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論文

Design and characterization of the fission signature assay instrument for nuclear safeguards

Rossi, F.; 小泉 光生; Rodriguez, D.; 高橋 時音

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 5 Pages, 2023/05

Since 2015, the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been working on the development of the Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy non-destructive assay technique for the quantification of fissile-nuclide content in mixed nuclear materials. Thanks to the efforts and lessons learned from past experiments, the ISCN has successfully designed and fabricated a final integrated instrument. The instrument is composed of a moderator and dose shield where different neutron sources, like Cf-252 and neutron generators, can be inserted to irradiate the sample. Within the moderator, a series of neutron detectors are installed for perform prompt neutron analysis and continuous monitoring of the neutron source emission. Thanks to an innovative transfer system, the sample is then moved to the gamma-ray detector in less than 1.5s providing a fast and reliable movement while being safe from possible contamination. In this work, we will describe the design details of this new instrument. This work is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) under the subsidy for the "promotion for strengthening nuclear security and the like".

論文

JAEA-JRC collaborative development of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards nuclear material accountancy

Rodriguez, D.; Abbas, K.*; Bertolotti, D.*; Bonaldi, C.*; Fontana, C.*; 藤本 正己*; Geerts, W.*; 小泉 光生; Macias, M.*; Nonneman, S.*; et al.

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 8 Pages, 2023/05

Under the MEXT subsidy to improve nuclear security related activities, we present the overview of the JAEA-JRC delayed gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis project. We describe past results, recent joint experiments, and the final goals for this project.

論文

Laser-driven neutron generation realizing single-shot resonance spectroscopy

余語 覚文*; Lan, Z.*; 有川 安信*; 安部 勇輝*; Mirfayzi, S. R.*; Wei, T.*; 森 隆人*; Golovin, D.*; 早川 岳人*; 岩田 夏弥*; et al.

Physical Review X, 13(1), p.011011_1 - 011011_12, 2023/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:92.4(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Neutrons are powerful tools for investigating the structure and properties of materials used in science and technology. Recently, laser-driven neutron sources (LDNS) have attracted the attention of different communities, from science to industry, in a variety of applications, including radiography, spectroscopy, security, and medicine. However, the laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism for neutron generation and for establishing the scaling law on the neutron yield is essential to improve the feasibility of LDNS. In this paper, we report the mechanism that accelerates ions with spectra suitable for neutron generation. We show that the neutron yield increases with the fourth power of the laser intensity, resulting in the neutron generation of $$3times10^{11}$$ in $$4pi$$ at a maximum, with $$1.1times10^{19}$$ Wcm$$^{-2}$$, 900 J, 1.5 ps lasers. By installing a "hand-size" moderator, which is specially designed for the LDNS, it is demonstrated that the efficient generation of epithermal (0.1-100 eV) neutrons enables the single-shot analysis of composite materials by neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA). We achieve the energy resolution of 2.3% for 5.19-eV neutrons 1.8 m downstream of the LDNS. This leads to the analysis of elements and isotopes within sub-$$mu$$s times and allows for high-speed nondestructive inspection.

論文

Designs and neutronic characteristics of an epithermal neutron moderator at ambient temperature for neutron time-of-flight measurements

Lee, J.; 伊藤 史哲*; 弘中 浩太; 高橋 時音; 鈴木 敏*; 小泉 光生

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(12), p.1546 - 1557, 2022/12

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:88.09(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Compact time-of-flight (TOF) measurement systems are desirable for easy installation in various facilities. To achieve such compact systems, one of the key considerations is the design of the neutron moderator. However, there are only a few reports on systematic studies on moderators considering both neutron energy resolution as well as a neutron intensity. In this paper, to design an epithermal neutron moderator for short-distance TOF measurements, the neutron intensity and energy resolution of epithermal neutrons have been studied using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS with JENDL-4.0 for various types of moderators. The neutronic characteristics of a moderator comprising several components were evaluated. The relationships between the moderator dimensions and both the energy resolution and intensity of the epithermal neutrons were determined. From the obtained results, the appropriate high resolution moderator designs for the short-distance TOF measurements were proposed.

