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JAEA Reports

Stabilization treatment of Pu-bearing organic materials

Morishita, Kazuki; Sato, Takumi; Onishi, Takashi; Seki, Takayuki*; Sekine, Shinichi*; Okitsu, Yuichi*

JAEA-Technology 2021-024, 27 Pages, 2021/10

JAEA-Technology-2021-024.pdf:2.41MB

In the case of Plutonium (Pu)-bearing organic materials, organic materials are decomposed by alpha rays emitted mainly from Pu to generate hydrogen gas and other substances. Therefore, to safely store Pu-bearing organic materials for an extended period of time, organic materials must be eliminated. In addition, carbide and nitride fuels must be converted into oxides for safe storage in order to prevent the exothermal reaction of these fuels with oxygen/moisture in air. A survey of the literature on the stabilization treatment of Pu-bearing organic materials confirmed that organic materials can be decomposed and removed by heating at 950 $$^{circ}$$C (1223.15 K) or greater in air. Furthermore, based on the calculated thermodynamic parameters of oxidation reaction of carbide and nitride fuels in air, it was estimated that these fuels would be oxidized in air at 950 $$^{circ}$$C because the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure in the oxidation reaction at 950 $$^{circ}$$C was lower than 2.1$$times$$10$$^{4}$$ Pa (oxygen partial pressure in air). Therefore, it was decided to stabilize Pu-bearing organic materials by heating at 950 $$^{circ}$$C in air to remove the organic materials and oxidize the carbide and nitride fuels. As a mock-up test to remove the organic materials, thin sheets of epoxy resin were heated in air. The changes in appearance and weight before and after heating in air showed that organic materials can be removed. After the mock-up test, Pu-bearing organic materials were also stabilized by heating in the similar condition.

Journal Articles

Application of virtual tour for online training safeguards exercises

Sekine, Megumi; Sukegawa, Hidetoshi; Ishikuro, Yasuhiro; Oyama, Koji; Obata, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) developed the virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility. The developed virtual tour was applied to the Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) workshop exercise for the online SSAC course held in November 2020 in connection with the IAEA safeguards-related regional training course. Also, it was applied to the Complementary Access (CA) exercise for the online workshop of the Nuclear Security and Safeguards Project under the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), held in February 2021. The workshop exercises have been implemented for in-person format however due to COVID-19 pandemic, a virtual tour was applied. The virtual tour was found to be a strong tool not only for online training as an alternative for a facility tour, but also considered to be more advantageous even for the in-person training. The developed virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility, going to shut down, can find potentially varied applications. The paper describes how to create a virtual tour of a reference research reactor facility for the DIQ and CA exercises respectively which have different learning objectives. It emphasizes how the features of the reference facility were captured and the challenges encountered to convey to the training participants the importance of providing the required design information while not being physically present at the facility. It also show the advantage of using the same virtual tour to describe the safeguards-related verification activities of a complementary access. Virtual tours can be applied to a variety of training.

Journal Articles

Radioactivity and radionuclides in deciduous teeth formed before the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Takahashi, Atsushi*; Chiba, Mirei*; Tanahara, Akira*; Aida, Jun*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Suzuki, Toshihiko*; Murakami, Shinobu*; Koarai, Kazuma; Ono, Takumi*; Oka, Toshitaka; et al.

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.10355_1 - 10355_11, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:65.97(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Journal Articles

Development of spin-contrast-variation neutron powder diffractometry for extracting the structure factor of hydrogen atoms

Miura, Daisuke*; Kumada, Takayuki; Sekine, Yurina; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oba, Yojiro; Ohara, Takashi; Takata, Shinichi; Hiroi, Kosuke; Morikawa, Toshiaki*; et al.

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 54(2), p.454 - 460, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We developed a spin-contrast-variation neutron powder diffractometry technique that extracts the structure factor of hydrogen atoms, namely, the contribution of hydrogen atoms to a crystal structure factor. Crystals of L-glutamic acid were dispersed in a dpolystyrene matrix containing 4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO methacrylate) to polarize their proton spins dynamically. The intensities of the diffraction peaks of the sample changed according to the proton polarization, and the structure factor of the hydrogen atoms was extracted from the proton-polarization dependent intensities. This technique is expected to enable analyses of the structures of hydrogen-containing materials that are difficult to determine with conventional powder diffractometry.

