平田 早紀子*; 日下 良二; 明地 省吾*; 為国 誠太*; 奥寺 洸介*; 浜田 昇賢*; 坂本 知優*; 本田 匠*; 松下 高輔*; 村松 悟*; et al.
Inorganic Chemistry, 62(1), p.474 - 486, 2023/01
A new technique, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy, was used for the structural investigation of lanthanide (Ln) and actinide (An) complexes containing organic ligands. We synthesized thiol derivatives of organic ligands with coordination sites similar to those of diglycolamide (DGA), Cyanex-272, and -tetrakis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (TPEN), which have been used for separating Ln and An through solvent extraction. These ligands were attached on a gold surface deposited on an Si prism through S-Au covalent bonds; the gold surface enhanced the IR absorption intensity of the ligands. Aqueous solutions of Ln (Eu, Gd, Tb) and An (Am) ions were loaded onto the gold surface to form ion complexes. The IR spectra of the ion complexes were obtained using FT-IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode. In this study, we developed a new sample preparation method for SEIRA spectroscopy that enabled us to obtain the IR spectra of the complexes with a small amount of ion solution (5 L). This is a significant advantage for the IR measurement of radiotoxic Am complexes. In the IR spectra of DGA, the band attributed to C=O stretching vibrations at 1630 cm shifted to a lower wavenumber by 20 cm upon complexation with Ln and An ions. Moreover, the amount of the red-shift was inversely proportional to the extraction equilibrium constant reported in previous studies on solvent extraction. The coordination ability of DGA toward Ln and An ions could be assessed using the band position of the C=O band. The Cyanex-272- and TPEN-like ligands synthesized in this report also showed noticeable SEIRA signals for Ln and An complexes. This study indicates that SEIRA spectroscopy can be used for the structural investigation of ion complexes and provides a microscopic understanding of selective extraction of Ln and An.
前川 禎通; 吉川 貴史*; 中堂 博之; 家田 淳一; 齊藤 英治
Journal of Applied Physics, 133(2), p.020902_1 - 020902_24, 2023/01
Along with the progress of spin science and spintronics research, the flow of electron spins, i.e., spin current, has attracted interest. New phenomena and electronic states were explained in succession using the concept of spin current. Moreover, as many of the conventionally known spintronics phenomena became well organized based on spin current, it has rapidly been recognized as an essential concept in a wide range of condensed matter physics. In this article, we focus on recent developments in the physics of spin, spin current, and their related phenomena, where the conversion between spin angular momentum and different forms of angular momentum plays an essential role. Starting with an introduction to spin current, we first discuss the recent progress in spintronic phenomena driven by spin-exchange coupling: spin pumping, topological Hall torque, and emergent inductor. We, then, extend our discussion to the interaction/interconversion of spins with heat, lattice vibrations, and charge current and address recent progress and perspectives on the spin Seebeck and Peltier effects. Next, we review the interaction between mechanical motion and electron/nuclear spins and argue the difference between the Barnett field and rotational Doppler effect. We show that the Barnett effect reveals the angular momentum compensation temperature, at which the net angular momentum is quenched in ferrimagnets.
Lee, O.*; 山本 慧; 埋田 真樹; Zollitsch, C. W.*; Elyasi, M.*; 吉川 貴史*; 齊藤 英治; Bauer, G. E. W.*; 紅林 秀和*
Physical Review Letters, 130(4), p.046703_1 - 046703_6, 2023/01
We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that nonlinear spin-wave interactions suppress the hybrid magnon-photon quasiparticle or "magnon polariton" in microwave spectra of an yttrium iron garnet film detected by an on-chip split-ring resonator. We observe a strong coupling between the Kittel and microwave cavity modes in terms of an avoided crossing as a function of magnetic fields at low microwave input powers, but a complete closing of the gap at high powers. The experimental results are well explained by a theoretical model including the three-magnon decay of the Kittel magnon into spin waves. The gap closure originates from the saturation of the ferromagnetic resonance above the Suhl instability threshold by a coherent back reaction from the spin waves.
家田 淳一; 岡安 悟; 針井 一哉*; 小畠 雅明; 吉井 賢資; 福田 竜生; 石田 真彦*; 齊藤 英治
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 58(8), p.1301106_1 - 1301106_6, 2022/08
石井 弓美子*; 三浦 輝*; Jo, J.*; 辻 英樹*; 斎藤 梨絵; 小荒井 一真; 萩原 大樹; 漆舘 理之*; 錦織 達啓*; 和田 敏裕*; et al.
PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(5), p.e0268629_1 - e0268629_17, 2022/05
本研究では、福島県太田川で採集した解虫性トビケラ(Stenopsyche marmorata)および肉食性ヘビトンボ(Protohermes grandis)幼虫の水生昆虫個体におけるCs放射能濃度のばらつきを調査した。トビケラ幼虫は散発的に高い放射能を示したが、ヘビトンボ幼虫ではばらつきは見られなかった。オートラジオグラフィーと走査型電子顕微鏡による分析から、これらのトビケラ幼虫試料には、不溶性のCs含有ケイ酸塩ガラス粒子である放射性Cs含有微粒子(CsMPs)が含まれていることが確認された。また、CsMPsはトビケラ幼虫の餌となりうるペリフィトンや漂流粒子状有機物にも含まれており、幼虫はCsMPsを同サイズの餌粒子とともに摂取している可能性が示唆された。淡水生態系におけるCsMPsの分布や生物による取り込みは比較的知られていないが、本研究はCsMPsが水生昆虫に取り込まれることを実証している。
横井 直人*; 齊藤 英治
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 545, p.168673_1 - 168673_12, 2022/03
We propose a dual gravitational theory corresponding to isotropic ferromagnetic systems based on the holographic duality, and establish the holographic dictionary between physical quantities in ferromagnets and the gravitational theory. Utilizing the holographic dictionary, the holographic calculation in the dual gravitational theory is shown to reproduce thermodynamics of ferromagnets including ferromagnetic phase transitions and low-temperature behaviors originating from magnons and conduction electrons. We further derive the equation for magnetization dynamics in ferromagnets from the equations for scalar fields and non-abelian gauge fields on charged black holes in the dual gravitational theory. From these results, the holographic duality is expected to give a new guiding principle to explore new phenomena in spintronics and magnonics based on the gravitational perspective.
Schreiber, F.*; Meer, H.*; Schmitt, C.*; Ramos, R.*; 齊藤 英治; Baldrati, L.*; Klui, M.*
Physical Review Applied (Internet), 16(6), p.064023_1 - 064023_9, 2021/12
We analyze the complex impact of the local magnetic spin texture on the transverse Hall-type voltage in device structures utilized to measure magnetoresistance effects. We find a highly localized and asymmetric magnetic sensitivity in the eight-terminal geometries that are frequently used in current-induced switching experiments, for instance, to probe antiferromagnetic materials. Using current-induced switching of antiferromagnetic NiO/Pt as an example, we estimate the change in the spin Hall magnetoresistance signal associated with switching events based on the domain-switching patterns observed via direct imaging. This estimate correlates with the actual electrical data after subtraction of a nonmagnetic contribution. Here, the consistency of the correlation across three measurement geometries with fundamentally different switching patterns strongly indicates a magnetic origin of the measured and analyzed electrical signals.
大柳 洸一*; Gomez-Perez, J. M.*; Zhang, X.-P.*; 吉川 貴史*; Chen, Y.*; Sagasta, E.*; Chuvilin, A.*; Hueso, L. E.*; Golovach, V. N.*; Sebastian Bergeret, F.*; et al.
Physical Review B, 104(13), p.134428_1 - 134428_14, 2021/10
We report the observation of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in a paramagnetic insulator. By measuring the transverse resistance in a Pt/GdGaO (GGG) system at low temperatures, paramagnetic SMR is found to appear with an intensity that increases with the magnetic field aligning GGG's spins. The observed effect is well supported by a microscopic SMR theory, which provides the parameters governing the spin transport at the interface. Our findings clarify the mechanism of spin exchange at a Pt/GGG interface, and demonstrate tunable spin-transfer torque through the field-induced magnetization of GGG. In this regard, paramagnetic insulators offer a key property for future spintronic devices.
Qi, J.*; Hou, D.*; Chen, Y.*; 齊藤 英治; Jin, X.*
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 534, p.167980_1 - 167980_6, 2021/09
Temperature dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) has been investigated herein Pt/CrO/YFeO structure. Well below the Nel temperature of CrO, the SMR is not observed at the noise level of 1.2 ppm. In vicinity of the Nel temperature, only a positive SMR tracks the YIG magnetic switching process, supporting that the SMR of normal metal/antiferromagnetic insulator/ferromagnetic insulator trilayer is controlled by the Nel vector of the antiferromagnetic insulator. A high field magnetoresistance is observed up to an external magnetic field of 20000 Oe which has a field angle dependence symmetry consistent with the SMR. We attribute this high field magnetoresistance to be induced by the Hanle magnetoresistance in Pt.
