茂木 孝介; 柴本 泰照; 久木田 豊
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 184, p.109679_1 - 109679_10, 2023/05
Inertial deposition of small (less than a few m in diameter) aerosol particles in mm-scale bubbles is an old but unsettled issue in modeling of pool scrubbing phenomenon. Whereas existing practical models give no specific consideration to the bubble-internal transport, some studies have shown that inertial transport affects considerably the particle deposition rate. We show, on the basis of Lagrangian simulations of particles advected by steady internal circulation in a spherical bubble, that particle centrifugal velocity becomes scale invariant for low- Stokes numbers (St ) when the characteristic timescale is chosen to be that for transversal particle motion at the Stokes terminal velocity corresponding to the local fluid acceleration. Because a scaling law can be derived by running simulations with a small number of particles, it can provide a practical tool for considering the influence of inertial particle transport within the bubble on the decontamination factor.
岡垣 百合亜; 柴本 泰照; 和田 裕貴; 安部 諭; 日引 俊詞*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 14 Pages, 2023/00
Pool scrubbing is an important filtering process that prevents radioactive aerosols from entering the environment in the event of severe accidents in a nuclear reactor. In this process of transporting aerosol particles using bubbles, bubble hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in modeling pool scrubbing and significantly affects particle removal in a bubble. The pool scrubbing code based on Lumped Parameter (LP) approach includes the particle removal model, and its hydrodynamic parameters are determined based on simple assumptions. We aim to apply the three-dimensional Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to understand the detailed bubble interaction. This study validated the applicability of the CFD simulation to bubble hydrodynamics at the flow transition from a globule to a swarm region, which is critical in the stand-alone pool scrubbing code-SPARC-90. Two types of solvers based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) and the Simple Coupled Volume Of Fluid with Level Set (S-CLSVOF) methods were used to capture the gas-liquid interface in the CFD simulation. We used the experimental data for validation. As a result, the VOF and S-CLSVOF methods accurately predicted the bubble size and void fraction distributions. In addition, we confirmed that the bubble rise velocity of the S-CLSVOF method almost agreed with the experimental results.
Hamdani, A.; 安部 諭; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 153, p.104415_1 - 104415_16, 2022/11
This paper describes the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and validation works from the previous experimental study on the natural convection driven by outer surface cooling in the presence of density stratification consisting of air and helium (as a mimic gas of hydrogen). The experiment was conducted in the Containment InteGral effects Measurement Apparatus (CIGMA) facility at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The numerical simulation was carried out to analyze the detailed effect of the cooling region on the erosion of the helium stratification layer. The temporal and spatial evolution of the helium concentration and the gas temperature inside the containment vessel was predicted and validated against the experimental data. In addition, two stratification behaviors that depend on the cooling location were presented and discussed. The CFD simulation confirmed that an upper head cooling caused two counter-rotating vortexes in the helium-rich zone. Meanwhile, the upper half body cooling caused two counter-rotating vortexes in the helium-poor zone. These findings are important to understand the mechanism of the density stratification process driven by natural convection in the containment vessel.
茂木 孝介; 柴本 泰照; 久木田 豊
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(8), p.1037 - 1046, 2022/08
Lagrangian particle tracking simulations are performed on aerosol particle removal from a spherical bubble rising in a water pool. The bubble internal circulation is assumed to be given by the Hill's vortex stream function. Monodispersed particles in the 0.1-1.0 um radius range are simulated. The results are discussed with a focus on the development of particle concentration profile and its influence on removal rates, with the aid of comparisons with Eulerian models including the lumped-parameter model by Fuchs. The results are discussed with a focus on the development of particle concentration profile and its influence on removal rates, with the aid of comparisons with Eulerian models including the lumped-parameter model by Fuchs. It is shown that a quick growth of bubble-surface diffusion layer causes a transition of dominant removal mechanisms from unsteady Brownian diffusion to inertial migration. Fuchs's model, not designed to consider such transition, overpredicts the removal rates for small particles. It is also shown that inertial migration produces a surface-peaked concentration profile in the bubble, resulting in higher removal rates than predicted by Fuchs's lumped-parameter model.
