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JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute (FY2020)

Asakura, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yusuke; Donomae, Yasushi; Abe, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Takamatsu, Misao; Sakamoto, Naoki; Isozaki, Ryosuke; Onishi, Takashi; et al.

JAEA-Review 2021-020, 42 Pages, 2021/10


The disposal of radioactive waste from the research facility need to calculate from the radioactivity concentration that based on variously nuclear fuels and materials. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency Oarai Research and Development Institute, the study on considering disposal is being advanced among the facilities which generate radioactive waste as well as the facilities which process radioactive waste. This report summarizes a study result in FY2020 about the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute.

Journal Articles

Development of modeling methodology for hydrogeological heterogeneity of the deep fractured granite in Japan

Onoe, Hironori; Ishibashi, Masayuki*; Ozaki, Yusuke; Iwatsuki, Teruki

International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 144, p.104737_1 - 104737_14, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03(Engineering, Geological)

In this study, we investigated the methodology of modeling for fractured granite around the drift at a depth of 500 m in the Mizunami Underground Laboratory, Japan as a case study. As a result, we developed the fracture modeling method to estimate not only geological parameters of fractures but also hydraulic parameters based on the reproducibility of trace length distribution of fractures. By applying this modeling method, it was possible to construct a Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model that can accurately reproduce the statistical characteristics of fractures.

Journal Articles

High temperature gas-cooled reactors

Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02

As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950$$^{circ}$$C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal Articles

Quasifree neutron knockout reaction reveals a small $$s$$-Orbital component in the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B

Yang, Z. H.*; Kubota, Yuki*; Corsi, A.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sun, X.-X.*; Li, J. G.*; Kimura, Masaaki*; Michel, N.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Yuan, C. X.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(8), p.082501_1 - 082501_8, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:98.7(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A quasifree ($$p$$,$$pn$$) experiment was performed to study the structure of the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B, which had long been considered to have a neutron halo. By analyzing the momentum distributions and exclusive cross sections, we obtained the spectroscopic factors for $$1s_{1/2}$$ and $$0d_{5/2}$$ orbitals, and a surprisingly small percentage of 9(2)% was determined for $$1s_{1/2}$$. Our finding of such a small $$1s_{1/2}$$ component and the halo features reported in prior experiments can be explained by the deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum, revealing a definite but not dominant neutron halo in $$^{17}$$B. The present work gives the smallest $$s$$- or $$p$$-orbital component among known nuclei exhibiting halo features and implies that the dominant occupation of $$s$$ or $$p$$ orbitals is not a prerequisite for the occurrence of a neutron halo.

Journal Articles

Permeability measurement for macro-fractured Horonobe mudstone

Kamata, Kento*; Nara, Yoshitaka*; Matsui, Hiroya; Ozaki, Yusuke

Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.205 - 209, 2021/01

When considering the projects such as radioactive waste disposal, it is important to evaluate the confinement performance of underground substances in rock mass. However, the change in permeability of macro-fractured mudstone has not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, in this study, we investigated its effect on permeability by introducing a macro-fracture into a cylindrical specimen of mudstone distributed in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido. First, the hydraulic conductivity was measured by subjecting a specimen with a macro-fracture introduced by a brazilian test to a falling head permeability test. After that, it was compared with the hydraulic conductivity of the intact specimen measured by the transient pulse method. As a result, it was confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity was increased by about one order due to the introduction of macro-fracture. The increase rate of hydraulic conductivity obtained from the results of this research was smaller than that of previous researches using granite and basalt.

