佐藤 一憲; 吉川 信治; 山下 拓哉; Cibula, M.*; 溝上 伸也*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 404, p.112205_1 - 112205_21, 2023/04
間所 寛; 山下 拓哉; Gaus-Liu, X.*; Cron, T.*; Fluhrer, B.*; 佐藤 一憲; 溝上 伸也*
Nuclear Technology, 209(2), p.144 - 168, 2023/02
Since the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head failure determines the subsequent ex-vessel accident progression, it is a key issue to understand the accident progression of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). The RPV failure is largely affected by thermal loads on the vessel wall and thus it is inevitable to understand thermal behavior of molten metallic pool with co- existence of solid oxide fuel debris. In the past decades, numerous experiments have been conducted to investigate a homogeneous molten pool behavior. Few experiments, however, addresses the melting and heat transfer process of debris bed consisted of materials with different melting temperatures. LIVE-J2 experiment aimed to provide the experimental data on a solid-liquid mixture pool in a simulated RPV lower head under various conditions. The extensive measurements of the melt temperature indicate the heat transfer regimes in a solid-liquid mixture pool. The test results showed that the conductive heat transfer was dominant during the steady state along the vessel wall boundary and that convective heat transfer takes place inside the mixture pool. Besides the experimental performance, the test case was numerically simulated by using ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results generally agree with the measured experimental data. The flow regime and transient melt evolution were able to be estimated by the calculated velocity field and the crust thickness, respectively.
山下 拓哉; 本多 剛*; 溝上 暢人*; 野崎 謙一朗*; 鈴木 博之*; Pellegrini, M.*; 酒井 健*; 佐藤 一憲; 溝上 伸也*
Nuclear Technology, 26 Pages, 2023/00
The estimation and understanding of the state of fuel debris and fission products inside the plant is an essential step in the decommissioning of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). However, the direct observation of the plant interior, which is under a high radiation environment, is difficult and limited. Therefore, in order to understand the plant interior conditions, a comprehensive analysis and evaluation is necessary, based on various measurement data from the plant, analysis of plant data during the accident progression phase and information obtained from computer simulations for this phase. These evaluations can be used to estimate the conditions of the interior of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the primary containment vessel (PCV). Herein, 1F Unit 3 was addressed as the subject to produce an estimated diagram of the fuel debris distribution from data obtained about the RPV and PCV based on the comprehensive evaluation of various measurement data and information obtained from the accident progression analysis, which were released to the public in November 2022.
山下 拓哉; 間所 寛; 佐藤 一憲
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 8(2), p.021701_1 - 021701_13, 2022/04
Understanding the final distribution of core materials and their characteristics is important for decommissioning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). Such characteristics depend on the accident progression in each unit. However, boiling water reactor accident progression involves great uncertainty. This uncertainty, which was clarified by MAAP-MELCOR Crosswalk, cannot be resolved with existing knowledge and was thus addressed in this work through core material melting and relocation (CMMR) tests. For the test bundle, ZrO pellets were installed instead of UO pellets. A plasma heating system was used for the tests. In the CMMR-4 test, useful information was obtained on the core state just before slumping. The presence of macroscopic gas permeability of the core approaching ceramic fuel melting was confirmed, and the fuel columns remained standing, suggesting that the collapse of fuel columns, which is likely in the reactor condition, would not allow effective relocation of the hottest fuel away from the bottom of the core. This information will help us comprehend core degradation in boiling water reactors, similar to those in 1F. In addition, useful information on abrasive water suspension jet (AWSJ) cutting for debris-containing boride was obtained in the process of dismantling the test bundle. When the mixing debris that contains oxide, metal, and boride material is cut, AWSJ may be repelled by the boride in the debris, which may cut unexpected parts, thus generating a large amount of waste in cutting the boride part in the targeted debris. This information will help the decommissioning of 1F.
佐藤 一憲; 山路 哲史*; Li, X.*; 間所 寛
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 9(2), p.21-00436_1 - 21-00436_17, 2022/04
Interpretation for the two-week long Unit 3 ex-vessel debris cooling behavior was conducted based on the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) data and the site data such as pressure, temperature, gamma ray level and live camera pictures. It was estimated that the debris relocated to the pedestal was in partial contact with liquid water for about initial two days. With the reduction of the sea water injection flowrate, the debris, existed mainly in the pedestal region, became "dry", in which the debris was only weakly cooled by vapor and this condition lasted for about four days until the increase of the sea water injection. During this dry period, the pedestal debris was heated up and it took further days to re-flood the heated up debris.