廣瀬 意育; 久木田 豊; 柴本 泰照; 佐川 淳*
Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2022/03
Electric impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive and radiation-free imaging method applicable to gas/liquid two-phase flow measurements. It determines the electrical resistivity distribution of an object from measurements of boundary potentials in response to current injection. Due to the severely ill posed nature of the problem, the quality of reconstructed image depends much on the quality and amount of information available from potential measurements. We have proposed a DC pulse-driven EIT system design equipped with countermeasures for the influences of electrode polarization on potential measurements (Hirose et al., in preparation). The usefulness of EIT in two-phase flow measurement is however restricted by the intrinsically limited spatial resolution. Due to the diffusive nature of electricity, the spatial resolution degrades quickly with the distance from the boundary. In this study, we attempt to improve the spatial resolution by adding thin electrodes inserted into the flow field away from the boundary. Although this means that non-invasiveness is traded off, the influence of invasive electrodes on flow field could be estimated and limited on the basis of experiences gained with other intrusive methods, e.g., needle probes for measurement of interfacial area. The benefit taken by the addition of invasive electrodes, on the other hand, would depend on two-phase flow regime and other flow parameters. In the present paper we consider dispersed bubbly flow and simulate the bubbles with thin cylindrical insulators. The results obtained with and without invasive electrodes are compared to discuss the effectiveness and limitations in measurement of two-phase flow.
相馬 秀; 安部 諭; 柴本 泰照; 石垣 将宏*
Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/03
The experimental data of boundary layer profiles are necessary to validate condensation models applied in numerical simulation of CFD codes and also to develop wall treatment models for heat and mass transfer in the presence of significant buoyancy and suction. The available data for velocity, temperature, and concentration boundary layer, however, is quite limited. In this study, we present experimental results of measuring boundary layer profiles by our experimental facility WINCS (WINd tunnel for Condensation of Steam and air mixture). WINCS is a once-through type of wind tunnel having a 1.5m-long measuring part of rectangular duct. The velocity and temperature profiles were obtained with laser doppler velocimetry and thermocouple, respectively. The temperature data was then used to calculate the steam concentration boundary layer by assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. The laminar boundary layer profiles were obtained in the present condition. The dropwise condensation and fimwise condensation are available in this apparatus. We also conducted numerical simulations with CFD codes and compared the experimental and numerical results of boundary layer profiles and heat fluxes. The wall condensation model based on Stefan flow and bulk condensation model were used in the numerical analysis. The comparison, in general, shows good agreement between the experimental and numerical results.
安部 諭; 小尾 善男*; 佐藤 聡; 岡垣 百合亜; 柴本 泰照
Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/03
A modeling of heat transfers with boiling transition (BT) and that after the occurrence of BT, called post-BT, is one of the key technical issues to estimate the duration of surface dryout and the peak cladding temperature during DBA (Design Basis Accident) and BDBA (Beyond Design Basis Accident) in light water reactors. Recently, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has emerged as a powerful tool for representing the heat transfer mechanism. Our main purpose is to obtain in-depth physical insight into the BT and post-BT phenomena by combining experiment and CFD simulation research. This paper introduces our developing activity for an integrated three-field two-fluid CFD methodology based on the Eulerian-Eulerian approach toward the accurate prediction of the dryout behavior from annular-mist to mist flow regimes. We implemented following interaction terms and functions into OpenFOAM ver.7, an opensource code developed by OpenFOAM foundation, as (1) Interaction terms between liquid film and droplets due to deposition and entrainment, (2) Interaction terms on the liquid interface between the liquid film and the gas phase on friction and heat conduction, (3) Heat transfer from the heated wall to the liquid film, (4) Dryout occurrence judgement and the switching function on the boundary condition. The dryout occurrence judgment is based on a correlation on critical film thickness, which is originally applied into the MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code. A trial calculation with the developed solver called two Phase Three Field Euler Foam was performed to check the solver operation. The CFD could simulate temperature increase behavior due to the dryout occurrence, whereas here were still challenges in reproducing the transition from mist flow to single-phase vapor flow.
