廣瀬 意育; 佐川 淳*; 柴本 泰照; 久木田 豊
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 81, p.102006_1 - 102006_9, 2021/10
An electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system design is proposed for imaging of phase distribution in gas-water two-phase flow from boundary measurement of electrical potentials in response to direct current (DC) injection. DC injection simplifies substantially the system design, but introduces problems due to polarization of injection electrodes. Electrode polarization means charge accumulation on the electrode-water interface causing a drift in the interfacial potential difference. The polarization problems are coped with by using dedicated electrodes for injection and potential measurement, and using a current source unaffected by the polarization of current-carrying electrodes (CCEs). Furthermore, the polarization of CCEs is controlled, to lessen the possible influence on the sensing electrodes (SEs), by using a short (milliseconds in width) pulse for injection with a charge balanced injection strategy. The impact of electrode polarization and the effectiveness of countermeasures introduced in the present design are discussed through comparisons of measured boundary potentials and of images reconstructed for a simple object simulating large bubbles in water.
安部 諭; 岡垣 百合亜; 佐藤 聡; 柴本 泰照
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 159, p.108321_1 - 108321_12, 2021/09
Heat transfer in the rod bundle is augmented by the mixing vanes on the spacer grid. We conducted a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with three isotropic turbulence models - standard -epsilon, realizable -epsilon, and SST -omega models - to investigate the relationship between heat transfer and turbulence behaviors downstream a simulant spacer (with four vanes) in a single tube under single-phase flow conditions. Quantitatively, the predicted heat transfer coefficient (HTC), secondary flow intensity, and turbulence intensity with the SST -omega model displayed a better agreement (than the other isotropic models) with the correlation based on previous studies. Furthermore, the turbulence production was localized in the near-spacer region (z/D 10, where D is the inner diameter), which corresponds with the HTC argumentation region. These results indicate that examining the turbulence production when discussing the HTC augmentation downstream the spacer is essential.
孫 昊旻; 柴本 泰照; 廣瀬 意育; 久木田 豊
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(9), p.1048 - 1057, 2021/09
竹田 武司; 和田 裕貴; 柴本 泰照
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11(1), p.17 - 42, 2021/01
Many experiments have been conducted on accidents and transients of pressurized water reactor (PWR) employing the rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility (ROSA/LSTF). Major results of the related integral effect tests with the LSTF were reviewed to experimentally identify thermal-hydraulic phenomena involved, regarding the PWR accident sequences in accordance with the new regulatory requirements for the Japanese light-water nuclear power plants. Key results of the recent integral effect tests utilizing the LSTF and future plans were presented relevant to multiple steam generator tube rupture accident with recovery operation, small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with accident management measure on core exit temperature reliability, and small-break LOCA with thermal stratification under cold water injection from emergency core cooling system into cold legs.
安部 諭; Studer, E.*; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 368, p.110785_1 - 110785_14, 2020/11
The hydrogen behavior in a nuclear containment vessel is one of the significant issues raised when discussing the potential of hydrogen combustion during a severe accident. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for better understanding the turbulence transport behavior of a gas mixture, including hydrogen. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) is a practical-use approach for simulating the averaged gaseous behavior in a large and complicated geometry, such as a nuclear containment vessel; however, some improvements are required. We implemented the dynamic modeling for based on the previous studies into the OpenFOAM ver 2.3.1 package. The experimental data obtained by using a small scale test apparatus at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was used to validate the RANS methodology. Moreover, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) was performed to phenomenologically discuss the interaction behavior. The comparison study indicated that the turbulence production ratio by shear stress and buoyancy force predicted by the RANS with the dynamic modeling for was a better agreement with the LES result, and the gradual decay of the turbulence fluctuation in the stratification was predicted accurately. The time transient of the helium molar fraction in the case with the dynamic modeling was very closed to the VIMES experimental data. The improvement on the RANS accuracy was produced by the accurate prediction of the turbulent mixing region, which was explained with the turbulent helium mass flux in the interaction region. Moreover, the parametric study on the jet velocity indicates the good performance of the RANS with the dynamic modeling for on the slower erosive process. This study concludes that the dynamic modeling for is a useful and practical approach to improve the prediction accuracy.
