the DA in the test was a half of the period of the Kalman vortex shedding. The normalized mean absolute errors (NMAE) of the lift coefficient were 132%, 148%, and 13.2% for the non-DA case, the nudging case (a simpler DA algorithm), and the LETKF case, respectively. It was found that the LETKF achieved good DA accuracy even though the observation was not frequent enough for the small scale turbulence, while the nudging showed systematic delays in its solution, and could not keep the DA accurately.

Nakayama, Hiromasa; Onodera, Naoyuki; Satoh, Daiki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Hasegawa, Yuta; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(10), p.1314 - 1329, 2022/10

Times Cited Count：5 Percentile：72.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)We developed a local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment system (LHADDAS) for safety and consequence assessment of nuclear facilities and emergency response to nuclear accidents or deliberate releases of radioactive materials in built-up urban areas. This system is composed of pre-processing of input files, main calculation by local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation (LOHDIM-LES) and real-time urban dispersion simulation model based on a lattice Boltzmann method (CityLBM), and post-processing of dose-calculation by simulation code powered by lattice dose-response functions (SIBYL). LHADDAS has a broad utility and offers superior performance in (1) simulating turbulent flows, plume dispersion, and dry deposition under realistic meteorological conditions, (2) performing real-time tracer dispersion simulations using a locally mesh-refined lattice Boltzmann method, and (3) estimating air dose rates of radionuclides from air concentrations and surface deposition in consideration of the influence of individual buildings and structures. This system is promising for safety assessment of nuclear facilities as an alternative to wind tunnel experiments, detailed pre/post-analyses of a local-scale radioactive plume dispersion in case of nuclear accidents, and quick response to emergency situations resulting from deliberate release of radioactive materials by a terrorist attack in an urban central district area.

Asahi, Yuichi; Onodera, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Yuta; Shimokawabe, Takashi*; Shiba, Hayato*; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 27, 5 Pages, 2022/06

We have ported the GPU accelerated Lattice Boltzmann Method code "CityLBM" to AMD MI100 GPU. We present the performance of CityLBM achieved on NVIDIA P100, V100, A100 GPUs and AMDMI100 GPU. Using the host to host MPI communications, the performance on MI100 GPU is around 20% better than on V100 GPU. It has turned out that most of the kernels are successfully accelerated except for interpolation kernels for Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) method.

Sugihara, Kenta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Susumu

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 27, 5 Pages, 2022/06

The phase-field method has been successfully applied to various multi-phase flow problems as an interface tracking method for gas-liquid interfaces. However, the accuracy of the phase-field method depends on hyper-parameters, which are empirically adjusted for each problem. The phase-field method sustains sharp interfaces by the balance between the numerical viscosity of the advection term and the interface modification by the diffusion and anti-diffusion terms. Based on this fact, we propose a method for deriving the optimal hyper-parameters in a non-empirical manner by performing a basic error analysis of the interface advection.

Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuta; Shimokawabe, Takashi*; Aoki, Takayuki*

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 27, 4 Pages, 2022/06

We have developed a wind simulation code named CityLBM to realize wind digital twins. Mesoscale wind conditions are given as boundary conditions in CityLBM by using a nudging data assimilation method. It is found that conventional approaches with constant nudging coefficients fail to reproduce turbulent intensity in long time simulations, where atmospheric stability conditions change significantly. We propose a dynamic parameter optimization method for the nudging coefficient based on a particle filter. CityLBM was validated against plume dispersion experiments in the complex urban environment of Oklahoma City. The nudging coefficient was updated to reduce the error of the turbulent intensity between the simulation and the observation, and the atmospheric boundary layer was reproduced throughout the day.

Hasegawa, Yuta; Onodera, Naoyuki; Asahi, Yuichi; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 27, 4 Pages, 2022/06

We developed GPU implementation of ensemble data assimilation (DA) using the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The performance test was carried out upto 32 ensembles of two-dimensional isotropic turbulence simulations using the D2Q9 LBM. The computational cost of the LETKF was less than or nearly equal to that of the LBM upto eight ensembles, while the former exceeded the latter at larger ensembles. At 32 ensembles, their computational costs per cycle were respectively 28.3 msec and 5.39 msec. These results suggested that further speedup of the LETKF is needed for practical 3D LBM simulations.