安部 諭; Hamdani, A.; 石垣 将宏*; 柴本 泰照
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 166, p.108791_1 - 108791_18, 2022/02
This paper describes an experimental investigation of natural convection driven by outer surface cooling in the presence of density stratification consisting of an air-helium gas mixture (as mimic gas of hydrogen) in an enclosed vessel. The unique cooling system of the Containment InteGral effects Measurement Apparatus (whose test vessel is a cylinder with 2.5-m diameter and 11-m height) is used, and findings reveal that the cooling location relative to the stratification plays an important role in determining the interaction behavior of the heat and mass transfer in the enclosed vessel. When the cooling region is narrower than the stratification thickness, the density-stratified region expands to the lower part while decreasing in concentration (stratification dissolution). When the cooling region is wider than the stratification thickness, the stratification is gradually eroded from the bottom with decreasing layer thickness (stratification breakup). This knowledge is useful for understanding the interaction behavior of heat and mass transfer during severe accidents in nuclear power plants.
廣瀬 意育; 佐川 淳*; 柴本 泰照; 久木田 豊
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 81, p.102006_1 - 102006_9, 2021/10
An electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system design is proposed for imaging of phase distribution in gas-water two-phase flow from boundary measurement of electrical potentials in response to direct current (DC) injection. DC injection simplifies substantially the system design, but introduces problems due to polarization of injection electrodes. Electrode polarization means charge accumulation on the electrode-water interface causing a drift in the interfacial potential difference. The polarization problems are coped with by using dedicated electrodes for injection and potential measurement, and using a current source unaffected by the polarization of current-carrying electrodes (CCEs). Furthermore, the polarization of CCEs is controlled, to lessen the possible influence on the sensing electrodes (SEs), by using a short (milliseconds in width) pulse for injection with a charge balanced injection strategy. The impact of electrode polarization and the effectiveness of countermeasures introduced in the present design are discussed through comparisons of measured boundary potentials and of images reconstructed for a simple object simulating large bubbles in water.
安部 諭; 岡垣 百合亜; 佐藤 聡; 柴本 泰照
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 159, p.108321_1 - 108321_12, 2021/09
Heat transfer in the rod bundle is augmented by the mixing vanes on the spacer grid. We conducted a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with three isotropic turbulence models - standard -epsilon, realizable -epsilon, and SST -omega models - to investigate the relationship between heat transfer and turbulence behaviors downstream a simulant spacer (with four vanes) in a single tube under single-phase flow conditions. Quantitatively, the predicted heat transfer coefficient (HTC), secondary flow intensity, and turbulence intensity with the SST -omega model displayed a better agreement (than the other isotropic models) with the correlation based on previous studies. Furthermore, the turbulence production was localized in the near-spacer region (z/D 10, where D is the inner diameter), which corresponds with the HTC argumentation region. These results indicate that examining the turbulence production when discussing the HTC augmentation downstream the spacer is essential.
孫 昊旻; 柴本 泰照; 廣瀬 意育; 久木田 豊
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(9), p.1048 - 1057, 2021/09
竹田 武司; 和田 裕貴; 柴本 泰照
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11(1), p.17 - 42, 2021/01
Many experiments have been conducted on accidents and transients of pressurized water reactor (PWR) employing the rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility (ROSA/LSTF). Major results of the related integral effect tests with the LSTF were reviewed to experimentally identify thermal-hydraulic phenomena involved, regarding the PWR accident sequences in accordance with the new regulatory requirements for the Japanese light-water nuclear power plants. Key results of the recent integral effect tests utilizing the LSTF and future plans were presented relevant to multiple steam generator tube rupture accident with recovery operation, small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with accident management measure on core exit temperature reliability, and small-break LOCA with thermal stratification under cold water injection from emergency core cooling system into cold legs.
安部 諭; Studer, E.*; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 368, p.110785_1 - 110785_14, 2020/11
The hydrogen behavior in a nuclear containment vessel is one of the significant issues raised when discussing the potential of hydrogen combustion during a severe accident. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for better understanding the turbulence transport behavior of a gas mixture, including hydrogen. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) is a practical-use approach for simulating the averaged gaseous behavior in a large and complicated geometry, such as a nuclear containment vessel; however, some improvements are required. We implemented the dynamic modeling for based on the previous studies into the OpenFOAM ver 2.3.1 package. The experimental data obtained by using a small scale test apparatus at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was used to validate the RANS methodology. Moreover, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) was performed to phenomenologically discuss the interaction behavior. The comparison study indicated that the turbulence production ratio by shear stress and buoyancy force predicted by the RANS with the dynamic modeling for was a better agreement with the LES result, and the gradual decay of the turbulence fluctuation in the stratification was predicted accurately. The time transient of the helium molar fraction in the case with the dynamic modeling was very closed to the VIMES experimental data. The improvement on the RANS accuracy was produced by the accurate prediction of the turbulent mixing region, which was explained with the turbulent helium mass flux in the interaction region. Moreover, the parametric study on the jet velocity indicates the good performance of the RANS with the dynamic modeling for on the slower erosive process. This study concludes that the dynamic modeling for is a useful and practical approach to improve the prediction accuracy.