Journal Articles

Poroelastic hydraulic-response of fractured mudstone to excavation in the Horonobe URL; As an indicator of fracture hydraulic-disconnectivity

Ozaki, Yusuke; Ishii, Eiichi; Sugawara, Kentaro*

Extended abstract of International Conference on Coupled Processes in Fractured Geological Media; Observation, Modeling, and Application (CouFrac 2020) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/11

We perform the numerical simulation of the response of hydraulic head observed in HDB-6 during the excavation of the Horonobe URL to verify the existence of low effective permeable domain in the subsurface. The low permeable domain as an intact rock due to the low hydraulic fracture connectivity is estimated to exist in the deep domain while the permeability of the shallow domain is relatively high due to the hydraulic fracture connectivity there. Our simulation shows that the observed hydraulic head is affected by the Mandel-Cryer effect due to the hydrogeological structure and the effect for the duration of over years requires the low permeability as an intact rock in the deep domain. These results verify the existence of the low effective permeable domain in the deep subsurface estimated by the previous study.

Journal Articles

Electronic structure of a (3$$times$$3)-ordered silicon layer on Al(111)

Sato, Yusuke*; Fukaya, Yuki; Cameau, M.*; Kundu, A. K.*; Shiga, Daisuke*; Yukawa, Ryu*; Horiba, Koji*; Chen, C.-H.*; Huang, A.*; Jeng, H.-T.*; et al.

Physical Review Materials (Internet), 4(6), p.064005_1 - 064005_6, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:51.8(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Study on the applicability of the fiber-optic crack detection sensor as a safety technology (FY2015-FY2018) (Joint research)

Kono, Masaru*; Hayama, Kazunori*; Matsui, Hiroya; Ozaki, Yusuke

JAEA-Technology 2019-011, 35 Pages, 2019/07


To verify long-term safety performance of the sensor for decades, we decided the extension of the collaborative research and the evaluation test of long-term durability of fiber-optic crack detection sensor developed by Tokyo Measuring Instruments Laboratory Co., Ltd. at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory were continued from FY 2015 to FY 2018. As a result, the measurement system using of the fiber-optic crack detection sensor is applicable for long-term measurement in deep underground area and find the future subject.

JAEA Reports

DECOVALEX-2019 Task C; GREET Intermediate report

Iwatsuki, Teruki; Onoe, Hironori; Ishibashi, Masayuki; Ozaki, Yusuke; Wang, Y.*; Hadgu, T.*; Jove-Colon C. F.*; Kalinina, E.*; Hokr, M.*; Balv$'i$n, A.*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2018-018, 140 Pages, 2019/03


DECOVALEX-2019 Task C aims to develop modelling and prediction methods using numerical simulation based on the water-filling experiment to examine the post drift-closure environment recovery processes. In this intermediate report, the results of Step 1 (Modelling and prediction of environmental disturbance by CTD excavation) are summarized from each of the research teams (JAEA, Sandia National Laboratories, Technical University of Liberec). Groundwater inflow rates to the tunnel during the excavation, hydraulic drawdown, and variation of chlorine concentration at monitoring boreholes in the vicinity of the tunnel were chosen as comparison metrics for Step1 by mutual agreement amongst the research teams. It is likely to be possible to foresee the scales of inflow rate and hydraulic drawdown based on a data from the pilot borehole by current simulation techniques.

Journal Articles

Transient ionization of the mesosphere during auroral breakup; Arase satellite and ground-based conjugate observations at Syowa Station

Kataoka, Ryuho*; Nishiyama, Takanori*; Tanaka, Yoshimasa*; Kadokura, Akira*; Uchida, Herbert Akihito*; Ebihara, Yusuke*; Ejiri, Mitsumu*; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro*; Tsutsumi, Masaki*; Sato, Kaoru*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 71, p.9_1 - 9_10, 2019/01

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:60.67(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

Transient ionization of the mesosphere was detected at around 65 km altitude during the isolated auroral expansion occurred at 2221-2226 UT on June 30, 2017. A general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS suggested that significant ionization is possible in the middle atmosphere due to auroral X-rays from the auroral electrons of $$<$$10 keV.

