吉川 貴史*; Reitz, D.*; 伊藤 宏陽*; 巻内 崇彦*; 杉本 宜陽*; 恒川 翔*; 大門 俊介*; 大柳 洸一*; Ramos, R.*; 高橋 三郎*; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 12, p.4356_1 - 4356_7, 2021/07
Thermoelectric effects have been applied to power generators and temperature sensors that convert waste heat into electricity. The effects, however, have been limited to electrons to occur, and inevitably disappear at low temperatures due to electronic entropy quenching. Here, we report thermoelectric generation caused by nuclear spins in a solid: nuclear-spin Seebeck effect. The sample is a magnetically ordered material MnCO having a large nuclear spin of Mn nuclei and strong hyperfine coupling, with a Pt contact. In the system, we observe low-temperature thermoelectric signals down to 100 mK due to nuclear-spin excitation. Our theoretical calculation in which interfacial Korringa process is taken into consideration quantitatively reproduces the results. The nuclear thermoelectric effect demonstrated here offers a way for exploring thermoelectric science and technologies at ultralow temperatures.
大柳 洸一*; 高橋 三郎*; Cornelissen, L. J.*; Shan, J.*; 大門 俊介*; 吉川 貴史*; Bauer, G. E. W.*; Van Wees, B. J.*; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 10, p.4740_1 - 4740_6, 2019/10
The discovery of new materials that efficiently transmit spin currents has been important for spintronics and material science. The electric insulator GdGaO (GGG), a standard substrate for growing magnetic films, can be a spin current generator, but has never been considered as a superior conduit for spin currents. Here we report spin current propagation in paramagnetic GGG over several microns. Surprisingly, spin transport persists up to temperatures of 100 K T=180 mK, the magnetic glass-like transition temperature of GGG. At 5 K and 3.5 T, we find a spin diffusion length m and a spin conductivity Sm that is larger than that of the record quality magnet YFeO (YIG). We conclude that exchange stiffness is not required for efficient spin transport, which challenges conventional models and provides new material-design strategies for spintronic devices.
亀田 麻衣*; 廣部 大地*; 大門 俊介*; 塩見 雄毅*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 476, p.459 - 463, 2019/04
Nonlinear effects of spin pumping have been investigated by numerically calculating the temporal evolution of the magnon number affected by three- and four-magnon interactions. We showed that the three-magnon interaction gives rise to the enhancement of spin-pumping spin current. We also found that the four-magnon interaction in combination with the three-magnon interaction can be responsible for the experimentally observed low-frequency oscillation of spin current.
Lustikova, J.*; 塩見 雄毅*; 横井 直人*; 壁谷 典幸*; 木村 憲彰*; 家永 紘一郎*; 金子 真一*; 大熊 哲*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 9, p.4922_1 - 4922_6, 2018/11
A rectenna, standing for a rectifying antenna, is an apparatus which generates d.c. electricity from electric fluctuations. It is expected to realize wireless power transmission as well as energy harvesting from environmental radio waves. To realize such rectification, devices that are made up of internal atomic asymmetry such as an asymmetric junction have been necessary so far. Here we report a material that spontaneously generates electricity by rectifying environmental fluctuations without using atomic asymmetry. The sample is a common superconductor without lowered crystalline symmetry, but, just by putting it in an asymmetric magnetic environment, it turns into a rectifier and starts generating electricity. Superconducting vortex strings only annihilate and nucleate at surfaces, and this allows the bulk electrons to feel surface fluctuations in an asymmetric environment: a vortex rectenna. The rectification and generation can be switched on and off with only a slight change in temperature or external magnetic fields.
塩見 雄毅*; Lustikova, J.*; 渡辺 真悟*; 廣部 大地*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Nature Physics, 15(1), p.22 - 26, 2018/10
Various spintronic phenomena originate from the exchange of angular momentum between the spin of electrons and other degrees of freedom in crystalline materials. Many degrees of freedom, such as magnetization and mechanical motion, have already been united into this exchange framework. However, the nuclear spin -a key angular momentum- has yet to be incorporated. Here we observe spin pumping from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), in which nuclear spin dynamics emits a spin current, a flow of spin angular momentum of electrons. By using the canted antiferromagnet MnCO, in which typical nuclear spin-wave formation is established due to the reinforced hyperfine coupling, we find that a spin current is generated from an NMR. Nuclear spins are indispensable for quantum information technology and are also frequently used in various sensors, such as in magnetic resonance imaging. The observed NMR spin pumping allows spin-current generation from nuclei and will enable spintronic detection of nuclear spin states.