論文

リチウムガラスシンチレータのガンマ線と中性子に対する応答特性

Lee, J.; 伊藤 史哲*; 弘中 浩太; 高橋 時音; 鈴木 敏*; 小泉 光生; 堀 順一*; 寺田 和司*

第43回日本核物質管理学会年次大会会議論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2022/11

中性子検出に広く使われているGS20リチウムガラスシンチレータは、応答は速いがn/g弁別能に乏しい。ガンマ線背景事象を適切に評価するためには、ガンマ線に対する応答特性を知る必要がある。特に中性子測定時は減速材中の水素原子核から発生する2.2MeVのガンマ線が主な背景事象となるが、このような高エネルギーガンマ線への応答特性の報告はほとんどない。このため、本研究では、GS20の応答特性についてNa-24ガンマ線源を用いて調べた。

論文

Rod-shaped pulse shape discrimination plastic scintillation detectors applied for neutron source direction survey

小泉 光生; 持丸 貴則*; 弘中 浩太; 高橋 時音; 山西 弘城*; 若林 源一郎*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1042, p.167424_1 - 167424_6, 2022/11

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:59.27(Instruments & Instrumentation)

文部科学省核セキュリティ強化等補助事業の下、広域における核・放射性物質検知技術開発を進めている。出力波形によってガンマ線と中性子を弁別できる棒状のプラスチックシンチレーション検出器を用いることにより、核物質等からの高速中性子を比較的低いバックグラウンドで検知するための装置を開発した。この装置は、2本の検出器とポリエチレンモデレーターを組み合わせたもので、回転させて、中性子源の方向を特定することができる。本論文では、PuBe線源からの高速中性子を測定した実験結果をもとに、シミュレーションの結果と合わせて、検出器および検出器システムの性能を報告し、迅速に放射線源の方向を探索する手法を提案する。

論文

Development of a neutron scintillator for a compact NRTA system, 2

Lee, J.; 弘中 浩太; 伊藤 史哲*; 高橋 時音; 小泉 光生; 堀 順一*; 寺田 和司*

KURNS Progress Report 2021, P. 97, 2022/07

文部科学省補助金事業「核セキュリティ強化等推進事業費補助金」の下、核不拡散技術開発の一環として、レーザー駆動中性子源(LDNS)を用いたコンパクトな核共鳴透過分析(NRTA)システムの技術開発を行っている。コンパクトなNRTAシステムを構築するためには、中性子の飛行距離を短くすることが重要な要素である。しかし、短距離のTOF測定では、減速材中の水素への中性子捕獲による2.2MeVガンマ線の影響が短距離に比例して指数的に大きくなってしまう。また、LDNSは発展途上であるため、中性子フラックスが十分ではなく、検出効率の高い検出器を用いることが望ましい。このため、我々は、高エネルギーガンマ線に対する検出効率が低く、かつ高い中性子感度を持つ検出器(積層型中性子検出器)を開発してきた。令和3年度の京都大学LINAC実験では、中性子に対する検出効率を上げ、両側にPMTを取り付け、コインシデンス測定によりノイズを除去できるようになった改良型の積層型中性子検出器の性能評価を行い、共鳴TOF測定による良いパフォーマンスを確かめられた。

論文

Development of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards, 2; Forward to a practical DGS instrument

Rossi, F.; 小泉 光生; Rodriguez, D.; 高橋 時音

Proceedings of INMM 63rd Annual Meeting (Internet), 5 Pages, 2022/07

With the initial goal of fissile-nuclide content quantification in small samples containing uranium and plutonium, the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency is developing the Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy non-destructive assay technique. For this, while in the past years several experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the technique, a new instrument was designed considering the previous lessons learned. It includes a modular insertion for different neutron sources, like radioisotopes or neutron generators; a gamma-ray detector with improved data acquisition system allowing for real-time dead-time correction; and a full new mechanism for the sample transfer between irradiation and measurement. Together with this, neutron detectors are integrated to supplement the DGS mass analysis and monitor the source intensity. In this work, we will describe the new instrument and the preliminary results obtained from instrument characterization compared to previous experiments. This work is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) under the subsidy for the "promotion for strengthening nuclear security and the like". This work was done under the agreement between JAEA and EURATOM in the field of nuclear material safeguards research and development.

