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JAEA Reports

Document collection of the Special Committee on HTTR Heat Application Test

Aoki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Okita, Shoichiro; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Mizuta, Naoki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki

JAEA-Review 2022-016, 193 Pages, 2022/08

JAEA-Review-2022-016.pdf:42.06MB

Aiming to realize a massive, cost-effective and carbon-free hydrogen production technology utilizing a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is planning a HTTR heat application test producing hydrogen with High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) achieved 950$$^{circ}$$C of the highest reactor outlet coolant temperature in the world. In the HTTR heat application test, it is required to establish its safety design realizing highly safe connection of a HTGR and a hydrogen production plant by the Nuclear Regulation Authority to obtain the permission of changes to reactor installation. However, installation of a system connecting the hydrogen production plant and a nuclear reactor, and its safety design has not been conducted so far in conventional nuclear power plant including HTTR in the world. A special committee on the HTTR heat application test, established under the HTGR Research and Development Center, considered a safety design philosophy for the HTTR heat application test based on an authorized safety design of HTTR in terms of conformity to the New Regulatory Requirements taking into account new considerable events as a result of the plant modification and connection of the hydrogen production plant. This report provides materials of the special committee such as technical reports, comments provided from committee members, response from JAEA for the comments and minutes of the committee.

JAEA Reports

Safety design philosophy of HTTR Heat Application Test Facility

Aoki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Okita, Shoichiro; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Mizuta, Naoki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki

JAEA-Technology 2022-011, 60 Pages, 2022/07

JAEA-Technology-2022-011.pdf:2.08MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is planning a High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) heat application test producing hydrogen with the HTTR which achieved the highest reactor outlet coolant temperature of 950$$^{circ}$$C in the world to realize a massive, cost-effective and carbon-free hydrogen production technology utilizing a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). In the HTTR heat application test, it is required to establish its safety design for coupling a hydrogen production plant to HTGR through the licensing by the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA). A draft of a safety design philosophy for the HTTR heat application test facility was considered taking into account postulated events due to the plant modification and coupling of the hydrogen production plant based on the HTTR safety design which was authorized through the safety review of the NRA against New Regulatory Requirements. The safety design philosophy was examined to apply proven conventional chemical plant standards to the hydrogen production plant for ensuring public safety against disasters caused by high pressure gases. This report presents a result of a consideration on safety design philosophies regarding the reasonability and condition to apply the High Pressure Gas Safety Act for the hydrogen production plant, safety classifications, seismic design classification, identification of important safety system.

Journal Articles

Mesospheric ionization during substorm growth phase

Murase, Kiyoka*; Kataoka, Ryuho*; Nishiyama, Takanori*; Nishimura, Koji*; Hashimoto, Taishi*; Tanaka, Yoshimasa*; Kadokura, Akira*; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro*; Tsutsumi, Masaki*; Ogawa, Yasunobu*; et al.

Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate (Internet), 12, p.18_1 - 18_16, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We identified two energetic electron precipitation (EEP) events during the growth phase of moderate substorms and estimated the mesospheric ionization rate for an EEP event for which the most comprehensive dataset from ground-based and space-born instruments was available. The mesospheric ionization signature reached below 70 km altitude and continued for ~15 min until the substorm onset, as observed by the PANSY radar and imaging riometer at Syowa Station in the Antarctic region. We also used energetic electron flux observed by the Arase and POES 15 satellites as the input for the air-shower simulation code PHITS to quantitatively estimate the mesospheric ionization rate. Combining the cutting-edge observations and simulations, we shed new light on the space weather impact of the EEP events during geomagnetically quiet times, which is important to understand the possible link between the space environment and climate.

Journal Articles

Track-structure modes in Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS); Application to radiobiological research

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Yuho; Yoshii, Yuji*; Parisi, A.*; Liamsuwan, T.*

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 98(2), p.148 - 157, 2022/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:59.74(Biology)

When investigating radiation-induced biological effects, it is essential to perform detailed track-structure simulations explicitly by considering each atomic interaction in liquid water (which is equivalent to human tissues) at sub-cellular and DNA scales. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) is a Monte Carlo code which can be used for track structure calculations by employing an original electron track-structure mode (etsmode) and the world-famous KURBUC algorithms (PHITS-KURBUC mode) for protons and carbon ions. In this study, the physical features (i.e., range, radial dose and microdosimetry) of these modes have been verified by comparing to the available experimental data and Monte Carlo simulation results reported in literature. In addition, applying the etsmode to radiobiological study, we estimated the yields of single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs) and complex DSBs, and evaluated the dependencies of DNA damage yields on incident electron energy. As a result, the simulations suggested that DNA damage types are intrinsically related with the spatial patterns of ionization and electronic excitations and that approximately 500 eV electron can cause much complex DSBs. In this paper, we show the development status of the PHITS track-structure modes and its application to radiobiological research, which would be expected to identify the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects based on physics.