Gu, B.; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通
Physical Review B, 96(21), p.214423_1 - 214423_6, 2017/12
Using density functional theory calculations, we have found an enhanced magneto-optical Kerr effect in Fe/insulator interfaces. The results of our study indicate that interfacial Fe atoms in the Fe films have a lowdimensional nature, which causes the following two effects: (1) The diagonal component of the optical conductivity decreases dramatically because the hopping integral for electrons between Fe atoms is suppressed by the low dimensionality. (2) The off-diagonal component of the optical conductivity does not change at low photon energies, but it is enhanced at photon energies around 2 eV, where we obtain enhanced orbital magnetic moments and spin-orbit correlations for the interfacial Fe atoms. A large Kerr angle develops in proportion to the ratio /. Our findings indicate an efficient way to enhance the effect of spin-orbit coupling at metal/insulator interfaces without using heavy elements.
渡辺 真悟*; 廣部 大地*; 塩見 雄毅*; 井口 亮*; 大門 俊介*; 亀田 麻衣*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Scientific Reports (Internet), 7, p.4576_1 - 4576_6, 2017/07
Spin pumping enables the generation of d.c. and gigahertz-band (GHz-band) voltages from an applied microwave via magnetization dynamics when combined with inverse spin Hall effects. However, generating such voltages in the in-between frequency region, or the megahertz (MHz) band, has been difficult since ferromagnetic resonance usually occurs in the GHz band. Here we show that in spite of GHz-band microwaves applied, MHz-band voltages can be generated by spin pumping with use of nonlinear magnetization dynamics in YFeO. The mechanism is ascribed to the MHz-band oscillation of the amplitude of the magnetization precession, which is projected onto a rectified voltage component via spin pumping. The present finding could be useful for frequency down-conversion thanks to the simple and durable structure, continuous-wave operation, and the tunability of an output frequency with low magnetic fields.
小林 伸聖*; 増本 博*; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通
Scientific Reports (Internet), 6, p.34227_1 - 34227_7, 2016/09
Developing optically transparent magnets at room temperature is an important challenge. They would bring many innovations to various industries, not only for electronic and magnetic devices but also for optical applications. Here we introduce FeCo-(Al-fluoride) nanogranular films exhibiting ferromagnetic properties with high optical transparency in the visible light region. These films have a nanocomposite structure, in which nanometer-sized FeCo ferromagnetic granules are dispersed in an Al-fluoride crystallized matrix. The optical transmittance of these films is controlled by changing the magnetization. This is a new type of magneto-optical effect and is explained by spin-dependent charge oscillation between ferromagnetic granules due to quantum-mechanical tunneling.
Chen, Y.-T.*; 高橋 三郎*; 中山 裕康*; Althammer, M.*; Goennenwein, S. T. B.*; 齊藤 英治; Bauer, G. E. W.*
Journal of Physics; Condensed Matter, 28(10), p.103004_1 - 103004_15, 2016/03
高橋 遼*; 松尾 衛; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 中堂 博之; 岡安 悟; 家田 淳一; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Nature Physics, 12, p.52 - 56, 2016/01
Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.
小林 伸聖*; 増本 博*; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通
Nature Communications (Internet), 5, p.4417_1 - 4417_6, 2014/07
Kim, J.*; Sinha, J.*; 三谷 誠司*; 林 将光*; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通; 山ノ内 路彦*; 大野 英男*
Physical Review B, 89(17), p.174424_1 - 174424_8, 2014/05
井土 宏*; 福間 康裕*; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通; 大谷 義近*
Physical Review B, 89(8), p.081308_1 - 081308_5, 2014/02
We have succeeded in fully describing dynamic properties of spin current including the different spin absorption mechanisms for longitudinal and transverse spins in lateral spin valves, which enable one to elucidate intrinsic spin transport and relaxation mechanisms in the nonmagnet. The deduced spin lifetimes are found independent of the contact type. From the transit-time distribution of spin current extracted from the Fourier transform in Hanle measurement data, the velocity of the spin current in Ag with Py/Ag Ohmic contact turns out much faster than that expected from the widely used model.
