Tsuda, Shuichi; Saito, Kimiaki
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 198(17), p.1283 - 1291, 2022/10
Spherical or cylindrical detectors superior to directional characteristic are commonly used to monitor dose rates in the environment to detect scattering gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides in soil or air. The authors have performed environmental dose rates measurements using various kinds of detectors to investigate the directional characteristics, and experimentally verified the variations in dose rates due to directional characteristics unique to each detector. Furthermore, a dose rate measured by a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector with cuboidal crystal agreed with that by a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector with cylindrical crystal. Simulations by PHITS under various CsI(Tl) crystal configurations revealed that there are certain aspect ratios of cuboidal CsI(Tl) crystal with less directional dependence. Since cubes are advantageous in terms of production cost, this result indicates the potential of CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors with cuboidal crystal for use in the environmental dose rate monitoring.
Ando, Masaki; Saito, Kimiaki
JAEA-Technology 2021-032, 66 Pages, 2022/03
Since the occurrence of the accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting a series of car-borne survey over a wide area in the eastern part of Japan using the monitoring system KURAMAII. In this report, outline of the car-borne surveys are summarized and the following characteristics of the temporal changes in each prefecture and region were investigated using the measured data obtained from 2012 to 2019; 1) Average and maximum values for each prefecture for the six years from 2014 to 2019, 2) Average values for each prefecture from 2012 to 2019, 3) Average values for each evacuation order area category, regional category, and northern Soso-area municipality in Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2019, and 4) Average and maximum values for each municipality in each prefecture for four times (at almost two-year intervals) of the measurement results from 2012 to 2018.
Mikami, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki*; Okuda, Naotoshi*; Sakamoto, Ryuichi*; Ochi, Kotaro; Uno, Kiichiro*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Saito, Kimiaki
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 20(4), p.159 - 178, 2021/12
In order to know the background radiation level where the area affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, terrestrial gamma rays had been measured by using portable germanium detectors repeatedly from 2013 through 2019, at 370 locations within 80 km radius area centered on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Radioactive concentrations of Uranium 238, Thorium 232, Potassium 40 and kerma rates in air due to terrestrial gamma rays were obtained at those locations based on the method of ICRU report 53. Averaged concentrations of U, Th and K were 18.8, 22.7, 428 Bq/kg, respectively, and kerma rate in air over the area was found to be 0.0402 Gy/h. The obtained kerma rates in air were compared to those reported in literatures. It was confirmed that the data were correlated with each other, and were agreed within the range of their uncertainty. This is because the kerma rate in air due to terrestrial gamma rays is depend on geology. The similar trend to previous findings was observed that the kerma rate in air at locations geologically classified as Mesozoic era, Granite and Rhyolite were statistically significantly higher than the others.
Kim, M.; Malins, A.; Machida, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Saito, Kimiaki; Yoshida, Hiroko*; Yanagi, Hideaki*; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*
RIST News, (67), p.3 - 15, 2021/09
no abstracts in English
Taniguchi, Keisuke*; Onda, Yuichi*; Smith, H. G.*; Blake, W.*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Yamashiki, Yosuke*; Kuramoto, Takayuki*; Saito, Kimiaki
Environmental Science & Technology, 55(13), P. 9394, 2021/07
no abstracts in English
Ando, Masaki; Matsuda, Norihiro; Saito, Kimiaki
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 20(1), p.34 - 39, 2021/03
We measured count rates and air dose rates at 11 measurement points where the influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident could be ignored to obtain parameters for a background equation applying to KURAMA-II loaded with the high sensitivity CsI(Tl) detector, C12137-01. It was found that the sensitivity of KURAMA-II (C12137-01) was about 10 times or more for background measurement, compared with KURAMA-II loaded with the standard type CsI(Tl) detector, C12137. A background equation for the energy range of 1400-2000 keV was determined as, y (Sv/h)=0.062 x (cps). We evaluated background air dose rates using KURAMA-II (C12137-01) for 71 municipalities and compared them with the previous study using KURAMA-II (C12137). Evaluated background air dose rates in this study were almost equal to those in the previous study. We confirmed that the background equation evaluated in this study was applicable for the KURAMA-II (C12137-01).