安部 諭; 岡垣 百合亜; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照
Proceedings of OECD/NEA Workshop on Virtual CFD4NRS-8; Computational Fluid Dynamics for Nuclear Reactor Safety (Internet), 11 Pages, 2020/11
The fifth international benchmark exercise (IBE-5), the cold-leg mixing CFD benchmark, was conducted under the support of OECD/NEA. The experiment for IBE-5 was designed to visualize the mixing phenomena of two liquids with different density in a horizontal leg (as a simulant of the cold-leg) and downcomer. This paper shows our CFD result on the open test condition in IBE-5. We selected the Large-eddy simulation (LES) solving the filtered equation of flow and concentration fields. Regarding the eddy-viscosity to model the turbulence flux of the momentum at sub-grid scale (SGS), Wall-adapting locale eddy-viscosity (WALE) model, a modified version from the Smagorinsky model, was applied. The experimental geometry was resolved with three different numerical mesh systems. The CFD analysis predicted the laminar-like flow behavior in the horizontal leg. Due to the large density difference between the two liquids, the turbulence production was suppressed strongly, and the velocity fluctuation in the horizontal leg became very slow and small. In contrast, the strong turbulence mixing in the downcomer was predicted. The plume from the horizontal leg entrained with the surroundings and spread circumferentially in the downcomer. The comparison with the TAMU experimental data reveals the good performance of the WALE model. In addition, we discuss the appearance characteristics of the high concentration of the heavy liquid in the downcomer in the LES. The Probability Density Function (PDF) and Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) are derived based on the predicted time-series of the heavy liquid concentration. The PDF around the mean concentration in the case with the low mesh resolution is larger than that predicted by the higher resolution due to the excessive homogenization of the heavy fluid concentration. This study reveals the importance to note the required mesh resolution to predict the appearance event of the high concentration.
岡垣 百合亜; 柴本 泰照; 安部 諭
Proceedings of OECD/NEA Workshop on Virtual CFD4NRS-8; Computational Fluid Dynamics for Nuclear Reactor Safety (Internet), 12 Pages, 2020/11
A bubbly flow with a single injection orifice is numerically analyzed for pool scrubbing phenomena using different computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies. The calculation covers the total regime of pool scrubbing from air injection to bubble swarm through the transition region. Such two-phase flow behaviors strongly affect particle removal in a bubble. The experimental bubbles are known to be oblate spherical and exhibit secondary motion, including path instability and shape oscillations. Moreover, bubbles in a swarm are subject to coalescence and breakup. While these may well affect bubble internal heat/mass transfer and particle capture, no established way is available for considering such influences in practical calculations. Pool scrubbing code SPARC-90 uses an oblate spherical bubble model but assumes a steady, rectilinear bubble rise without secondary motion. The 3-D CFD has the potential to capture the bubble interaction in the swarm region in detail. In the present study, the experiment by Abe et al. (Nuclear Engineering and Design 337, 2018) was referred for the calculation, and their data were used to validate if the CFD simulation can predict the flow transition accurately. Two types of solvers based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method and the simple coupled volume of fluid with level set (S-CLSVOF) method are used for the interface capture. The two solvers were validated by comparing with the experimental results. As a result, the void fraction profiles along the vertical central axis were in good agreement with the experimental data, regardless of the solvers, and those along horizontal lines in a central plane slightly improved with the S-CLSVOF method by the more accurate calculation of the surface tension.