西村 隼杜*; 北條 智彦*; 味戸 沙耶*; 柴山 由樹*; 小山 元道*; 齋藤 寛之*; 城 鮎美*; 安田 良*; 菖蒲 敬久; 秋山 英二*
鉄と鋼, 107(9), p.760 - 768, 2021/09
中堂 博之; 今井 正樹; 松尾 衛; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 90(8), p.081003_1 - 081003_11, 2021/08
We demonstrate observation of the angular momentum compensation temperature , at which the net angular momentum is quenched in ferrimagnets. Using the Barnett effect, in which an object is magnetized by mechanical rotation owing to spin-rotation coupling, we measure in the HoDyFeO system. We determine to be 240 K in HoFeO (HoIG). We find that increases with Dy content and show that of HoDyFeO corresponds with room temperature. We also demonstrate that Fe-NMR measurements can be applied to explore domain wall dynamics in HoIG. We find that the NMR intensity exhibits a maximum at in the multi-domain state. We provide a simple model for describing this NMR signal enhancement caused by enhancement of domain-wall mobility at .
Chen, Y.*; 佐藤 正寛*; Tang, Y.*; 塩見 雄毅*; 大柳 洸一*; 益田 隆嗣*; 南部 雄亮*; 藤田 全基*; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 12, p.5199_1 - 5199_7, 2021/08
A triplon refers to a fictitious particle that carries angular momentum corresponding to the elementary excitation in a broad class of quantum dimerized spin systems. Such systems without magnetic order have long been studied as a testing ground for quantum properties of spins. Although triplons have been found to play a central role in thermal and magnetic properties in dimerized magnets with singlet correlation, a spin angular momentum flow carried by triplons, a triplon current, has not been detected yet. Here we report spin Seebeck effects induced by a triplon current: triplon spin Seebeck effect, using a spin-Peierls system CuGeO. The result shows that the heating-driven triplon transport induces spin current whose sign is positive, opposite to the spin-wave cases in magnets. The triplon spin Seebeck effect persists far below the spin-Peierls transition temperature, being consistent with a theoretical calculation for triplon spin Seebeck effects.
吉川 貴史*; Reitz, D.*; 伊藤 宏陽*; 巻内 崇彦*; 杉本 宜陽*; 恒川 翔*; 大門 俊介*; 大柳 洸一*; Ramos, R.*; 高橋 三郎*; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 12, p.4356_1 - 4356_7, 2021/07
Thermoelectric effects have been applied to power generators and temperature sensors that convert waste heat into electricity. The effects, however, have been limited to electrons to occur, and inevitably disappear at low temperatures due to electronic entropy quenching. Here, we report thermoelectric generation caused by nuclear spins in a solid: nuclear-spin Seebeck effect. The sample is a magnetically ordered material MnCO having a large nuclear spin of Mn nuclei and strong hyperfine coupling, with a Pt contact. In the system, we observe low-temperature thermoelectric signals down to 100 mK due to nuclear-spin excitation. Our theoretical calculation in which interfacial Korringa process is taken into consideration quantitatively reproduces the results. The nuclear thermoelectric effect demonstrated here offers a way for exploring thermoelectric science and technologies at ultralow temperatures.
中堂 博之; 松尾 衛*; 前川 禎通*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 103(17), p.174308_1 - 174308_10, 2021/05
We report the observation of the Barnett field, rotational Doppler effect, and Berry phase using the rotating nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) methods. We have developed coil-spinning techniques that enable us to systematically study the effects of rotation in setups involving rotation of the signal detector, rotation of the sample, and simultaneous rotation of both the signal detector and sample. Applying these setups to NQR measurements, we observe NQR line splittings in which the spectral structures are clearly distinct among the setups. By analyzing these structures, we clarify the origin of the NQR line splittings and discuss the relationship between the rotational Doppler effect, Barnett field effect, and Berry phase in terms of the rotational degrees of freedom, such as the relative rotation and the sample rotation itself, and the observation frame of reference. We also provide clear evidence of the difference between the rotational Doppler effect and the Barnett field, and the equivalence of the Barnett field and the Berry phase.
Frost, W.*; 関 剛斎*; 窪田 崇秀*; Ramos, R.*; 齊藤 英治; 高梨 弘毅*; 廣畑 貴文*
Applied Physics Letters, 118(17), p.172405_1 - 172405_5, 2021/04
We demonstrate that the spin-Seebeck effect can be used to estimate the volume of edge domains formed in a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) device. The thermal gradient induced by Joule heating can be harnessed by the addition of a ferromagnetically insulating channel of FeO on the sides of the GMR pillar. This generates a spin wave in FeO, which couples with the free-layer edge magnetization and controls the reversal of the ferromagnetic layers in one direction only, increasing the current density from A/cm to A/cm. By simple assumption, we estimate the effect of the edge domain on magnetization reversal to be by spin-transfer torque.