Journal Articles

Design and actual performance of J-PARC 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron for high-intensity operation

Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Tani, Norio; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 32 Pages, 2022/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, the purpose of the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is to accelerate a 1 MW, high-intensity proton beam. To achieve beam operation at a repetition rate of 25 Hz at high intensities, the RCS was elaborately designed. After starting the RCS operation, we carefully verified the validity of its design and made certain improvements to establish a reliable operation at higher power as possible. Consequently, we demonstrated beam operation at a high power, namely, 1 MW. We then summarized the design, actual performance, and improvements of the RCS to achieve a 1 MW beam.

Journal Articles

Track-structure mode for electrons, protons and carbon ions in the PHITS code

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Yuho; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (112), p.15 - 20, 2021/11

Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo code enabling radiation kinetics, which is often used in diverse research fields, such as atomic energy, engineering, medicine and science. After released in 2010, the PHITS code has been developed to expand its functions and to improve its convenience. In the few years, track-structure mode has been introduced in PHITS that can simulate each atomic interaction by electrons, positions, protons and carbon ions in liquid water. Thanks to the development of track-structure mode, the latest PHITS code enables microscopic dose calculations by decomposing it to the scale of DNA. Aiming at realizing the track-structure mode with high precision, the further developments of electron and ion track-structure mode for arbitrary materials are recently ongoing. This review shows the development history and future prospect of PHITS track-structure mode, which can expect to be further applied to the research fields of atomic physics, radiation chemistry, and quantum life science.

Journal Articles

Design for detecting recycling muon after muon-catalyzed fusion reaction in solid hydrogen isotope target

Okutsu, Kenichi*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 170, p.112712_1 - 112712_4, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:48.83(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A muonic molecule which consists of two hydrogen isotope nuclei (deuteron (d) or tritium (t)) and a muon decays immediately via nuclear fusion and the muon will be released as a recycling muon, and start to find another hydrogen isotope nucleus. The reaction cycle continues until the muon ends up its lifetime of 2.2 $$mu$$s. Since the muon does not participate in the nuclear reaction, the reaction is so called a muon catalyzed fusion ($$mu$$CF). The recycling muon has a particular kinetic energy (KE) of the muon molecular orbital when the nuclear reaction occurs. Since the KE is based on the unified atom limit where distance between two nuclei is zero. A precise few-body calculation estimating KE distribution (KED) is also in progress, which could be compared with the experimental results. In the present work, we observed recycling muons after $$mu$$CF reaction.

Journal Articles

Time evolution calculation of muon catalysed fusion; Emission of recycling muons from a two-layer hydrogen film

Yamashita, Takuma*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 169, p.112580_1 - 112580_5, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:72.48(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A muon ($$mu$$) having 207 times larger mass of electron and the same charge as the electron has been known to catalyze a nuclear fusion between deuteron (d) and triton (t). These two nuclei are bound by $$mu$$ and form a muonic hydrogen molecular ion, dt$$mu$$. Due to the short inter-nuclear distance of dt$$mu$$, the nuclear fusion, d +t$$rightarrow alpha$$ + n + 17.6 MeV, occurs inside the molecule. This reaction is called muon catalyzed fusion ($$mu$$CF). Recently, the interest on $$mu$$CF is renewed from the viewpoint of applications, such as a source of high-resolution muon beam and mono-energetic neutron beam. In this work, we report a time evolution calculation of $$mu$$CF in a two-layered hydrogen isotope target.

Journal Articles

Sewage sludge ash contaminated with radiocesium; Solidification with alkaline-reacted metakaolinite (geopolymer) and Portland cement

Kozai, Naofumi; Sato, Junya; Osugi, Takeshi; Shimoyama, Iwao; Sekine, Yurina; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Onuki, Toshihiko

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 416, p.125965_1 - 125965_9, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:79(Engineering, Environmental)

Journal Articles

Early emergency responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency against the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident in 2011

Okuno, Hiroshi; Sato, Sohei; Kawakami, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tadao

Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 46(2), p.66 - 79, 2021/06

The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was a typical one of the disastrous damages that induced evacuation of the residents around the NPS, which was triggered by the hugest earthquake and associated tsunami. This paper summarized early responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), especially of its Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) to the off-site emergencies associated with the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper addressed activities of emergency preparedness of the NEAT before 2011 in relevant to the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS, the situation of the NEAT on March 11, 2011, and its early responses to the related off-site emergencies including those caused by the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper also discussed issues associated with complex disasters.

Journal Articles

Measurement of Doppler broadening of prompt gamma-rays from various zirconium- and ferro-borons

Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Abe, Yuta; Oishi, Yuji*; Sun, Y.*; Oikawa, Kenichi; Nakatani, Takeshi; Sato, Ikken

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 991, p.164964_1 - 164964_5, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Peak shape analysis was performed for the energy spectra of Doppler-broadened prompt $$gamma$$-rays generated by neutron capture reactions with various boride or boron samples. Significant differences were observed between nonmetallic and metallic borides. Minor differences between the peak shapes of prompt $$gamma$$-rays from zirconium- and ferro-borons were evaluated by a peak fitting method. The identification of zirconium- and ferro-borons and other types of borides was estimated.