JAEA Reports

Measurement and analysis of in-vessel component activation and gamma dose rate distribution in Joyo, 2

Yamamoto, Takahiro; Ito, Chikara; Maeda, Shigetaka; Ito, Hideaki; Sekine, Takashi

JAEA-Technology 2017-036, 41 Pages, 2018/02

JAEA-Technology-2017-036.pdf:7.86MB

In the experimental fast reactor Joyo, the damaged upper core structure (UCS) was retrieved into the cask in May 2014 The dose rate on UCS surface was quite high due to the activation for over 30 years operation. In order to attain the optimum safety design, manufacture and operation of equipment for UCS replacement, the method to evaluate UCS surface dose rate was developed on the basis of C/E obtained by the in-vessel dose rate measurement in Joyo. In order to verify the evaluation method, the axial gamma-ray distribution measurement on the surface of the cask, which contained UCS, was conducted using a plastic scintillating optical fiber (PSF) detector. This paper describes the comparison results between calculation and measurement as follows. (1) The measured axial gamma-ray distribution on the cask surface had a peak on proper location with considering the cask shielding structure and agree well with the calculated distribution. (2) The C/E of axial gamma-ray distribution on the cask surface was ranged from 1.1 to 1.7. It was confirmed that the calculation for UCS replacement equipment design had a margin conservatively. Then, the results showed that the developed evaluation method for UCS replacement equipment design was sufficiently reliable.

Journal Articles

Effects of interaction between molten zircaloy and irradiated MOX fuel on the fission product release behavior

Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sato, Isamu; Hirosawa, Takashi; Sekine, Shinichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shinichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(7-8), p.876 - 885, 2014/07

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:43.74(Nuclear Science & Technology)

As a first step for obtaining experimental data on the effects of high-temperature chemical interaction on fission product (FP) release behavior, we focused on the dissolution of irradiated uranium plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel by molten zircaloy (Zry), and carried out a heating test under the reducing atmosphere. Pieces of an irradiated MOX fuel pellet and cladding were subjected to the heating test at 2373 K for 5 min. The fractional release rate of cesium (specifically $$^{137}$$Cs) was monitored during the test and its release behavior was evaluated. The observation of microstructures and measurements of elemental distribution in the heated specimen were also performed. We demonstrated experimentally that the fuel dissolution by molten Zry accelerated the release of Cs from the fuel pellets.

Journal Articles

In-vessel inspection probing technique using optical fibers under high radiation dose

Ito, Chikara; Naito, Hiroyuki; Oba, Hironori; Saeki, Morihisa; Ito, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Akihiko; Wakaida, Ikuo; Sekine, Takashi

Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-22) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2014/07

A high-radiation resistant optical fiber has been developed in order to investigate the interiors of the reactor pressure vessels and the primary containment vessels of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The radiation resistance of an optical fiber was improved by increasing the amount of hydroxyl up to 1000 ppm in pure silica fiber. The improved image fiber consists of common cladding and a large number of fiber cores made from pure silica that contains 1000 ppm hydroxyl. The transmissive rate of an infrared image was not affected after the irradiation of 1 MGy. We have developed the fiber-coupled LIBS system to detect plasma emission efficiently in near-infrared region. In addition, we have performed a $$gamma$$ ray dose rate measurement using an optical fiber of which scintillator is attached to the tip. As a result, the concept of applicability of a probing system using the high-radiation resistant optical fibers has been confirmed.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of fission product and actinide release behaviors focusing on their chemical forms; Phase relation and fission product release behavior resulting from interaction between molten zircaloy and irradiated MOX fuel

Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sato, Isamu; Hirosawa, Takashi; Sekine, Shinichi; Seki, Takayuki*; Tokoro, Daishiro*; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shinichi

JAEA-Research 2013-022, 62 Pages, 2014/01

JAEA-Research-2013-022.pdf:33.64MB

In order to establish the method for heating tests focused on the fission product release resulting from the high temperature chemical interaction between fuel and cladding material and to obtain the novel data on fission product release behaviors, the heating test was carried out with irradiate MOX fuel pellet and cladding.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of irradiation behavior on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings irradiated in Joyo/CMIR-6

Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Sekine, Manabu; Endo, Toshiaki; Yamagata, Ichiro; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Tanno, Takashi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2013-030, 57 Pages, 2013/11

JAEA-Research-2013-030.pdf:48.2MB

It is necessary to develop the fast reactor core materials, which can achieve high-burnup operation improving safety and economical performance. Ferritic steels are expected to be good candidate core materials to achieve this objective because of their excellent void swelling resistance. Therefore, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel and 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) have been respectively developed for cladding and wrapper tube materials in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, the effects of fast neutron irradiation on mechanical properties and microstructure of 9Cr-and 12Cr-ODS steel claddings for fast reactor were investigated. Specimens were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor Joyo using the CMIR-6 at temperatures between 420 and 835$$^{circ}$$C to fast neutron doses ranging from 16 to 33 dpa. The post-irradiation ring tensile tests were carried out at irradiation temperatures.