Tsuda, Shuichi; Tanigaki, Minoru*; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Okumura, Ryo*; Saito, Kimiaki
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 193(3-4), p.228 - 236, 2021/03
Environmental dose rate monitoring has been performed with various scintillation detectors since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Gamma-rays from caesium isotopes deposited in soil enter radiation detectors in any direction, but directional dependence of the detectors used for dose rate measurements are not always uniform and the dose rates vary even if measurement takes place at the same place. To investigate the influence of crystal configurations on dose rate, dose rate measurements using several scintillation detectors with different crystal configurations were conducted. By measuring pulse height spectra and multiplying them with spectrum - dose conversion operators (G(E) function), dose rates were deduced and compared. It was found that the dose rates varied within approximately 25% among six detectors. To reduce the differences, the dose rate using G(E) functions determined in rotational geometry were obtained and applied instead. The revised dose rates agreed with one another within uncertainties, but this was not the case of scintillation detector with flat crystal shape, and it means this method could not compensate its strong directional dependence. These experimental results reveal that detectors with superior directional characteristics should be used for environmental dose rate measurement since the compensation of directional dependence using a G(E) function determined in rotational geometry is not always available.
Isotope News, (773), p.3 - 6, 2021/02
no abstracts in English
Ando, Masaki; Sasaki, Miyuki; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(12), p.1319 - 1330, 2020/12
Air dose rates measured by car-borne surveys within 80 km range of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using KURAMA systems from 2011 up to 2018 were analyzed, and decreasing trends and ecological half-life were evaluated. The decreasing speed of air dose rates became 0.08 over a period of seven years, indicating a much more rapid decrease than estimated by the physical decay of radiocesium (0.3). The fast components of the ecological half-lives evaluated in entire the evacuation order area were about 2 to 3 y, and were considerably larger than those outside the evacuation order area (0.4 to 0.5 y). To model the acceleration in the decrease of air dose rates observed in evacuation order areas, we modified the bi-exponential curve formula of ecological half-life and introduced the two-group model. The fast decreasing components of the ecological half-life evaluated using the two-group model after 2013 were 0.5 to 1 y, and were much shorter than those up to 2013, at 2 to 3 y.
Annals of the ICRP, 49(2), p.7 - 9, 2020/10
no abstracts in English
Seki, Akiyuki; Mayumi, Akie; Wainwright-Murakami, Haruko*; Saito, Kimiaki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Idomura, Yasuhiro
Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.158 - 164, 2020/10
We developed a method to estimate the temporal change of the air dose rate at the location with sparse (in time) measurements by using the continuous measurement data from the nearby monitoring post. This method determines an observation model from the correlation between sparse data at the target location and dense data at the monitoring post based on a hierarchical Bayesian model. The developed method was validated against the air dose rate measured at the monitoring posts in Fukushima prefecture from 2012 to 2017. The results showed that the developed method can predict the air dose rate at almost all target locations with an error rate of less than 10%.
Sun, D.*; Wainwright-Murakami, Haruko*; Oroza, C. A.*; Seki, Akiyuki; Mikami, Satoshi; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 220-221, p.106281_1 - 106281_8, 2020/09
We have developed a methodology for optimizing the monitoring locations of radiation air dose-rate monitoring. For the method, we use a Gaussian mixture model to identify the representative locations among multiple environmental variables, such as elevation and land-cover types. Next, we use a Gaussian process model to capture and estimate the heterogeneity of air-dose rates across the domain. Our results have shown that this approach allows us to select monitoring locations in a systematic manner such that the heterogeneity of air dose rates is captured by the minimal number of monitoring locations.
Tokyo Denryoku Fukushima Daiichi Genshiryoku Hatsudensho Jiko Ni Yoru Kankyo Osen No Kenkyu Chosa No Shinten To Kadai (Internet), p.8 - 10, 2020/07
no abstracts in English
Wainwright, Haruko*; Oroza, C.*; Sun, D.*; Seki, Akiyuki; Mikami, Satoshi; Saito, Kimiaki
45th Annual Waste Management Conference (WM 2019); Encouraging Young Men & Women to Achieve Their Goals in Radwaste Management, Vol.7, p.4346 - 4356, 2020/01
In this work, we have developed a methodology for optimizing the sampling locations of radiation air dose-rate monitoring. Three steps are taken in order to determine sampling locations in a systematic manner: (1) prioritizing the critical locations, such as schools or regulatory requirement locations, (2) diversifying locations across the key environmental controls that are known to influence contaminant mobility and distributions, and (3) capturing the heterogeneity of radiation air dose rates across the domain. Our results have shown that increasing the number of sampling locations can better capture the heterogeneity of dose rates, although the estimation error does not decrease further after a certain number of samples. We have also found that when there are restrictions such as pre-existing monitoring locations or the ones along roads, the spatial estimation becomes poor even with the same number of monitoring locations.