Journal Articles

Verification of KURBUC-based ion track structure mode for proton and carbon ions in the PHITS code

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Liamsuwan, T.*; Sasaki, Kohei*; Nikjoo, H.*

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 66(6), p.06NT02_1 - 06NT02_11, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:94.36(Engineering, Biomedical)

A general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS), has the ability to handle diverse particle types over a wide range of energy. In PHITS version 3.20, ion track structure mode has been developed based on the algorithms in the KURBUC code, which enables to simulate the atomic interactions by primary ion and secondary particles (named as PHITS-KURBUC mode). In this study, we compared the range, radial dose distributions, and microdosimetric distributions calculated using the PHITS-KURBUC mode to the corresponding data obtained from the original KURBUC and from other studies. These comparative studies confirm the successful inclusion of the KURBUC code in the PHITS code. As results of the synergistic effect between the macroscopic and microscopic radiation transport codes, this implementation enabled the detailed calculation of the microdosimetric and nanodosimetric quantities under complex radiation fields, such as proton beam therapy with the spread-out Bragg peak. This PHITS-KURBUC mode is expected to pave the way for next-generation radiation researches, such as radiation physics, radiological protection, medical physics, and radiation biology.

Journal Articles

High temperature gas-cooled reactors

Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02

As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950$$^{circ}$$C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal Articles

Observation of Coulomb-assisted nuclear bound state of $$Xi^-$$-$$^{14}$$N system

Hayakawa, Shuhei; Fujita, Manami; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Hosomi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Yudai; Imai, Kenichi*; Nanamura, Takuya; Naruki, Megumi; Sako, Hiroyuki; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(6), p.062501_1 - 062501_6, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:98.17(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Study on the baryon interaction by $$Xi$$ hypernuclear spectroscopy with the $$(K^-, K^+)$$ reaction

Gogami, Toshiyuki*; Fujita, Manami; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Hosomi, Kenji; Imai, Kenichi*; Ichikawa, Yudai; Nanamura, Takuya; Naruki, Megumi; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sato, Susumu; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1643, p.012133_1 - 012133_6, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.09

Journal Articles

Study of $$Sigma N$$ interaction from the $$Sigma p$$ scattering experiment at J-PARC

Miwa, Koji*; Fujita, Manami; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Hosomi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Masaya; Ichikawa, Yudai; Imai, Kenichi*; Nanamura, Takuya; Naruki, Megumi; Sako, Hiroyuki; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1643, p.012174_1 - 012174_6, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:92.22

Journal Articles

Comprehensive analysis and evaluation of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2

Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Ikken; Honda, Takeshi*; Nozaki, Kenichiro*; Suzuki, Hiroyuki*; Pellegrini, M.*; Sakai, Takeshi*; Mizokami, Shinya*

Nuclear Technology, 206(10), p.1517 - 1537, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:91.73(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Study of the transverse beam instability caused by the resistive-wall impedance at the J-PARC main ring

Kobayashi, Aine*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Takeshi*; Sato, Yoichi*

Proceedings of 17th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.684 - 688, 2020/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Guidance for developing fuel design limit of high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Sato, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Takeshi; Ohashi, Hirofumi

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2020/08

The present study aims to propose a guidance that facilitates to determine fuel design limits of commercial HTGR on the basis of licensing experience through the HTTR construction. The guidance consists of a set of FOMs and a process to determine their evaluation criteria. The FOMs are firstly identified to satisfy safety requirements and a basic concept of safety guides established in a special committee under the AESJ with the support of the Research Association of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Plant. The development process for the evaluation criteria takes into account not only the top-level regulatory criteria but also design dependent constraints including the performance of fission product containment in physical barriers other than fuel, fuel qualification criteria, design specifications of an instrumentation and control system. As a result, a comprehensive and transparent procedure for designers of prismatic-type commercial HTGR has been developed.

Journal Articles

Methodology development for transient flow distribution analysis in high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Aoki, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

The flow distribution analysis, which is a part of thermal hydraulic design of the prismatic-type of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) considering unintended flows between graphite blocks, has been performed for steady and conservative conditions. On the other hand, the transient analysis for satisfactorily realistic conditions will be helpful for the design improvement of prismatic-type HTGR. The present study aims to develop the transient flow distribution analysis code and confirm its applicability for the transient flow distribution analysis for prismatic-type HTGRs during anticipated operational occurrences and accidents utilizing experiences on high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) design. The calculation model and code were developed and validated for analysis of the unintended flows in the core and the molecular diffusion dominant in beginning air ingress behavior in an air ingress accident.

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