論文

核セキュリティのための中性子検出器開発

小泉 光生; 高橋 時音; 弘中 浩太; 持丸 貴則*; 山西 弘城*; 若林 源一郎*

令和2年度近畿大学原子炉利用共同研究等経過報告書, p.76 - 80, 2021/12

核物質や放射性物質をばら撒くことを目的としたRDD(Radiological Dispersal Device)が、大規模イベント会場などで使用されることを未然に防止するため、透過力が高く遮蔽が難しい高速中性子に注目し、これを検出することにより、核物質や中性子源の放出源を探知する検出器開発を開始した。高速中性子検出器としては、ガンマ線と中性子との発光減衰時間が異なることを利用して、波形から放射線の種類を区別する波形弁別PSD(Pulse Shape Discrimination)ができる、プラスチックシンチレータ(EJ-276)を導入した。中性子を選択的に計数することができるため、環境ガンマ線のバックグラウンドを抑制した信号・ノイズ比(S/N)の高い測定により、中性子に高い感度のある測定が期待できる。近大炉においては、原子炉起動用Pu-Be中性子線源を用いて、製作した長尺のEJ-276プラスチックシンチレータを用いた試験を行いった。検出器単体による中性子・ガンマ線弁別能力試験を行った結果、EJ-276により、環境ガンマ線の影響を抑えた中性子の測定が可能であることが確認できた。開発した長尺の検出器は、角度依存性を持つため、中性子線源の探知に利用できると考えられる。そこで、検出器の角度依存性を単体、及び、検出器2台とポリエチレンブロックとを組み合わせた体系で実験を行った。中性子検出の角度依存性を評価した結果、中性子線源の探知に利用できる可能性を示すことができた。

論文

大規模公共イベント等における核・放射性物質モニタ技術開発

持丸 貴則*; 小泉 光生; 高橋 時音; 弘中 浩太; 木村 祥紀; 佐藤 優樹; 寺阪 祐太; 山西 弘城*; 若林 源一郎*

第42回日本核物質管理学会年次大会会議論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2021/11

日本原子力研究開発機構では、文部科学省核セキュリティ強化等補助事業の下、大規模公共イベント等において、核・放射性物質を用いたテロ行為等を未然に防ぐため、イベント会場にそれらが持ち込まれた場合に迅速に検知するための技術・装置の開発を目的とし、広域における放射性物質検知技術開発を4年計画で進めている。本講演では、プロジェクトの概要を説明するとともに、技術開発の進捗状況を一部紹介する。

論文

レーザー駆動中性子源を用いた中性子共鳴透過分析システムの実証

弘中 浩太; 伊藤 史哲*; Lee, J.; 小泉 光生; 高橋 時音; 鈴木 敏*; 余語 覚文*; 有川 安信*; 安部 勇輝*

第42回日本核物質管理学会年次大会会議論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2021/11

中性子共鳴透過分析(NRTA)はパルス中性子源を用いてTOF測定を行うことで核物質を非破壊測定する手法であるが、小型・高精度化には短パルスな小型中性子源が必要となる。近年発展著しいレーザー技術を用いたレーザー駆動中性子源(LDNS)は、そのような中性子源として将来を期待されている。我々はLDNSを用いたNRTAの実現可能性を調べるため、大阪大学LFEXレーザーを用いて中性子TOF測定実験を行った。

論文

Development and testing of a delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy instrument utilizing Cf-252 neutrons evaluated for nuclear safeguards applications

Rodriguez, D.; Abbas, K.*; 小泉 光生; Nonneman, S.*; Rossi, F.; 高橋 時音

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1014, p.165685_1 - 165685_10, 2021/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:59.77(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Under the MEXT subsidy on research for improving nuclear security related development, we designed the Delayed Gamma-ray Californium Test (DGCT) instrument. From He-3 count-rate experiments performed in collaboration with the European Commission Joint Research Centre, we show the effective neutron flux entering the sample space. Further, we show delayed gamma-ray spectra of both U and Pu samples as well as a comparison to the background from Cf activation of the environment. Finally, we make comparisons to earlier spectra obtained using PUNITA, including relative fission capability, spectral signature, and mass correlations.