間所 寛; 山下 拓哉; 佐藤 一憲; Gaus-Liu, X.*; Cron, T.*; Fluhrer, B.*; Stngle, R.*; Wenz, T.*; Vervoortz, M.*; 溝上 伸也
Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 16 Pages, 2022/03
Debris and molten pool behavior in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum is a key factor to determine its failure mode, which affects the initial condition of ex-vessel accident progression and the debris characteristics. These are necessary information to accomplish safe decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. After dryout of the solidified debris in the lower plenum, metallic debris is expected to melt prior to the oxide debris due to its lower melting temperature. The lower head failure is likely be originated by the local thermal load attack of a melting debris bed. Numerous experiments have been conducted in the past decades to investigate the homogeneous molten pool behavior with external cooling. However, few experiments address the transient heat transfer of solid-liquid mixture without external cooling. In order to enrich the experimental database of melting and heat transfer process of debris bed consisted of materials with different melting temperatures, LIVE-J1 experiment was conducted using ceramic and nitrate particles as high melting and low melting temperature simulant materials, respectively. The test results showed that debris height decreased gradually as the nitrate particles melt, and molten zone and thermal load on vessel wall were shifted from bottom upwards. Both conductive and convective heat transfer could take place in a solid-liquid mixture pool. These results can support the information from the internal investigations of the primary containment vessel and deepen the understanding of the accident progression.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 383, p.111426_1 - 111426_19, 2021/11
The D/W (Drywell) and S/C (Suppression Chamber) pressure data of Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 was analyzed in depth. This analysis provided valuable information related to the accident progression behavior on one hand, and gave a hint for understanding of the debris-to-coolant heat transfer when fuel debris relocated to the pedestal on the other hand. In this unit, the D/W and S/C pressure increased and decreased cyclically with a relationship, which seems to have been dependent on the composition of vapor and non-condensable gases in the S/C cover gas region. Based on this characteristic, the vapor pressure in the S/C cover gas region was evaluated for two pressure decrease cycles during and after the expected debris relocation to the pedestal respectively. This evaluation allowed an understanding that the S/C vapor pressure increased due to the heat transfer from the debris relocated to the pedestal.
間所 寛; 佐藤 一憲
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 376, p.111123_1 - 111123_15, 2021/05
Estimation of the final debris distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) is inevitable for a safe and effective decommissioning. It is necessary to clarify possible failure modes of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), which is influenced by the thermal status of slumped debris that highly depends on the in-vessel accident progression. The accident analysis of 1F Unit 2 (1F2) was conducted using the RELAP/SCDAPSIM code. One of the unsolved issues of 1F2 is the mechanism of three pressure peaks measured through late Mar. 14 to early March 15, 2011. Comparing the results of previous boiling water reactor (BWR) core degradation experiments and that of 1F2 numerical analysis, it can be estimated that most relocated metallic materials had solidified at the core bottom at the onset of first pressure peak. It is likely that the pressure increase occurred due to the evaporation of injected water reaching the heated core plate structures. Between the first and second pressure peaks, the water is assumed to have been injected continuously and the water level was likely to have recovered to BAF at the initiation of the second pressure peak. Probable slumping of a certain amount of molten materials initiated the second pressure peak and the subsequent gradual pressure increase continued possibly due to massive reaction between coolant and remaining Zircaloy in the core. Assuming the closure of the safety relief valve (SRV) at 0:00 on Mar. 15, the third pressure peak was well reproduced in the analysis.
佐藤 一憲; 荒井 雄太*; 吉川 信治
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.434 - 460, 2021/04
The vapor formation within the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is regarded to represent heat removal from core materials to the coolant, while the hydrogen generation within the RPV is regarded to represent heat generation by metal oxidation. Based on this understanding, the history of the vapor/hydrogen generation in the in-vessel phase of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 was evaluated based on the comparison of the observed pressure data and the GOTHIC code analysis results. The resultant vapor/hydrogen generation histories were then converted to heat removal by coolant and heat generation by oxidation. The effects of the decay power and the heat transfer to the structures on the core material energy were also evaluated. The core materials are suggested to be significantly cooled by water within the RPV, especially when the core materials are relocated to the lower plenum.
阿部 雄太; 土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 大石 佑治*; 加美山 隆*; 永江 勇二; 佐藤 一憲
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011075_1 - 011075_6, 2021/03
Since the hardness of fuel debris containing boride from BC pellet in control rod is estimated to be two times higher as that of oxide, such as UO and ZrO, distribution of such boride in the fuel debris formed in the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants may affect the process of debris cutting and removal. The high neutron absorption of boron may affect the possibility of re-criticality during the process of debris removal. Therefore, boride distribution in fuel debris is regarded as an important issue to be addressed. However, boron tends to have difficult in quantification with conventionally applied methods like EPMA and XPS. In this study, accelerator-driven neutron-imaging system was applied. Since boron is the material for neutron absorption, its sensitivity in terms of neutron penetration through specimens is concerned. To adjust neutron attenuation of a specimen to suit a particular measurement by selecting the neutron energy range, we focused on the energy resolved neutron imaging system RADEN, which utilizes wide energy range from meV to keV. Development of a method to visualize boron distribution using energy-resolved neutrons has been started. In this presentation the authors show the status of the development of a method utilizing energy-resolved neutrons and provide some outcome from its application to the Core Material Melting and Relocation (CMMR)-0 and -2 specimens.
