Mikami, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki*; Okuda, Naotoshi*; Sakamoto, Ryuichi*; Ochi, Kotaro; Uno, Kiichiro*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Saito, Kimiaki
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 20(4), p.159 - 178, 2021/12
In order to know the background radiation level where the area affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, terrestrial gamma rays had been measured by using portable germanium detectors repeatedly from 2013 through 2019, at 370 locations within 80 km radius area centered on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Radioactive concentrations of Uranium 238, Thorium 232, Potassium 40 and kerma rates in air due to terrestrial gamma rays were obtained at those locations based on the method of ICRU report 53. Averaged concentrations of U, Th and K were 18.8, 22.7, 428 Bq/kg, respectively, and kerma rate in air over the area was found to be 0.0402 Gy/h. The obtained kerma rates in air were compared to those reported in literatures. It was confirmed that the data were correlated with each other, and were agreed within the range of their uncertainty. This is because the kerma rate in air due to terrestrial gamma rays is depend on geology. The similar trend to previous findings was observed that the kerma rate in air at locations geologically classified as Mesozoic era, Granite and Rhyolite were statistically significantly higher than the others.
Asakura, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yusuke; Donomae, Yasushi; Abe, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Takamatsu, Misao; Sakamoto, Naoki; Isozaki, Ryosuke; Onishi, Takashi; et al.
JAEA-Review 2021-020, 42 Pages, 2021/10
The disposal of radioactive waste from the research facility need to calculate from the radioactivity concentration that based on variously nuclear fuels and materials. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency Oarai Research and Development Institute, the study on considering disposal is being advanced among the facilities which generate radioactive waste as well as the facilities which process radioactive waste. This report summarizes a study result in FY2020 about the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute.
Saegusa, Hiromitsu*; Funaki, Hironori; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tokizawa, Takayuki*
Insights Concerning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, Vol.4; Endeavors by Scientists, p.170 - 187, 2021/10
Removed contaminants including soil, grass and trees are to be stored safely at temporary storage facilities for several years, after which they will be transferred to a planned interim storage facility. The decontamination pilot project was carried out in both the restricted and planned evacuation areas in order to assess decontamination methods and demonstrate measures for radiation protection of workers. Fourteen temporary storage facilities of different technical specifications were designed and constructed under various topographic conditions and land use. In order to support the design, construction and monitoring of temporary storage facilities for removed contaminants during the full-scale decontamination within the prefecture of Fukushima, technical know-how obtained during the decontamination pilot project has been identified and summarized in this paper.
Katsube, Daiki*; Ono, Shinya*; Takayanagi, Shuhei*; Ojima, Shoki*; Maeda, Motoyasu*; Origuchi, Naoki*; Ogawa, Arata*; Ikeda, Natsuki*; Aoyagi, Yoshihide*; Kabutoya, Yuito*; et al.
Langmuir, 37(42), p.12313 - 12317, 2021/10
We investigated the oxidation of oxygen vacancies at the surface of anatase TiO(001) using supersonic seeded molecular beam (SSMB) of oxygen. The oxygen vacancies at the top-surface and sub-surface could be eliminated by the supply of oxygen using an SSMB. These results indicate that the interstitial vacancies can be mostly assigned to oxygen vacancies, which can be effectively eliminated by using an oxygen SSMB. Oxygen vacancies are present on the surface of anatase TiO(001) when it is untreated before transfer to a vacuum chamber. These vacancies, which are stable in the as-grown condition, could also be effectively eliminated using the oxygen SSMB.
Miyabe, Masabumi; Satou, Yukihiko; Wakaida, Ikuo; Terabayashi, Ryohei*; Sonnenschein, V.*; Tomita, Hideki*; Zhao, Y.*; Sakamoto, Tetsuo*
Journal of Physics B; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 54(14), p.145003_1 - 145003_8, 2021/07
Two-color two-step photoionization optogalvanic spectroscopy was performed using high-repetition-rate titanium sapphire lasers and a uranium hollow cathode lamp to find the two-step resonance ionization schemes of uranium. Many ionization transitions were observed by exciting uranium atoms in a ground state into five, even parity, excited levels with the first-step laser and by scanning the second-step laser wavelengths. By blocking the first-step laser, single-color, two-photon ionization transitions were also identified. From these results, we have found more than 50 odd-parity autoionizing levels of uranium in the energy, ranging from the ionization potential (49958.4 cm) to 51150 cm. The determined energy levels are within 1 cm of previously reported values.
