Lustikova, J.*; 塩見 雄毅*; 横井 直人*; 壁谷 典幸*; 木村 憲彰*; 家永 紘一郎*; 金子 真一*; 大熊 哲*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 9, p.4922_1 - 4922_6, 2018/11
A rectenna, standing for a rectifying antenna, is an apparatus which generates d.c. electricity from electric fluctuations. It is expected to realize wireless power transmission as well as energy harvesting from environmental radio waves. To realize such rectification, devices that are made up of internal atomic asymmetry such as an asymmetric junction have been necessary so far. Here we report a material that spontaneously generates electricity by rectifying environmental fluctuations without using atomic asymmetry. The sample is a common superconductor without lowered crystalline symmetry, but, just by putting it in an asymmetric magnetic environment, it turns into a rectifier and starts generating electricity. Superconducting vortex strings only annihilate and nucleate at surfaces, and this allows the bulk electrons to feel surface fluctuations in an asymmetric environment: a vortex rectenna. The rectification and generation can be switched on and off with only a slight change in temperature or external magnetic fields.
今井 正樹; 緒方 裕大*; 中堂 博之; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 松尾 衛*; 大沼 悠一*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Letters, 113(5), p.052402_1 - 052402_3, 2018/07
We report direct observation of gyromagnetic reversal, which is the sign change of gyromagnetic ratio in a ferrimagnet HoFeO, by using the Barnett effect measurement technique at low temperatures. The Barnett effect is a phenomenon in which magnetization is induced by mechanical rotation through the coupling between rotation and total angular momentum of electrons. The magnetization of HoFeO induced by mechanical rotation disappears at 135 K and 240 K. The temperatures correspond to the magnetization compensation temperature and the angular momentum compensation temperature , respectively. Between and , the magnetization flips over to be parallel against the angular momentum due to the sign change of gyromagnetic ratio. This study provides an unprecedented technique to explore the gyromagnetic properties.
内田 健一*; 大門 俊介*; 井口 亮*; 齊藤 英治
Nature, 558, p.95 - 99, 2018/05
The Peltier effect, discovered in 1834, converts a charge current into a heat current in a conductor, and its performance is described by the Peltier coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of the generated heat current to the applied charge current. To exploit the Peltier effect for thermoelectric cooling or heating, junctions of two conductors with different Peltier coefficients have been believed to be indispensable. Here we challenge this conventional wisdom by demonstrating Peltier cooling and heating in a single material without junctions. This is realized through an anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect in which the Peltier coefficient depends on the angle between the directions of a charge current and magnetization in a ferromagnet. By using active thermography techniques, we observe the temperature change induced by this effect in a plain nickel slab. We find that the thermoelectric properties of the ferromagnet can be redesigned simply by changing the configurations of the charge current and magnetization, for instance, by shaping the ferromagnet so that the current must flow around a curve. Our experimental results demonstrate the suitability of nickel for the anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect and the importance of spin-orbit interaction in its mechanism. The anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect observed here is the missing thermoelectric phenomenon in ferromagnetic materials-the Onsager reciprocal of the anisotropic magneto-Seebeck effect previously observed in ferromagnets and its simplicity might prove useful in developing thermal management technologies for electronic and spintronic devices.
Qiu, Z.*; Hou, D.*; Barker, J.*; 山本 慧; Gomonay, O.*; 齊藤 英治*
Nature Materials, 17(7), p.577 - 580, 2018/05
緒方 裕大; 中堂 博之; Gu, B.; 小林 伸聖*; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 松尾 衛; 齊藤 英治; 前川 禎通
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 442, p.329 - 331, 2017/11
The gyroscopic g factor, , of FeCo nanogranules embedded in a matrix of MgF (FeCo-MgF) was determined by measuring the magnetic-field generation from a rotating sample due to the Barnett effect. The value of the FeCo-MgF is estimated to be 1.76 0.11. The orbital contribution to the magnetic moment in the FeCo nanogranules was found to be quite large compared with that in bulk FeCo, being consistent with a density-functional-theory calculation that shows that the orbital magnetic moment may increase at the FeCo/MgF interfaces. The result suggests that the orbital magnetic moment is enhanced by symmetry breaking at the surface of the FeCo nanogranules.
鶴田 忠彦; 新里 忠史; 中西 貴宏; 土肥 輝美; 中間 茂雄; 舟木 泰智; 御園生 敏治; 大山 卓也; 操上 広志; 林 誠二*; et al.
JAEA-Review 2017-018, 86 Pages, 2017/10
大沼 悠一; 松尾 衛*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
まぐね, 12(5), p.217 - 224, 2017/10
塩見 雄毅*; 高嶋 梨菜*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 96(13), p.134425_1 - 134425_9, 2017/10
A magnon Nernst effect, an antiferromagnetic analog of the magnon Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulators, has been studied experimentally for the layered antiferromagnetic insulator MnPS in contact with two Pt strips. Thermoelectric voltage in the Pt strips grown on MnPS single crystals exhibits nonmonotonic temperature dependence at low temperatures, which is unlikely to be explained by electronic origins in Pt but can be ascribed to the inverse spin Hall voltage induced by a magnon Nernst effect. Control of antiferromagnetic domains in the MnPS crystal by magnetoelectric cooling is found to modulate the low-temperature thermoelectric voltage in Pt, which is evidence consistent with the emergence of the magnon Nernst effect in Pt-MnPS hybrid structures.