土川 雄介; 阿部 雄太; 大石 佑治*; 甲斐 哲也; 藤 暢輔; 瀬川 麻里子; 前田 亮; 木村 敦; 中村 詔司; 原田 正英; et al.
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011074_1 - 011074_6, 2021/03
福島原子力発電所の解体作業では、溶融した燃料棒に含まれるホウ素分布を事前に把握することが重要である。溶融燃料棒の模擬試験体を用意し、ホウ素やホウ化物の含有量を調査する研究が行われてきた。本研究では、その一環として中性子を用いたホウ素並びにホウ化物分布の測定技術開発を行った。ホウ素の中性子吸収に伴う即発ガンマ線を測定し、ホウ素量や二次元分布を測定した。また、n(B,)反応における478keV線は、ホウ素の化合状態により、線ピークの幅が変化することが知られている。このことを用い、特に溶融燃料棒周辺に存在することが予測されているZrBやFeBといったホウ化物の識別可能性について調査した。測定はJ-PARC/MLFのANNRI, NOBORU, RADENにて行った。これらの解析結果について報告する。
土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 阿部 雄太; 大石 佑治*; Sun, Y.*; 及川 健一; 中谷 健; 佐藤 一憲
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 991, p.164964_1 - 164964_5, 2021/03
山下 拓哉; 佐藤 一憲; 本多 剛*; 野崎 謙一朗*; 鈴木 博之*; Pellegrini, M.*; 酒井 健*; 溝上 伸也*
Nuclear Technology, 206(10), p.1517 - 1537, 2020/10
The estimation and understanding of the state of fuel debris and fission products inside the plant is an essential step in the decommissioning of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). However, the direct observation of the plant interior, which is under a high radiation environment. Therefore, in order to understand the plant interior conditions, the comprehensive analysis and evaluation is necessary, based on various measurement data from the plant, analysis of plant data during the accident progression phase and information obtained from computer simulations for this phase. These evaluations can be used to estimate the conditions of the interior of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the primary containment vessel (PCV). Herein, 1F Unit 2 was addressed as the subject to produce an estimated map of the fuel debris distribution from data obtained about the RPV and PCV based on the comprehensive evaluation of various measurement data and information obtained from the accident progression analysis, which were released to the public in June 2018.
阿部 雄太; 土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 大石 佑治*; 加美山 隆*; 永江 勇二; 佐藤 一憲
Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08
Boron carbide is used as a neutron-absorbing material in Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), producing borides that are twice as hard as oxides (such as UO and ZrO). The high neutron absorption of boron affects the evaluation of re-criticality during the process of debris retrieval. Therefore, it is important not only to determine the presence of boron but also to investigate the distribution of boron inside the material in a non-destructive manner during decommissioning. To address the uncertainties in the core material relocation behavior of boiling water reactor (BWR) during a severe accident (SA), solidified melt specimens of a simulated fuel assembly were prepared by plasma heating. If core material melting and relocation (CMMR) specimens can be used to estimate the B distribution in 1F Unit-3, that will provide valuable information in the decommissioning of 1F. To address this, the authors focused on the energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN, which utilizes a wide energy range, from meV to keV. This is an innovative three-dimensional analysis technology for boride distribution that affects the evaluation of hardness and re-criticality. In the calibration standard samples (ZrB and FeB), there was a good correlation between boron concentration and the energy-dependence of the cross sections of cold and epi-thermal neutrons. In the CMMR specimens, boron distribution was confirmed from the contrast difference between cold and epi-thermal neutrons. In the future, the results of calibration standard samples will be applied to the results of CMMR specimens. With this method, three-dimensional boron distribution will be measured, and the understanding of boride distribution 1F Unit-3 will be improved, which may be reflected in an improved SA code.