Journal Articles

Verification of JUPITER standard analysis method for upgrading Joyo MK-III core design and management

Maeda, Shigetaka; Ito, Chikara; Sekine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi

Journal of Power and Energy Systems (Internet), 6(2), p.184 - 196, 2012/06

The verification of calculated core characteristics of the Joyo MK-III core using the JUPITER fast reactor standard analysis method was conducted by comparing with the measured values through the core physics tests. The purpose is to upgrade the core performance to increase the driver fuel burn-up and to increase the excess reactivity necessary for conducting various irradiation tests in the core region. Most of the C/Es are within 5% of unity. Through the comparisons, the calculation accuracy of the JUPITER standard analysis method for a small size sodium cooled fast reactor with a hard neutron spectrum was clarified. As a result of this study, more irradiation tests can be performed with appropriate safety margin and the efficient core and fuel management can be achieved to save the number of refueling.

JAEA Reports

Compatibility of zirconium alloys in high-temperature sodium

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kato, Shoichi; Maeda, Shigetaka; Yamamoto, Masaya; Sekine, Takashi; Ito, Chikara

JAEA-Research 2011-039, 20 Pages, 2012/02

JAEA-Research-2011-039.pdf:3.4MB

Application of zirconium alloy as a neutron reflector around the driver fuel region of the Japanese experimental fast reactor JOYO has been planned for a further increase of core average burn-up. In order to investigate the compatibility of the zirconium alloys with high-temperature sodium which is coolant of the JOYO, corrosion test in sodium and tensile test of the exposed alloys were performed. The corrosion test was done at 500$$^{circ}$$C and 650$$^{circ}$$C in stagnant/flowing sodium for two kinds of zirconium alloys, and then weight change measurement and metallurgical observation were carried out. The tensile test was performed in air at the same temperature with the sodium exposure.

Journal Articles

Verification of JUPITER standard analysis method for upgrading Joyo MK-III core design and management

Maeda, Shigetaka; Ito, Chikara; Sekine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi

Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-19) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2011/10

The verification of calculated core characteristics of the Joyo MK-III core using the JUPITER fast reactor standard analysis method was conducted by comparing with the measured values through the core physics tests. The purpose is to upgrade the core performance to increase the driver fuel burn-up and to increase the excess reactivity necessary for conducting various irradiation tests in the core region. Most of the C/Es are within 5% of unity. Through the comparisons, the calculation accuracy of the JUPITER standard analysis method for a small size sodium cooled fast reactor with a hard neutron spectrum like Joyo was clarified. As a result of this study, more irradiation tests can be performed with appropriate safety margin and the efficient core and fuel management can be achieved to save the number of refueling.

Journal Articles

The Project for grouting development for high level radioactive waste repository, 3; Study of allowable seepage water quantity by permiability test though contact face of buffer material blocks

Sekine, Ichiro*; Yamada, Tsutomu*; Sekiguchi, Takashi*; Fujita, Tomo; Nakanishi, Tatsuro

Doboku Gakkai Heisei-23-Nendo Zenkoku Taikai Dai-66-Kai Nenji Gakujutsu Koenkai Koen Gaiyoshu (DVD-ROM), p.69 - 70, 2011/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Core modification to improve irradiation efficiency of the experimental fast reactor Joyo

Maeda, Shigetaka; Yamamoto, Masaya; Soga, Tomonori; Sekine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 48(4), p.693 - 700, 2011/04

Core modification was investigated to further increase the core burn-up of the experimental fast reactor Joyo. This modification also enables the core to accommodate more irradiation test subassemblies that have lower fissile material content compared to the driver fuel. The design calculations showed that the replacement of the radial reflector elements made of stainless steel with those made of zirconium of nickel-base ally is effective in improving neutron efficiency. The irradiation tests capacity can be increased by reducing the number of control rods based on the re-evaluation of the design margin in the control rod worth calculation. These modifications will be useful to save driver fuels and to enhance the Joyo's irradiation capability.

Journal Articles

The Project for grouting development for high level radioactive waste repository, 4; Development of superfine spherical silica grout

Yamada, Tsutomu*; Sekine, Ichiro*; Sekiguchi, Takashi*; Ishida, Hideaki*; Kishi, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Naomi

Doboku Gakkai Heisei-22-Nendo Zenkoku Taikai Dai-65-Kai Nenji Gakujutsu Koenkai Koen Gaiyoshu (DVD-ROM), p.89 - 90, 2010/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of observation techniques in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor Joyo

Takamatsu, Misao; Imaizumi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Akinori; Sekine, Takashi; Maeda, Yukimoto