Wang, H.*; Hou, D.*; Qiu, Z.*; 吉川 貴史*; 齊藤 英治; Jin, X.*
Journal of Applied Physics, 122(8), p.083907_1 - 083907_6, 2017/08
An electric method for measuring magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic insulators (AFIs) is proposed. When a metallic film with strong spin-orbit interactions, e.g., platinum (Pt), is deposited on an AFI, its resistance should be affected by the direction of the AFI Nel vector due to the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). Accordingly, the direction of the AFI Nel vector, which is affected by both the external magnetic field and the magnetic anisotropy, is reflected in resistance of Pt. The magnetic field angle dependence of the resistance of Pt on AFI is calculated by considering the SMR, which indicates that the antiferromagnetic anisotropy can be obtained experimentally by monitoring the Pt resistance in strong magnetic fields. Calculations are performed for realistic systems such as Pt/CrO, Pt/NiO, and Pt/CoO.
小林 大眞*; 吉川 智英*; 松尾 衛*; 井口 亮*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治; 能崎 幸雄*
Physical Review Letters, 119(7), p.077202_1 - 077202_5, 2017/08
We demonstrate the generation of alternating spin current (SC) via spin-rotation coupling (SRC) using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) in a Cu film. Ferromagnetic resonance caused by injecting SAWs was observed in a Ni-Fe film attached to a Cu film, with the resonance further found to be suppressed through the insertion of a SiO film into the interface. The intensity of the resonance depended on the angle between the wave vector of the SAW and the magnetization of the Ni-Fe film. This angular dependence is explicable in terms of the presence of spin transfer torque from a SC generated via SRC.
大門 俊介*; 内田 健一*; 井口 亮*; 日置 友智*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 96(2), p.024424_1 - 024424_12, 2017/07
The spin Peltier effect (SPE), heat-current generation due to spin-current injection, in various metal (Pt, W, and Au single layers and Pt/Cu bilayer)/ferrimagnetic insulator [yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG)] junction systems has been investigated by means of a lock-in thermography (LIT) method. The SPE is excited by a spin current across the metal/YIG interface, which is generated by applying a charge current to the metallic layer via the spin Hall effect. The LIT method enables the thermal imaging of the SPE free from the Joule-heating contribution. Importantly, we observed spin-current-induced temperature modulation not only in the Pt/YIG and W/YIG systems, but also in the Au/YIG and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, excluding the possible contamination by anomalous Ettingshausen effects due to proximity-induced ferromagnetism near the metal/YIG interface. As demonstrated in our previous study, the SPE signals are confined only in the vicinity of the metal/YIG interface; we buttress this conclusion by reducing a spatial blur due to thermal diffusion in an infrared-emission layer on the sample surface used for the LIT measurements. We also found that the YIG-thickness dependence of the SPE is similar to that of the spin Seebeck effect measured in the same Pt/YIG sample, implying the reciprocal relation between them.
渡辺 真悟*; 廣部 大地*; 塩見 雄毅*; 井口 亮*; 大門 俊介*; 亀田 麻衣*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Scientific Reports (Internet), 7, p.4576_1 - 4576_6, 2017/07
Spin pumping enables the generation of d.c. and gigahertz-band (GHz-band) voltages from an applied microwave via magnetization dynamics when combined with inverse spin Hall effects. However, generating such voltages in the in-between frequency region, or the megahertz (MHz) band, has been difficult since ferromagnetic resonance usually occurs in the GHz band. Here we show that in spite of GHz-band microwaves applied, MHz-band voltages can be generated by spin pumping with use of nonlinear magnetization dynamics in YFeO. The mechanism is ascribed to the MHz-band oscillation of the amplitude of the magnetization precession, which is projected onto a rectified voltage component via spin pumping. The present finding could be useful for frequency down-conversion thanks to the simple and durable structure, continuous-wave operation, and the tunability of an output frequency with low magnetic fields.
塩見 雄毅*; Lustikova, J.*; 齊藤 英治
Scientific Reports (Internet), 7, p.5358_1 - 5358_8, 2017/07
Although magnetism and superconductivity hardly coexist in a single material, recent advances in nanotechnology and spintronics have brought to light their interplay in magnetotransport in thin-film heterostructures. Here, we found a periodic oscillation of Nernst voltage with respect to magnetic fields in PtLiFeO (PtLFO) bilayers grown on a cuprate superconductor YBaCuO (YBCO). At high temperatures above the superconducting transition temperature () of YBCO, spin Seebeck voltages originating in PtLFO layers are observed. As temperature decreases well below , the spin Seebeck voltage is suppressed and unconventional periodic voltage oscillation as a function of magnetic fields appears; such an oscillation emerging along the Hall direction in the superconducting state has not been observed yet. Dynamics of superconducting vortices pinned by surface precipitates seems responsible for the oscillatory Nernst effect.