Nakagawa, Akinori; Oyokawa, Atsushi; Murakami, Masashi; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Okada, Shota; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki
JAEA-Technology 2021-006, 186 Pages, 2021/06
Radioactive wastes generated from R&D activities have been stored in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In order to reduce the risk of taking long time to process legacy wastes, countermeasures for acceleration of waste processing and disposal were studied. Work analysis of waste processing showed bottleneck processes, such as evaluation of radioactivity concentration, segregation of hazardous and combustibles materials. Concerning evaluation of radioactivity concentration, a radiological characterization method using a scaling factor and a nondestructive gamma-ray measurement should be developed. The number of radionuclides that are to be selected for the safety assessment of the trench type disposal facility can decrease using artificial barriers. Hazardous materials, will be identified using records and nondestructive inspection. The waste identified as hazardous will be unpacked and segregated. Preliminary calculations of waste acceptance criteria of hazardous material concentrations were conducted based on environmental standards in groundwater. The total volume of the combustibles will be evaluated using nondestructive inspection. The waste that does not comply with the waste acceptance criteria should be mixed with low combustible material waste such as dismantling concrete waste in order to satisfy the waste acceptance criteria on a disposal facility average. It was estimated that segregation throughput of compressed waste should be increased about 5 times more than conventional method by applying the countermeasures. Further study and technology development will be conducted to realize the plan.
Sakamoto, Atsushi; Kibe, Satoshi*; Kawanobe, Kazunori*; Fujisaku, Kazuhiko*; Sano, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hideya*; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Ban, Yasutoshi; Matsumura, Tatsuro
JAEA-Research 2021-003, 30 Pages, 2021/06
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing a solvent extraction process called SELECT to recover minor actinides (MA) from spent nuclear fuel. In the SELECT process, TDdDGA, HONTA, and ADAAM are used as the extractants for MA + Ln corecovery, MA/Ln separation and Am/Cm separation, respectively. These extractants do not contain phosphorus (P), and consist of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N). In this study, in order to give beneficial information for designing flowsheet, the mass transfer coefficients of Ln between HNO solution and TDdDGA or HONTA / n-dodecane solvent were evaluated by the single drop technique. Prior to the evaluation of mass transfer coefficient, we had optimized the structure of the single drop apparatus to improve accuracy of the measurement. Based on the mass transfer coefficients obtained in HNO / TDdDGA-n-dodecane system, Ln behaviors in the counter-current extraction and back-extraction using mixer-settlers and centrifugal contactors were estimated by simple calculation, and they had a good agreement with our previous experimental results. We also confirmed the mass transfer coefficients of Ln in HNO / HONTA - n-dodecane system are under 10 m/s.
Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Ho, H. Q.; Sakamoto, Naoki*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*
Fusion Engineering and Design, 164, p.112181_1 - 112181_5, 2021/03
Tritium release into the primary coolant during operation of the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and the JRR-3M (Japan Research Reactor-3M) had been studied. It is found that the recoil release by Li(n,)H reaction, which comes from a chain reaction of beryllium neutron reflectors, is dominant. To prevent tritium recoil release, the surface area of beryllium neutron reflectors needs to be minimum in the core design and/or be shielded with other material. In this paper, as the feasibility study of the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors, various materials such as Al, Ti, V, Ni, and Zr were evaluated from the viewpoint of the thickness of barriers, activities after long-term operations, and effects on the reactivities. From the results of evaluations, Al would be a suitable candidate as the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors.