安部 諭; 岡垣 百合亜; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照
Proceedings of OECD/NEA Workshop on Virtual CFD4NRS-8; Computational Fluid Dynamics for Nuclear Reactor Safety (Internet), 11 Pages, 2020/11
The fifth international benchmark exercise (IBE-5), the cold-leg mixing CFD benchmark, was conducted under the support of OECD/NEA. The experiment for IBE-5 was designed to visualize the mixing phenomena of two liquids with different density in a horizontal leg (as a simulant of the cold-leg) and downcomer. This paper shows our CFD result on the open test condition in IBE-5. We selected the Large-eddy simulation (LES) solving the filtered equation of flow and concentration fields. Regarding the eddy-viscosity to model the turbulence flux of the momentum at sub-grid scale (SGS), Wall-adapting locale eddy-viscosity (WALE) model, a modified version from the Smagorinsky model, was applied. The experimental geometry was resolved with three different numerical mesh systems. The CFD analysis predicted the laminar-like flow behavior in the horizontal leg. Due to the large density difference between the two liquids, the turbulence production was suppressed strongly, and the velocity fluctuation in the horizontal leg became very slow and small. In contrast, the strong turbulence mixing in the downcomer was predicted. The plume from the horizontal leg entrained with the surroundings and spread circumferentially in the downcomer. The comparison with the TAMU experimental data reveals the good performance of the WALE model. In addition, we discuss the appearance characteristics of the high concentration of the heavy liquid in the downcomer in the LES. The Probability Density Function (PDF) and Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) are derived based on the predicted time-series of the heavy liquid concentration. The PDF around the mean concentration in the case with the low mesh resolution is larger than that predicted by the higher resolution due to the excessive homogenization of the heavy fluid concentration. This study reveals the importance to note the required mesh resolution to predict the appearance event of the high concentration.
岡垣 百合亜; 柴本 泰照; 安部 諭
Proceedings of OECD/NEA Workshop on Virtual CFD4NRS-8; Computational Fluid Dynamics for Nuclear Reactor Safety (Internet), 12 Pages, 2020/11
A bubbly flow with a single injection orifice is numerically analyzed for pool scrubbing phenomena using different computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies. The calculation covers the total regime of pool scrubbing from air injection to bubble swarm through the transition region. Such two-phase flow behaviors strongly affect particle removal in a bubble. The experimental bubbles are known to be oblate spherical and exhibit secondary motion, including path instability and shape oscillations. Moreover, bubbles in a swarm are subject to coalescence and breakup. While these may well affect bubble internal heat/mass transfer and particle capture, no established way is available for considering such influences in practical calculations. Pool scrubbing code SPARC-90 uses an oblate spherical bubble model but assumes a steady, rectilinear bubble rise without secondary motion. The 3-D CFD has the potential to capture the bubble interaction in the swarm region in detail. In the present study, the experiment by Abe et al. (Nuclear Engineering and Design 337, 2018) was referred for the calculation, and their data were used to validate if the CFD simulation can predict the flow transition accurately. Two types of solvers based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method and the simple coupled volume of fluid with level set (S-CLSVOF) method are used for the interface capture. The two solvers were validated by comparing with the experimental results. As a result, the void fraction profiles along the vertical central axis were in good agreement with the experimental data, regardless of the solvers, and those along horizontal lines in a central plane slightly improved with the S-CLSVOF method by the more accurate calculation of the surface tension.