石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 367, p.110790_1 - 110790_15, 2020/10
シビアアクシデント時の格納容器(CV)内の流体や構造物を冷却するための有効なアクシデントマネジメントとして、CVの外面冷却が期待されている。一方、以下のような可能性も考えられる。第一に、シビアアクシデント時に水-ジルコニウム反応により水素ガスが発生し、外表面冷却により水素を含む非凝縮性ガスが蓄積し、密度成層が形成される可能性がある。第二に、非凝縮性ガスの蓄積は熱伝達を低下させ、CVの冷却を阻害する可能性がある。これらの課題については、これまで多くの研究が行われてきた。しかし、外表面冷却によって生じる密度成層挙動や成層崩壊の条件に着目した体系的な検討は十分に行われていない。また、水素の蓄積による伝熱劣化を定量的に評価していない。そこで、実験設備CIGMA(Containment InteGral effects Measurement Apparatus)を構築し、CIGMA設備を用いて容器外面冷却時の格納容器熱流動挙動の実験的研究を行った。さらに、安定な密度成層が維持できる条件を考慮することで、自然対流が密度成層化挙動に与える影響を議論した。
廣瀬 意育; 石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 柴本 泰照
Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Advances in Thermal Hydraulics (ATH '20) (Internet), p.757 - 767, 2020/10
This paper describes an application of an immersed boundary method (IBM) to internal structure in a containment vessel as a means to reduce the modeling cost for accident analysis. A brinkman penalization method, that is one of the IBMs, is selected and implemented in OpenFOAM code. The calculation is performed for a grating-type structure in a rectangular vessel and an upward jet flow impinging on the grating is analyzed. The IBM is an appealing approach for solving flow passing complex geometry, whereas a very complicated body fitted mesh with fine resolution might be required in a conventional CFD approach. The results were compared with experimental data of flow velocity distribution through the grating measured by Particle Image Velocimetry technique. The flow immediately downstream of the grating is characterized by multimodal profile with intervals determined by a lattice width of the grating. This multimodal flow merges into one with unimodal shape in the downstream far from the grating. The present analysis reproduced the distinctive flow structure observed in the experiment. The model predicted a serrated profile consistent with the experimental results and this could be reproduced even with a relatively regular computational mesh compared to the traditional method.
Hamdani, A.; 安部 諭; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Energies (Internet), 13(14), p.3652_1 - 3652_22, 2020/07
In the case of a severe accident, natural convection plays an important role in the atmosphere mixing of nuclear reactor containments. In this case, the natural convection might not in the steady-state condition. Hence, instead of steady-state simulation, the transient simulation should be performed to understand natural convection in the accident scenario within a nuclear reactor containment. The present study, therefore, was aimed at the transient 3-D numerical simulations of natural convection of air around a cylindrical containment with unsteady thermal boundary conditions (BCs) at the vessel wall. For this purpose, the experiment series was done in the CIGMA facility at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). A 3-D model was simulated with OpenFOAM, applying the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) model. Different turbulence models were studied, such as the standard k-, standard k-, k- shear stress transport (SST), and low-Reynolds-k- Launder-Sharma. The results of the four turbulence models were compared versus the results of experimental data.
和田 裕貴; Le, T. D.; 佐藤 聡; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(1), p.100 - 113, 2020/01
The rewetting front propagation may occur when the fuel rod is cooled by the liquid film flow after it is dried out under accident conditions for BWR cores. Our previous study has revealed importance of precursory cooling, defined as a rapid cooling just before the rewetting, which has a significant effect on the propagation velocity. To understand the mechanism of the precursory cooling, we conducted heat transfer experiments using a single heater rod contained inside the transparent glass pipe to measure heat transfer behavior with simultaneous observation using a high-speed camera. The results showed characteristic effects of the wall temperature on the liquid film flow and liquid droplets formation at the rewetting front, i.e. sputtering. Even when the liquid film flows in rivulets under adiabatic condition, horizontally uniformed rewetting front was observed with increasing wall temperature due to enhanced flow resistance by sputtering. This sputtering effect was also confirmed from observations of the liquid film thickness, which increased with approaching the rewetting front. Heat transfer coefficients were predicted roughly well with a single-phase heat transfer correlation with entrance effects, suggesting the thinner thermal boundary layer downstream of the rewetting front may be one of the precursory cooling mechanisms.
佐藤 聡; 和田 裕貴; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 354, p.110164_1 - 110164_10, 2019/12