Chen, Y.-T.*; 高橋 三郎*; 中山 裕康*; Althammer, M.*; Goennenwein, S. T. B.*; 齊藤 英治; Bauer, G. E. W.*
Physical Review B, 87(14), p.144411_1 - 144411_9, 2013/04
前川 禎通; 高橋 三郎
Spin Current (2nd Edition), p.194 - 208, 2012/10
We consider the effect of spin-orbit scattering on spin and charge transport in nonmagnetic metals (N) such as Cu, Al, and Ag, and discuss SHE by taking into account the side-jump (SJ) and skew-scattering (SS) mechanisms, and derive formulas for the SHE induced by spin-orbit scattering in nonmagnetic metals.
高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(1), p.010110_1 - 010110_7, 2012/01
Spin Hall effect in a superconductor is theoretically studied. The spin injection from a ferromagnet into a superconductor creates quasiparticle spin and charge currents in SC, which generate charge and spin currents in the transverse direction to accumulate spin and charge imbalance near the side edges of a superconductor. A giant enhancement of spin and charge accumulation signals in the side jump and skew scattering mechanisms of the spin Hall effect is predicted to occur at low temperatures in the superconducting state.
安藤 和也*; 高橋 三郎; 家田 淳一; 紅林 秀和*; Trypiniotis, T.*; Barnes, C. H. W.*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Nature Materials, 10(9), p.655 - 659, 2011/09
Injection of spin currents into solids is crucial for exploring spin physics and spintronics. There has been significant progress in recent years in spin injection into high-resistivity materials, for example, semiconductors and organic materials, which uses tunnel barriers to circumvent the impedance mismatch; the impedance mismatch between ferromagnetic metals and high-resistivity materials drastically limits the spin-injection efficiency. However, because of this problem, there is no route for spin injection into these materials through low-resistivity interfaces, that is, Ohmic contacts, even though this promises an easy and versatile pathway for spin injection without the need for growing high-quality tunnel barriers. Here we show experimental evidence that spin pumping enables spin injection free from this condition; room-temperature spin injection into GaAs from NiFe through an Ohmic contact is demonstrated through dynamical spin exchange. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this exchange can be controlled electrically by applying a bias voltage across a NiFe/GaAs interface, enabling electric tuning of the spin-pumping efficiency.
挽野 真一*; 森 道康; 高橋 三郎; 前川 禎通
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 80(7), p.074707_1 - 074707_8, 2011/07
Coupling of Josephson-phase and spin-waves is theoretically studied in a superconductor/ferromagnetic insulator/superconductor (S/FI/S) junction. Electromagnetic (EM) field inside the junction and the Josephson current coupled with spin-waves in FI are calculated by combining Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations. In the S/FI/S junction, it is found that the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic shows two resonant peaks for each mode of the EM field. Voltages at the resonant peaks are obtained as a function of the normal modes of EM field, which indicates a composite excitation of the EM field and spin-waves in the S/FI/S junction. We also examine another type of junction, in which a nonmagnetic insulator (I) is located at one of interfaces between S and FI. In such an S/I/FFI/S junction, three resonant peaks appear in the I-V curve, since the Josephson-phase couples to the EM field in the I layer.
福間 康裕*; Le, W.*; 井土 宏*; 高橋 三郎; 前川 禎通; 大谷 義近*
Nature Materials, 10(7), p.527 - 531, 2011/07
The non-local spin injection in lateral spin valves is strongly expected to be an effective method to generate a pure spin current for potential spintronic application. However, the spin-valve voltage, which determines the magnitude of the spin current flowing into an additional ferromagnetic wire, is typically of the order of 1V. Here we show that lateral spin valves with low-resistivity NiFe/MgO/Ag junctions enable efficient spin injection with high applied current density, which leads to the spin-valve voltage increasing 100-fold. Hanle effect measurements demonstrate a long-distance collective 2 spin precession along a 6-m-long Ag wire. These results suggest a route to faster and manipulable spin transport for the development of pure spin-current-based memory, logic and sensing devices.
梶原 瑛祐*; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治*
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 47(6), p.1591 - 1594, 2011/06
Conduction electron can carry a flow spin angular momentum, a spin current. This paper describes another type of spin current: a spin current carried by spin waves. Some types of spin waves can carry a spin current, which can propagate both in insulators and metals. These two types of spin currents were found to exchange each other at a Pt/YFeO interface.