石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 367, p.110790_1 - 110790_15, 2020/10
シビアアクシデント時の格納容器(CV)内の流体や構造物を冷却するための有効なアクシデントマネジメントとして、CVの外面冷却が期待されている。一方、以下のような可能性も考えられる。第一に、シビアアクシデント時に水-ジルコニウム反応により水素ガスが発生し、外表面冷却により水素を含む非凝縮性ガスが蓄積し、密度成層が形成される可能性がある。第二に、非凝縮性ガスの蓄積は熱伝達を低下させ、CVの冷却を阻害する可能性がある。これらの課題については、これまで多くの研究が行われてきた。しかし、外表面冷却によって生じる密度成層挙動や成層崩壊の条件に着目した体系的な検討は十分に行われていない。また、水素の蓄積による伝熱劣化を定量的に評価していない。そこで、実験設備CIGMA(Containment InteGral effects Measurement Apparatus)を構築し、CIGMA設備を用いて容器外面冷却時の格納容器熱流動挙動の実験的研究を行った。さらに、安定な密度成層が維持できる条件を考慮することで、自然対流が密度成層化挙動に与える影響を議論した。
廣瀬 意育; 石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 柴本 泰照
Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Advances in Thermal Hydraulics (ATH '20) (Internet), p.757 - 767, 2020/10
This paper describes an application of an immersed boundary method (IBM) to internal structure in a containment vessel as a means to reduce the modeling cost for accident analysis. A brinkman penalization method, that is one of the IBMs, is selected and implemented in OpenFOAM code. The calculation is performed for a grating-type structure in a rectangular vessel and an upward jet flow impinging on the grating is analyzed. The IBM is an appealing approach for solving flow passing complex geometry, whereas a very complicated body fitted mesh with fine resolution might be required in a conventional CFD approach. The results were compared with experimental data of flow velocity distribution through the grating measured by Particle Image Velocimetry technique. The flow immediately downstream of the grating is characterized by multimodal profile with intervals determined by a lattice width of the grating. This multimodal flow merges into one with unimodal shape in the downstream far from the grating. The present analysis reproduced the distinctive flow structure observed in the experiment. The model predicted a serrated profile consistent with the experimental results and this could be reproduced even with a relatively regular computational mesh compared to the traditional method.
Hamdani, A.; 安部 諭; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Energies (Internet), 13(14), p.3652_1 - 3652_22, 2020/07
In the case of a severe accident, natural convection plays an important role in the atmosphere mixing of nuclear reactor containments. In this case, the natural convection might not in the steady-state condition. Hence, instead of steady-state simulation, the transient simulation should be performed to understand natural convection in the accident scenario within a nuclear reactor containment. The present study, therefore, was aimed at the transient 3-D numerical simulations of natural convection of air around a cylindrical containment with unsteady thermal boundary conditions (BCs) at the vessel wall. For this purpose, the experiment series was done in the CIGMA facility at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). A 3-D model was simulated with OpenFOAM, applying the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) model. Different turbulence models were studied, such as the standard k-, standard k-, k- shear stress transport (SST), and low-Reynolds-k- Launder-Sharma. The results of the four turbulence models were compared versus the results of experimental data.
和田 裕貴; Le, T. D.; 佐藤 聡; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(1), p.100 - 113, 2020/01
The rewetting front propagation may occur when the fuel rod is cooled by the liquid film flow after it is dried out under accident conditions for BWR cores. Our previous study has revealed importance of precursory cooling, defined as a rapid cooling just before the rewetting, which has a significant effect on the propagation velocity. To understand the mechanism of the precursory cooling, we conducted heat transfer experiments using a single heater rod contained inside the transparent glass pipe to measure heat transfer behavior with simultaneous observation using a high-speed camera. The results showed characteristic effects of the wall temperature on the liquid film flow and liquid droplets formation at the rewetting front, i.e. sputtering. Even when the liquid film flows in rivulets under adiabatic condition, horizontally uniformed rewetting front was observed with increasing wall temperature due to enhanced flow resistance by sputtering. This sputtering effect was also confirmed from observations of the liquid film thickness, which increased with approaching the rewetting front. Heat transfer coefficients were predicted roughly well with a single-phase heat transfer correlation with entrance effects, suggesting the thinner thermal boundary layer downstream of the rewetting front may be one of the precursory cooling mechanisms.
佐藤 聡; 和田 裕貴; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 354, p.110164_1 - 110164_10, 2019/12
Hamdani, A.; 安部 諭; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.5463 - 5479, 2019/08
The present study introduces thermal mixing and stratification produced by heated air jet located at the bottom level of the containment vessel. The investigation was carried out experimentally and numerically in the large containment vessel called CIGMA (Containment InteGral effects Measurement Apparatus). The experiments were conducted with external surface cooling and various air jet inlet temperatures. The containment cooling was done by flooding the water on the external side of half-upper of a vessel. To identify their influence on the thermal mixing and stratification phenomena, the investigation focuses on mixing convection which occurred in the cooled region of a containment vessel. Temperature distribution and jet velocity were measured by thermocouple and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) respectively. Numerical simulation was performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code OpenFOAM to investigate the detail effects of external cooling on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics in the test vessel. CFD results showed a good agreement with experimental data on both temperature and velocity. Both temperature and velocity of hot air jet decayed rapidly downstream jet nozzle. Thermal stratification was observed by visualization of temperature contour maps over a cross-section in the containment vessel. Vigorous mixing was also noticed in the upper region of the containment vessel. Effect of external cooling on mixing and the thermal stratification were presented and discussed.