柴山 由樹; 北條 智彦*; 小山 元道*; 齋藤 寛之*; 城 鮎美*; 安田 良*; 菖蒲 敬久; 松野 崇*; 秋山 英二*
ISIJ International, 61(4), p.1322 - 1329, 2021/04
The effects of stress and plastic strain distributions on the hydrogen embrittlement fracture of the U-bent martensitic steel sheet specimen were investigated. The hydrogen embrittlement testing of the U-bent specimen was performed. Fracture morphology mainly consisting of intergranular fracture was found inside the hydrogen charged U-bent specimen, which indicated that the crack initiation took place in the interior, and shear lips were found near both surfaces of the U-bent sheet. The synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement and the finite element simulation were utilized to analyze the stress and plastic strain distributions in the thickness direction of the U-bent specimen. The elastic strain distributions obtained by the measurement showed a good agreement with the simulation. The crack initiation site of the hydrogen-charged U-bent specimen was considered to be correspondent with the region where the tensile stress was the highest, suggesting that the maximum tensile stress predominantly determine the crack initiation.
西村 隼杜*; 北條 智彦*; 味戸 沙耶*; 柴山 由樹*; 小山 元道*; 齋藤 寛之*; 城 鮎美*; 安田 良*; 菖蒲 敬久; 秋山 英二*
ISIJ International, 61(4), p.1170 - 1178, 2021/04
The effects of residual stress on the hydrogen embrittlement behavior of a tempered martensitic steel sheet with 1-GPa-class tensile strength stretch-formed by a hemisphere punch simulating press-formed automotive structural parts were investigated. Cracking on the stretch-formed specimen induced by potentiostatic hydrogen charging was initiated in the foot of the impression of the specimen and propagated to the radial direction both toward the hillside and the plain. The mixture of quasi cleavage and intergranular fractures were observed whole through the fracture surface. Residual stress in the stretch-formed specimens was analyzed by using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction method utilizing the synchrotron X-ray radiation at SPring-8. In addition, stress and plastic strain distributions in the specimen were analyzed by using Finite Element Method (FEM). These analyses depicted that the high tensile stress in the circumferential direction was in the foot of the impression, corresponding to the direction of the crack growth. The FEM analysis revealed that the high triaxial stress was in the foot suggesting accumulation of hydrogen. It was considered that the preferential crack initiation at the foot was promoted by the high residual stress in the circumferential direction and the hydrogen accumulation due to stress-induced diffusion.
横井 直人*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 103(13), p.134401_1 - 134401_8, 2021/04
Multimode magnon dynamics affected by demagnetizing fields has been discussed in terms of a Hamiltonian approach. In the multimode dynamics involving magnetization relaxation, inter-mode correlation of magnons is found to be formed spontaneously. The correlation suppresses the transverse magnetization dynamics, giving rise to depolarization correlation (DPC) of magnons. DPC may subsist in equilibrium distribution at finite temperatures.
Jiang, N.*; 新居 陽一*; 有沢 洋希*; 齊藤 英治; 大江 純一郎*; 小野瀬 佳文*
Physical Review Letters, 126(17), p.177205_1 - 177205_5, 2021/04
Chirality in a helimagnetic structure is determined by the sense of magnetic moment rotation. We found that the chiral information did not disappear even after the phase transition to the high-temperature ferromagnetic phase in a helimagnet MnP. The 2nd harmonic resistivity , which reflects the breaking down of mirror symmetry, was found to be almost unchanged after heating the sample above the ferromagnetic transition temperature and cooling it back to the helimagnetic state. The application of a magnetic field along the easy axis in the ferromagnetic state quenched the chirality-induced . This indicates that the chirality memory effect originated from the ferromagnetic domain walls.
Meer, H.*; Schreiber, F.*; Schmitt, C.*; Ramos, R.*; 齊藤 英治; Gomonay, O.*; Sinova, J.*; Baldrati, L.*; Klui, M.*
Nano Letters, 21(1), p.114 - 119, 2021/01
We unravel the origin of current-induced magnetic switching of insulating antiferromagnet/heavy metal systems. We utilize concurrent transport and magneto-optical measurements to image the switching of antiferromagnetic domains in specially engineered devices of NiO/Pt bilayers. Different electrical pulsing and device geometries reveal different final states of the switching with respect to the current direction. We can explain these through simulations of the temperature-induced strain, and we identify the thermomagnetoelastic switching mechanism combined with thermal excitations as the origin, in which the final state is defined by the strain distributions and heat is required to switch the antiferromagnetic domains. We show that such a potentially very versatile noncontact mechanism can explain the previously reported contradicting observations of the switching final state, which were attributed to spin-orbit torque mechanisms.