日置 友智*; 井口 亮*; Qiu, Z.*; Hou, D.*; 内田 健一*; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Express, 10(7), p.073002_1 - 073002_4, 2017/06
We have investigated the magnetic-field-induced suppression of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) by using a time-resolved measurement technique at room temperature. The result manifested two distinctive time domains: the short-time domain where the observed voltage is insensitive to the magnetic fields, and the long-time domain where the both response time and the magnitude of the observed voltage decreased simultaneously by the magnetic fields. We estimated the magnon propagation length by fitting the transient LSSE response. The propagation length shows a strong dependence on the applied magnetic field, indicating the importance of long-range and low-frequency magnons in the LSSE.
吉川 貴史*; 鈴木 基寛*; 岡林 潤*; 内田 健一*; 菊池 大介*; Qiu, Z.*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 95(21), p.214416_1 - 214416_7, 2017/06
Magnetic moments in an ultrathin Pt film on a ferrimagnetic insulator YFeO (YIG) have been investigated at high magnetic fields and low temperatures by means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We observed an XMCD signal due to the magnetic moments in a Pt film at the Pt and edges. By means of the element-specific magnetometry, we found that the XMCD signal at the Pt edge gradually increases with increasing the magnetic field even when the field is much greater than the saturation field of YIG. Importantly, the observed XMCD intensity was found to be much greater than the intensity expected from the Pauli paramagnetism of Pt when the Pt film is attached to YIG. These results imply the emergence of induced paramagnetic moments in Pt on YIG and explain the characteristics of the unconventional Hall effect in Pt/YIG systems.
Ramos, R.*; 吉川 貴史*; Anadn, A.*; Lucas, I.*; 内田 健一*; Algarabel, P. A.*; Morelln, L.*; Aguirre, M. H.*; 齊藤 英治; Ibarra, M. R.*
AIP Advances (Internet), 7(5), p.055915_1 - 055915_7, 2017/05
We report temperature dependent measurements of the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in multilayers formed by repeated growth of a FeO/Pt bilayer junction. The magnitude of the observed enhancement of the SSE, relative to the SSE in the single bilayer, shows a monotonic increase with decreasing the temperature. This result can be understood by an increase of the characteristic length for spin current transport in the system, in qualitative agreement with the recently observed increase in the magnon diffusion length in FeO at lower temperatures. Our result suggests that the thermoelectric performance of the SSE in multilayer structures can be further improved by careful choice of materials with suitable spin transport properties.
井口 亮*; 内田 健一*; 大門 俊介*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 95(17), p.174401_1 - 174401_7, 2017/05
We report a simultaneous measurement of a longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) and thermal conductivity in a Pt/YFeO (YIG)/Pt system in a temperature range from 10 to 300 K. By directly monitoring the temperature difference in the system, we excluded thermal artifacts in the LSSE measurements. It is found that both the LSSE signal and the thermal conductivity of YIG exhibit sharp peaks at the same temperature, different from previous reports. The maximum LSSE coefficient is found to be V/K, one-order-of magnitude greater than the previously reported values. The concomitant enhancement of the LSSE and thermal conductivity of YIG suggests the strong correlation between magnon and phonon transport in the LSSE.
塩見 雄毅*; 齊藤 英治
AIP Advances (Internet), 7(3), p.035011_1 - 035011_6, 2017/03
We have studied magnetotransport properties of a topological insulator material RuSn. Bulk single crystals of RuSn were grown by a Bi flux method. The resistivity is semiconducting at high temperatures above 160 K, while it becomes metallic below 160 K. Nonlinear field dependence of Hall resistivity in the metallic region shows conduction of multiple carriers at low temperatures. In the high-temperature semiconducting region, magnetoresistance exhibits a conventional quadratic magnetic-field dependence. In the low-temperature metallic region, however, high-field magnetoresistance is clearly linear with magnetic fields, signaling a linear dispersion in the low-temperature electronic structure. Small changes in the magnetoresistance magnitude with respect to the magnetic field angle indicate that bulk electron carriers are responsible mainly for the observed linear magnetoresistance.
Seo, Y.-J.*; 針井 一哉; 高橋 遼*; 中堂 博之; 大柳 洸一*; Qiu, Z.*; 小野 崇人*; 塩見 雄毅*; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Letters, 110(13), p.132409_1 - 132409_4, 2017/03
緒方 裕大; 中堂 博之; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 松尾 衛; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Letters, 110(7), p.072409_1 - 072409_4, 2017/02
We develop the magnetization measurement apparatus for observing the Barnett effect consisting of a fluxgate sensor, high speed rotor with frequencies of up to 1.5 kHz, and magnetic shield at room temperature. The effective magnetic field (Barnett field) in a sample arising from rotation magnetizes the sample and is proportional to the rotational frequency. The gyroscopic factor, , of rare earth metals, in particular, Gd, Tb and Dy were estimated to be 2.000.08, 1.530.17, and 1.150.32, respectively, from the slopes of the rotation dependence of the Barnett field. This study provides a technique to determine the factor even in samples where the spectroscopic method may not be available.