Suzuki, Yoshio; Otani, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Takakura, Masahiro*; Kuwabara, Yasuhiro*
Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.287 - 294, 2020/10
HPC Technology Promotion Office, Center for Computational Science and e-systems (CCSE) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is responsible for the administration of computer programs (CPs) and databases (DBs) developed in JAEA to disseminate R&D results in JAEA to the outside and improve R&D efficiency. The information of these CPs and DBs can be found using Program and Database retrieval System (PRODAS) (https://prodas.jaea.go.jp), which is developed by our team. Those in Japan can also obtain CPs and DBs in the nuclear field possessed in OECD NEA Data Bank (NEADB), Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) in the United States, and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this paper, the recent situation of possession and dispatch of CPs and DBs developed within JAEA and the frameworks to obtain and provide CPs and DBs in nuclear field worldwide are presented.
Mikami, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki*; Matsuda, Hideo*; Sato, Shoji*; Hoshide, Yoshifumi*; Okuda, Naotoshi*; Suzuki, Takeo*; Sakamoto, Ryuichi*; Ando, Masaki; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105941_1 - 105941_12, 2019/12
The deposition densities of radiocesium and the air dose rates were repeatedly measured in a large number of undisturbed fields within the 80km zone that surrounds the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site between 2011 and 2016, and features of their temporal changes were clarified. The average air dose rate excluding background radiation in this zone decreased to about 20% of the initial value during the period from June 2011 to August 2016, which was essentially a result of the radioactive decay of Cs with a half-life of 2.06y. The air dose rate reduction was faster than that expected from the decay of radiocesium by a factor of about two, with most of this reduction being attributed to the penetration of radiocesium into the soil. The average deposition densities of Cs and Cs in fields that were not decontaminated were found to have decreased nearly according to their expected radioactive decay, which indicated that the movement of radiocesium in the horizontal direction was relatively small. The effect of decontamination was apparently observed in the measurements of air dose rates and deposition densities. Nominally, the average air dose rates in the measurement locations were reduced by about 20% by decontamination and other human activities, of which accurate quantitative analysis is and continue to be a challenge.
Ohashi, Kunihide*; Hino, Takanori*; Kobayashi, Hiroshi*; Onodera, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Nobuaki*
Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 24(3), p.884 - 901, 2019/09
An unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver with a structured overset grid method has been developed. Velocity pressure coupling is achieved using an artificial compressibility approach, spatial discretization is based on a FVM. Body motions are considered using the grid deformation technique and grid velocities in the convective term. The full multigrid (FMG) method is applied to obtain fast convergence. The cell flag on a coarse grid level is determined using the cell flag on a fine grid level. In the coarse and fine grid level calculations at the FMG stage, the data are interpolated until the finest grid level is achieved at an overset update interval. Then, the data are updated based on the overset relations at the finest grid level and then transferred to a coarser grid level. The computations for flows around a hull form, including an unsteady simulation with regular waves, are demonstrated.
Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ioka, Ikuo; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kawanishi, Tomohiro; Kurata, Masaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Fukahori, Tokio; Nozawa, Takashi*; Sato, Daiki*; Murakami, Nozomu*; et al.
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.206 - 216, 2019/09
After the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant, research and development (R&D) program for establishing technical basis of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) started from 2015 in Japan. Since then, both experimental and analytical studies necessary for designing a new light water reactor (LWR) core with ATF candidate materials are being conducted within the Japanese ATF R&D Consortium for implementing ATF to the existing LWRs, accompanying with various technological developments required. Until now, we have accumulated experimental data of the candidate materials by out-of-pile tests, developed fuel evaluation codes to apply to the ATF candidate materials, and evaluated fuel behavior simulating operational and accidental conditions by the developed codes. In this paper, the R&D progresses of the ATF candidate materials considered in Japan are reviewed based on the information available such as proceedings of international conference and academic papers, providing an overview of ATF program in Japan.
Sakamoto, Shoya*; Tu, N. T.*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Fujimori, Shinichi; Hai, P. N.*; Anh, L. D.*; Wakabayashi, Yuki K.*; Shibata, Goro*; Horio, Masafumi*; Ikeda, Keisuke*; et al.
Physical Review B, 100(3), p.035204_1 - 035204_8, 2019/07
Sakamoto, Shoya*; Tu, N. T.*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Fujimori, Shinichi; Hai, P. N.*; Anh, L. D.*; Wakabayashi, Yuki*; Shibata, Goro*; Horio, Masafumi*; Ikeda, Keisuke*; et al.