阿部 雄太; 山下 拓哉; 佐藤 一憲; 中桐 俊男; 石見 明洋
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021113_1 - 021113_9, 2020/04
The authors are developing an experimental technology for simulating severe accident (SA) conditions using simulate fuel material (ZrO) that would contribute, not only to Fukushima Daiichi (1F) decommissioning, but also to enhance the safety of worldwide existing and future nuclear power plants through clarification of accident progression behavior. Nontransfer (NTR) type plasma, which has been in practical use with a large torch capacity as high as 2 MW, has the potential to heat subject materials to very high temperatures without selecting the target to be heated. When simulating 1F with SA code, the target of this core-material-melting and relocation (CMMR) experiment was to confirm that NTR plasma has a sufficient heating performance realizing large temperature gradients ( 2000 K/m) expected under 1F conditions. The authors selected NTR-type plasma-heating technology that has the advantage of continuous heating in addition to its high-temperature level. The CMMR-2 experiments were carried out in 2017 applying the improved technology (higher heating power and controlled oxygen concentration). The CMMR-2 experiment adopted a 30-min heating period, wherein the power was increased to a level where a large temperature gradient was expected at the lower part of the core under actual 1F accident conditions. Most of the control blade and channel box migrated from the original position. After heating, the simulated fuel assembly was measured by X-ray computed tomography (CT) technology and by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). CT pictures and elemental mapping demonstrated its excellent performance with rather good precision. Based on these results, an excellent perspective, in terms of applicability of the NTR-type plasma-heating technology to the SA experimental study, was obtained.
Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; Bottomley, D.; 佐藤 一憲; 永江 勇二; 山崎 宰春
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.370 - 379, 2020/04
The new research and development programme of JAEA/CLADS tests complement the previous investigations related to BWR severe accidents. A series of tests aiming at closing the gaps in understanding of the Fukushima Daiichi degradation sequence at each unit. The paper emphasises the problem of control blade degradation, which influences the accident progression at an early stage and shows the approach for thorough investigation of this problem.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.394 - 411, 2019/05
福島第一3号機の圧力測定システムでは、運転中の蒸発/凝縮を補正するためにその一部に水柱が採用されている。これらの水柱の一部は事故条件下において蒸発し、正しい圧力データが示されていなかった。RPV(原子炉圧力容器), S/C(圧力抑制室)及びD/W(ドライウェル)の各圧力の比較を通し、水柱変化の効果を評価した。これによりRPV, S/C圧力データに対して水柱変化の効果の補正を行った。補正された圧力を用いて、事故進展中のRPV, S/C, D/W間のわずかな圧力差を評価した。この情報を、3号機の水位、CAMS(格納系雰囲気モニタリングシステム)および環境線量率などのデータとともに活用し、RPVおよびPCVの圧力上昇・下降および放射性物質の環境への放出に着目して事故進展挙動の解釈を行った。RPV内およびRPV外の燃料デブリのドライアウトはこれらの圧力低下を引き起こしている可能性がある一方、S/Cからペデスタルに流入したS/C水がペデスタルに移行した燃料デブリによって加熱されたことがPCV加圧の原因となっている。ペデスタル移行燃料デブリの周期的な再冠水とそのドライアウトは、最終的なデブリの再冠水まで数回の周期的な圧力変化をもたらしている。
山下 拓哉; 佐藤 一憲
Proceedings of 9th Conference on Severe Accident Research (ERMSAR 2019) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2019/03
山下 拓哉; 佐藤 一憲; 阿部 雄太; 中桐 俊男; 石見 明洋; 永江 勇二
Proceedings of International Conference on Dismantling Challenges; Industrial Reality, Prospects and Feedback Experience (DEM 2018) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2018/10
阿部 雄太; 山下 拓哉; 佐藤 一憲; 中桐 俊男; 石見 明洋; 永江 勇二
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/07
Authors are developing an experimental technology to realize experiments simulating Severe Accident (SA) conditions using simulant fuel material (ZrO with slight addition of MgO for stabilization) that would contribute not only to Fukushima Daiichi (1F) decommissioning but also to enhance the safety of worldwide existing and future nuclear power plants through clarification of the accident progression behavior. Based on the results of the prototype test, improvement of plasma heating technology was conducted. The Core Material Melting and Relocation (CMMR)-1/-2 experiments were carried out in 2017 with the large-scale simulated fuel assembly (1 m 0.3 m ) applying the improved technology (higher heating power and controlled oxygen concentration). In these two tests, heating history was different resulting basically in similar physical responses with more pronounced material melting and relocation in the CMMR-2 experiment. The CMMR-2 experiment is selected here from the viewpoint of establishing an experimental technology. The CMMR-2 experiment adopted 30-min heating period, the power was increased up to a level so that a large temperature gradient ( 2,000 K/m) expected at the lower part of the core in the actual 1F accident conditions. Most of the control blade and the channel box migrated from the original position. After the heating, the simulated fuel assembly was measured by the X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) technology and by Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). CT pictures and elemental mapping demonstrated its excellent performance with rather good precision. Based on these results, an excellent perspective in terms of applicability of the non-transfer type plasma heating technology to the SA experimental study was obtained.