Journal Articles

Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (HMC) simulation of Groundwater REcoverry Experiment in Tunnel (GREET)

Ozaki, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Masayuki; Onoe, Hironori; Iwatsuki, Teruki

Proceedings of 10th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium & The ISRM International Symposium for 2018 (ARMS 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 11 Pages, 2018/11

Understanding of a post-closure geological environment around a large underground facility is important for the safety assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has performed the GREET (Groundwater REcovery Experiment in Tunnel) at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) to evaluate the environmental recovery process after closure. For understanding of coupled behavior of subsurface environment after closure of drift, we perform a Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical coupled simulation of GREET. This study presents the simulation results of excavation stage of test drift for closure test. Our simulation results show that the inflow rate into test drift after excavation is relatively predictable variavle comparing to the hydraulic pressure or chlorite concentration observed in borehole.

Journal Articles

Transition of near surface resistivity of tunnel wall during drift closure test

Ozaki, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Masayuki; Matsushita, Tomoaki*; Masumoto, Kazuhiko*; Imasato, Takehiko*

Proceedings of 13th SEGJ International Symposium (USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2018/11

In the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Groundwater REcoverty Experiment in Tunnel (GREET) is performed to understanding the recovery process of geological environment after the closure of drift. In this experiment, we performed 2D electrical resistivity surveys three times. First survey was performed before the closure of test drift. Second and third surveys were performed after the closure test. The first survey detected two layers conformation that consists of conductive and resistive zones at shallower and deeper part from the drift surface, respectively. These layers correspond to the shotcrete and host rock, respectively. Second and third measurements show that the conductive zone expanded to deeper resistive part while the shallower conductive part did not change. We concluded that we captured the saturation process of dried fractures near the drift wall by closure of drift as an electrical resistivity response.

JAEA Reports

Study on modeling and analysis of groundwater flow with inverse analysis, 2 (Joint research)

Onoe, Hironori; Yamamoto, Shinya*; Kohashi, Akio; Ozaki, Yusuke; Sakurai, Hideyuki*; Masumoto, Kiyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2018-003, 84 Pages, 2018/06


In this study, numerical experiments considered hydrogeological structures, which has high heterogeneity around the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory and inverse analysis using in-situ data were carried out. The results showed that concentration of hydrogeological structure to be estimated and location of monitoring point is important for application of inverse analysis. Furthermore, it is concluded that inverse analysis using hydraulic response due to pumping test is effective for hydrogeological characterization.

Journal Articles

Investigations of fluid flow in fractured crystalline rocks at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

Hadgu, T.*; Kalinina, E.*; Wang, Y.*; Ozaki, Yusuke; Iwatsuki, Teruki

Proceedings of 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference (DFNE 2018) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2018/06

Experimental hydrology data from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Central Japan have been used to develop a site-scale fracture model and a flow model for the study area. The discrete fracture network model was upscaled to a continuum model to be used in flow simulations. A flow model was developed centered on the research tunnel, and using a highly refined regular mesh. In this study development and utilization of the model is presented. The modeling analysis used permeability and porosity fields from the discrete fracture network model as well as a homogenous model using fixed values of permeability and porosity. The simulations were designed to reproduce hydrology of the modeling area and to predict inflow of water into the research tunnel during excavation. Modeling results were compared with the project hydrology data. Successful matching of the experimental data was obtained for simulations based on the discrete fracture network model.

Journal Articles

Development and validation of a fracture model for the granite rocks at Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Kalinina, E. A.*; Hadgu, T.*; Wang, Y.*; Ozaki, Yusuke; Iwatsuki, Teruki

Proceedings of 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference (DFNE 2018) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/06

The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory is located in the Tono area (Central Japan). Its main purpose is providing a scientific basis for the research and development of technologies needed for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured crystalline rocks. The current work is focused on the experiments in the research tunnel (500 m depth). The collected tunnel and borehole data were shared with the participants of DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments (DECOVALEX) project. This study describes how these data were used to (1) develop the fracture model of the granite rocks around the research tunnel and (2) validate the model.