Physical Review B, 100(3), p.035204_1 - 035204_8, 2019/07
Sakamoto, Tetsuo*; Morita, Masato*; Kanenari, Keita*; Tomita, Hideki*; Sonnenschein, V.*; Saito, Kosuke*; Ohashi, Masaya*; Kato, Kotaro*; Iguchi, Tetsuo*; Kawai, Toshihide*; et al.
Analytical Sciences, 34(11), p.1265 - 1270, 2018/11
Sano, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Misumi, Ryuta*; Kunii, Kanako*; Todoroki, Kei*; Nishi, Kazuhiko*; Kaminoyama, Meguru*
Kagaku Kogaku Rombunshu, 44(6), p.335 - 340, 2018/11
Concerning an annular centrifugal contactor which has high throughput and separation performance, the effect of operational condition on fluidic and dispersion behavior, which are important to improve the contactor performance, was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis based on the turbulence model, and the calculated results were validated by experimental data. The liquid phase in the annular zone was gradually divided into two regions vertically with increasing the rotor speed and decreasing the flowrate, and the liquid flow moved toward the center of the housing bottom was generated in the lower annular zone under any operational condition. The droplet size of the dispersed phase in the annular zone decreased with increasing the rotor speed and decreasing the flowrate. These calculation results showed a good agreement with experimental data. The CFD analysis considering mass transfer between aqueous and organic phases was also attempted, and it was confirmed that the change of extraction performance with the rotor speed showed the same tendency as the experimental result.
Akagi, Yosuke*; Kato, Hiroyasu*; Tachi, Yukio; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.233 - 236, 2018/11
A large amount of radioactive contaminated concrete will be generated from the decommissioning in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). For developing the plans of decommissioning and waste management including decontamination and disposal, it is important to estimate radionuclides inventory and concentration distribution in the concrete materials. In this study, effective diffusivities (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of HTO, Cs, I and U in OPC mortar were measured by through-diffusion and batch sorption experiments. De values derived were in the sequence of HTO, I, Cs, U, implying that cation exclusion effects may be important mechanisms in OPC mortar. Kd values derived by batch tests were higher by more than one order of magnitude than the diffusion-derived Kd values, indicating that crushing of samples had a strong influence on sorption. Diffusion and sorption mechanisms in OPC mortar were evaluated to predict the penetration behavior of these radionuclides.
Horio, Masafumi*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Namiki, Hiromasa*; Katagiri, Takao*; Wakabayashi, Yuki*; Sakamoto, Shoya*; Nonaka, Yosuke*; Shibata, Goro*; Ikeda, Keisuke*; Saito, Yuji; et al.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 87(10), p.105001_1 - 105001_2, 2018/10
Wakabayashi, Yuki*; Nonaka, Yosuke*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Sakamoto, Shoya*; Ikeda, Keisuke*; Chi, Z.*; Shibata, Goro*; Tanaka, Arata*; Saito, Yuji; Yamagami, Hiroshi; et al.
Physical Review Materials (Internet), 2(10), p.104416_1 - 104416_12, 2018/10
Yamazaki, Saishun; Pshenichnikov, A.; Pham, V. H.; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki; Tokushima, Kazuyuki*; Aomi, Masaki*; Sakamoto, Kan*
Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/10
It is predictively evaluated that degradation of fuel assembly proceeded in a certain steam-starved condition at the early stage of a SA at 1F unit 2 (BWR). As for PWR fuel assembly, effective steam flow rate was properly indicated by normalizing to a unit of g-HO/sec/rod which is used as an important parameter for evaluating fuel degradation progression. Due to the inhomogeneous configuration of BWR fuel assembly, the difference of Zry oxidation and hydrogen uptake between the inside and outside of the channel box cannot be properly evaluated by this normalization. Instead of g-HO/sec/rod, proper evaluation unit for BWR configuration is necessary. To accumulate Zry oxidation and hydrogen uptake data for steam-starved conditions, high temperature oxidation tests were performed using a simulated BWR fuel bundle sample. The use of equivalent diameter of the cross section of BWR fuel assembly was proposed for normalization of effective steam flow rate.