Mikami, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke*; Matsuda, Hideo*; Hoshide, Yoshifumi*; Okuda, Naotoshi*; Sakamoto, Ryuichi*; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105938_1 - 105938_7, 2019/12
Five intercomparisons of in situ spectrometry by 6-7 participating teams have been conducted between December 2011 and August 2015 at sites in Fukushima prefecture which affected by the fallout of FDNPS accident occurred in March 2011. The evaluated deposition densities agreed within 5-6% in terms of coefficient of variation (CV) for radiocesium (Cs and Cs), by our best achievement, and the ratio of Cs/Cs in deposition density agreed within 1-2% in CV, through five intercomparisons. These results guarantee the accuracy of the measurements of the mapping project. Two different methods for intercomparison were conducted: (1) sequential measurements at an identical point; and (2) simultaneous measurements in a narrow area within 3 m radius. In a comparison between the two methods at a site, no significant difference was observed between the results. The standard protocols for the two different intercomparison methods were proposed based on our experience.
Sato, Tetsuro*; Ando, Masaki; Sato, Masako*; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105973_1 - 105973_7, 2019/12
A method was devised for estimation of external doses of Fukushima residents expected to return to their homes after evacuation orders are lifted. 211 residents expected to return to six towns and villages were surveyed in FY 2014, FY 2015, and FY2016. Interviewing returning residents about their expected life patterns after returning, air dose rate were measured along the reported personal trails representing their patterns of movement in daily life. Excluding 15 residents from whose homes we were unable to take air dose rate measurements, the maximum external effective dose and the average external effective dose were estimated respectively as 4.9 mSv/y and 0.86 mSv/y. Although the mean values and dispersion of external effective doses differ depending on the evacuation level, for 93.3% of all residents, the estimated external effective doses were less than 2 mSv/y. The average exposure dose at home accounts for 66.8% of the annual exposure dose.
Saito, Kimiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Ando, Masaki; Matsuda, Norihiro; Kinase, Sakae; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Sato, Tetsuro*; Seki, Akiyuki; Yamamoto, Hideaki*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105878_1 - 105878_12, 2019/12
Mikami, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki*; Matsuda, Hideo*; Sato, Shoji*; Hoshide, Yoshifumi*; Okuda, Naotoshi*; Suzuki, Takeo*; Sakamoto, Ryuichi*; Ando, Masaki; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105941_1 - 105941_12, 2019/12
The deposition densities of radiocesium and the air dose rates were repeatedly measured in a large number of undisturbed fields within the 80km zone that surrounds the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site between 2011 and 2016, and features of their temporal changes were clarified. The average air dose rate excluding background radiation in this zone decreased to about 20% of the initial value during the period from June 2011 to August 2016, which was essentially a result of the radioactive decay of Cs with a half-life of 2.06y. The air dose rate reduction was faster than that expected from the decay of radiocesium by a factor of about two, with most of this reduction being attributed to the penetration of radiocesium into the soil. The average deposition densities of Cs and Cs in fields that were not decontaminated were found to have decreased nearly according to their expected radioactive decay, which indicated that the movement of radiocesium in the horizontal direction was relatively small. The effect of decontamination was apparently observed in the measurements of air dose rates and deposition densities. Nominally, the average air dose rates in the measurement locations were reduced by about 20% by decontamination and other human activities, of which accurate quantitative analysis is and continue to be a challenge.
Kato, Hiroaki*; Onda, Yuichi*; Gao, X.*; Sanada, Yukihisa; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105996_1 - 105996_12, 2019/12
Saito, Kimiaki; Onda, Yuichi*; Hisamatsu, Shunichi*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.106003_1 - 106003_2, 2019/12
no abstracts in English