Journal Articles

NIRS3; The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

Iwata, Takahiro*; Kitazato, Kohei*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Arai, Takehiko*; Arai, Tomoko*; Hirata, Naru*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Honda, Chikatoshi*; Imae, Naoya*; et al.

Space Science Reviews, 208(1-4), p.317 - 337, 2017/07

 Times Cited Count:33 Percentile:72.27(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 micrometer. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 micrometer-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K, which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 micrometer wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

Journal Articles

A 3 MeV linac for development of accelerator components at J-PARC

Kondo, Yasuhiro; Asano, Hiroyuki*; Chishiro, Etsuji; Hirano, Koichiro; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Ito, Takashi; Kawane, Yusuke; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Meigo, Shinichiro; Miura, Akihiko; et al.

Proceedings of 28th International Linear Accelerator Conference (LINAC 2016) (Internet), p.298 - 300, 2017/05

We have constructed a linac for development of various accelerator components at J-PARC. The ion source is same as the J-PARC linac's, and the RFQ is a used one in the J-PARC linac. The beam energy is 3 MeV and nominal beam current is 30 mA. The accelerator has been already commissioned, and the first development program, laser-charge-exchange experiment for the transmutation experimental facility, has been started. In this paper, present status of this 3-MeV linac is presented.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of rock mass deformation around the closure test drift during groundwater recovery experiment at 500m depth of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

Kuwabara, Kazumichi*; Aoyagi, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Yusuke; Matsui, Hiroya

JAEA-Research 2017-002, 39 Pages, 2017/03


Authors developed a displacement meter using optical fiber sensor. The displacement meter can be set at any locations in a borehole and guarantee the measurement accuracy up to 5MPa. Total twelve displacement meters were installed in three boreholes to measure the rock mass displacement during groundwater recovery test. The measurement of the rock mass displacement was stated on March, 27, FY 2014. During the first and second groundwater recovery experiments, compressive displacements were observed close to the closure test drift wall. Magnitude of the measured displacements, except vicinity of test drift wall, was smaller than that of calculated under the assumption of it is an isotropic elastic material.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock; FY2015 (Contract research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Ozaki, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2016-018, 23 Pages, 2016/12


It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior. On the other hand, it was revealed that the chemical reaction of groundwater in a rock had an influence on the long-term behavior. An evaluation of the microcracks to have an influence on this mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena should be worked on chiefly. In fiscal year 2015, using a laser Doppler vibrometer that extends a frequency band up to 20 MHz, and measuring the surface wave transmitted through the granite specimens were estimated group velocity. As a result, group velocity until 100 kHz $$sim$$ 500 kHz, revealed that tends to decrease while vibrating. The group speed estimate from a group delay was shown to be easier than the estimate by wave number - frequency spectrum. This is because in order to improve reliability, the estimated frequency band is by using a spatially averaged waveform. As a result obtained, in the case of the modeling by the viscoelastic theory of the granite and a microcrack nondestructiveness evaluation, it is thought that it is useful information in the future. In order to use the knowledge of this study, there is a need to clarify the correspondence between the microscopic properties of the medium such as a crack and crystal grain and the change of the group velocity.

Journal Articles

Development of beam scrapers using a 3-Mev linac at J-PARC

Hirano, Koichiro; Asano, Hiroyuki; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Ito, Takashi; Okoshi, Kiyonori; Oguri, Hidetomo; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Kawane, Yusuke; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Sato, Yoshikatsu; et al.

Proceedings of 13th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.310 - 313, 2016/11

We have used a beam scraper with the incident angle of 65deg to reduce the beam power deposition density in the MEBT between a 324 MHz RFQ and a 50-MeV DTL of the J-PARC linac. The 65$$^{circ}$$ scraper was irradiated by the H$$^{-}$$ beam up to particle number of 1.47E22. We observed a lot of surface projections with several hundred micrometers high in the beam irradiation damage on the scraper by using the laser microscope. In order to study the limits of scrapers, we constructed a new 3 MeV linac at J-PARC. We will conduct the scraper irradiation test at the end of this year.

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