Journal of Power and Energy Systems (Internet), 4(1), p.113 - 125, 2010/00

During the investigation of an incident that occurred with the experimental fast reactor Joyo, in-vessel observations using a standard Video Camera (VC) and a Radiation-Resistant Fiberscope (RRF) took place at (1) the top of the Sub-Assemblies (S/As) and the In-Vessel Storage rack (IVS), (2) the bottom face of the Upper Core Structure (UCS) under the condition with the level of sodium at -50 mm below the top of the S/As. A simple 6 m overhead view of each S/A, through the fuel handling or inspection holes etc, was photographed using a VC fixed to the rotating-plug with the acrylic panel for making observations of the top of S/As and IVS. About 650 photographs were required to create a composite photograph of the top of the entire S/As and IVS, and a resolution was estimated to be approximately 1 mm. In order to observe the bottom face of the UCS, a remote handling device equipped with RRFs (approximately 13 m long) was specifically developed for Joyo with a tip that could be bent into an L-shape and inserted into the 70 mm gap between the top of the S/As and the bottom of the UCS. A total of about 35,000 photographs were needed for the full investigation. Regarding the resolution, the sodium flow regulating grid of 0.8 mm in thickness could be discriminated, and the base of thermocouple sleeves 6 mm in diameter located 450 mm above the top of S/As were also clearly observed. In both types of observations, it was confirmed that lighting adjustments play a critical role. Particularly in narrow space observations, scattered lighting with automatic dimming controlled light source was available for achieving close observations of the in-vessel structures. In addition to the successful result of the incident investigation, these experiments provided valuable insights for use in further improving and verifying in-vessel observation techniques in sodium cooled fast reactors.

Journal Articles

Development of observation techniques in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor Joyo

Takamatsu, Misao; Imaizumi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Akinori; Sekine, Takashi; Maeda, Yukimoto

Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-17) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2009/07

During the investigation of an incident in Joyo, in-vessel observations using a Video Camera (VC) and a Radiation-Resistant Fiberscope (RRF) took place at (1) the top of the Sub-Assemblies (S/As) and the In-Vessel Storage rack (IVS), (2) the bottom face of the Upper Core Structure (UCS). A simple 6 m overhead view of each S/A was photographed using a VC fixed to the rotating-plug for making observations of the top of S/As and IVS. A resolution was estimated to be approximately 1mm. In order to observe the bottom face of the UCS, a remote handling device equipped with RRFs was specifically developed for Joyo with a tip that can be bent into an L-shape and inserted into the 70 mm gap between the top of the S/As and the bottom of the UCS. The sodium flow regulating grid of 0.8mm in thickness could be discriminated. These experiments provided valuable insights for use in further improving and verifying in-vessel observation techniques in sodium cooled fast reactors.

Journal Articles

In-vessel visual inspection of experimental fast reactor Joyo

Itagaki, Wataru; Sekine, Takashi; Imaizumi, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Shigetaka; Ashida, Takashi; Takamatsu, Misao; Nagai, Akinori; Maeda, Yukimoto

Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation, Measurement Methods and their Applications (ANIMMA 2009) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2009/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Characterization of neutron fields in the experimental fast reactor Joyo MK-III core

Maeda, Shigetaka; Ito, Chikara; Okawachi, Yasushi; Sekine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi

Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008, p.474 - 482, 2009/00

In 2003 the Joyo reactor upgrade to the MK-III core was completed to increase the irradiation testing capability. This study describes the detail distributions of neutron flux and reaction rate in the MK-III core were experimentally obtained by characterization test during the first two operating cycles. Accuracy of the calculated methods in fast reactor was evaluated by comparing results of DORT, TORT and MCNP. The all calculated reaction rates of $$^{235}$$U(n,f) agreed well with the measured values about 5% in the fuel region and less than 10% in the reflector region and B$$_{4}$$C shielding subassembly. However, a large discrepancy more than 10% was observed in the central non-fuel irradiation test subassembly and radial reflector region by DORT and TORT. The MCNP can reduce this discrepancy to 6%. Specific areas of difference, such as uranium fission reaction in non-fuel subassemblies, are understood and correction methods were identified.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of irradiation capability of the experimental fast reactor Joyo

Maeda, Shigetaka; Sekine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju

Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008, p.607 - 615, 2009/00

The experimental fast reactor Joyo is the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. One of the primary missions of it is to perform irradiation tests of fuel and structural materials to support the development of fast reactors. The MK-III high performance core upgrade to enhance the irradiation testing capabilities was completed in 2003. In order to expand Joyo's capabilities for innovative irradiation testing applications, neutron spectrum tailoring, lower irradiation temperature, sample movable devices and fast neutron beam holes are being considered. By this program, the latent core performance is sufficiently drawn. It accurately responds to existing irradiation needs and aims at further various irradiations.

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