和田 裕貴; 佐藤 聡; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介; 佐川 淳*
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.4518 - 4531, 2019/08
石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.5927 - 5940, 2019/08
孫 昊旻; 柴本 泰照; 岡垣 百合亜; 与能本 泰介
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2019, p.1743982_1 - 1743982_15, 2019/06
Because a pool scrubbing is important for reducing radioactive aerosols to the environment for a nuclear reactor in a severe accident situation, many researches have been performed. However, decontamination factor (DF) dependence on aerosol concentration was seldom considered. DF dependence in the pool scrubbing with 2.4 m water submergence was investigated by light scattering aerosol spectrometers. It was observed that DF increased monotonically as decreasing particle number concentration in a constant thermohydraulic condition. Two validation experiments were conducted to confirm the observed DF dependence. In addition, characteristics of the DF dependence in different water submergences were investigated experimentally. It was found the DF dependence became more significant in higher water submergence.
石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 11 Pages, 2018/10
安部 諭; 石垣 将宏; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2018/10
At Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), small scale experiment, named VIMES (VIsualization and MEasurement system on stratification behavior) experiment, has been performed since 2014. In this paper, we introduce the influence of grating type obstacle to the VIMES experiment. Two types of grating obstacle were constructed based on the aperture area ratio. The obstacles were placed at the intermediate position between the jet nozzle exit and bottom of the initial stratification. Experimental results showed that the vertical jet was strongly affected by the grating obstacle. Due to the rectifying effect, the radial spreading was suppressed and the velocity magnitude on the jet center line became larger than that in case without the grating obstacle. Meanwhile, due to the resistance effect, the integral momentum flux of the vertical jet was decayed with decrease of the aperture area ratio. It means that in case with the grating obstacle the integral jet penetration strength was decayed, although the local jet penetration to the stratification was stronger than that in case without the grating obstacle. Also, the slower stratification breakup could be observed with decrease of the aperture area ratio, indicating that stratification breakup rate to be discussed in detail considering every possible effect of a jet penetration.
孫 昊旻; 町田 真一*; 柴本 泰照; 岡垣 百合亜; 与能本 泰介
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/07
Pool scrubbing is one of the efficient filters with a high decontamination factor (DF). Because of its high performance, many pool scrubbing research have been performed. In the existing pool scrubbing experiments, an experimental condition of aerosol number concentration was seldom taken into account. It is probably because DF is assumed to be independent of aerosol number concentration, at least, in the concentration where aerosol coagulation is limited. The existing pool scrubbing models also follow this assumption. In order to verify this assumption, we performed a pool scrubbing experiment with different aerosol number concentrations. As a result, DF was increasing as decreasing the aerosol number concentration. In order to ensure a reliability of this result, three validation tests were performed with meticulous care. According to the results of these validation tests, it was indicated that DF dependence on the aerosol concentration was a real phenomenon of the pool scrubbing.
和田 裕貴; Le, T. D.; 佐藤 聡; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2018/07
Dry-out and rewet for an anticipated transition without scrum (ATWS) become one of the important issues. In order to predict all of these phenomena, it is necessary to cover wide range of thermal-hydraulic condition, and the modeling of precursory cooling is one of the key issues on the prediction. To reveal the precursory cooling phenomena in the rewetting process, rewetting experiment was carried out using a single heater rod in a circular glass pipe with air-water system at atmospheric pressure. Liquid film front thermal and dynamic behaviors were measured by thermocouples and visualization with a high speed camera. To establish a new rewetting model, liquid film flow characteristics including roll wave behavior, and the mass and energy balance of the liquid film at the rewetting front considering effects of sputtering were summarized in this paper.