論文

Development of a neutron sintillator for a compact NRTA system

伊藤 史哲*; Lee, J.; 弘中 浩太; 高橋 時音; 鈴木 敏*; 堀 順一*; 寺田 和司*; 小泉 光生

KURNS Progress Report 2020, P. 98, 2021/08

文部科学省補助金事業「核セキュリティ強化等推進事業費補助金」の下、核不拡散技術開発の一環として、レーザー駆動中性子源(LDNS)を用いたコンパクトな核共鳴透過分析(NRTA)システムの技術開発を行っている。NRTAにおいては、パルス中性子源から放出される中性子エネルギーが、飛行時間(TOF)法を用いて測定される。LDNSは、短い飛行距離でも高精度なTOF測定を行うために必要となる、短いパルス幅を持つという特性等から注目されている。短距離TOF測定では、減速材中の水素への中性子捕獲による2.2MeVガンマ線の飛来タイミングと、共鳴エネルギー付近の中性子の飛来タイミングが重なり、大きなガンマ線背景事象が存在することとなる。また、LDNSは発展途上であるため、中性子フラックスが十分ではなく、検出効率の高い検出器を用いることが望ましい。このため、我々は、高エネルギーガンマ線に対する検出効率が低く、かつ高い中性子感度を持つ検出器(多層型中性子検出器)を開発してきた。令和3年度の実験結果の一つとして、多層型中性子検出器が、高エネルギーガンマ線に対して低感度であることが確かめられた。

論文

Development of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards, 2; Designing a compact DGS instrument

Rossi, F.; Abbas, K.*; 小泉 光生; Lee, H.-J.; Rodriguez, D.; 高橋 時音

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Virtual Annual Meeting (Internet), 7 Pages, 2021/08

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is developing the Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (DGS) non-destructive assay technique to quantify the fissile-nuclide content in small samples of mixed nuclear materials. One of our primary goals is to develop a compact and efficient DGS instrument to be easily installable into analytical laboratories. The instrument should include an external neutron source and a gamma-ray detection system along with other supporting systems like sample transfer and neutron monitoring. One of the challenges is to design a compact and efficient moderator for commercial neutron sources (e.g. neutron generators or sealed radioactive sources) that emit neutrons with high energy. However, to be able to enhance the gamma-ray signal from fissile materials, thermal neutrons are best due to their higher fission cross-sections. The choice of viable neutron source (neutron spectrum and strength) depends on several considerations (e.g. sample type and interrogation pattern), but also affect the gamma-ray measurement and the consequence analysis. In this work, we will first describe the evaluation results of our Delayed Gamma-ray Test Spectrometer using a $$^{252}$$Cf source (DGTS-C) from the first experiment carried out in PERLA in collaboration with the European Commission, Joint Research Centre. In association, we will describe how it provided guidance for our demonstration irradiator. Further, we will present our final moderator design concept for a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator and present the latest results of data-model comparisons, including those with our PUNITA results. This work is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) under the subsidy for the "promotion for strengthening nuclear security and the like". This work was done under the agreement between JAEA and EURATOM in the field of nuclear material safeguards research and development.

論文

Evaluation of high-energy delayed gamma-ray spectra dependence on interrogation timing patterns

Rodriguez, D.; Bogucarska, T.*; 小泉 光生; Lee, H.-J.; Pedersen, B.*; Rossi, F.; 高橋 時音; Varasano, G.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 997, p.165146_1 - 165146_13, 2021/05

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:20.42(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Under the MEXT subsidy to strengthen nuclear security related research, the ISCN is developing delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy (DGS) for nuclear safeguards. Here we present results from experiments using the PUNITA instrument in collaboration with JRC-Ispra to evaluate the gamma-ray spectral dependence on interrogation time patterns and number of cycles. Specifically, we investigated the observable gamma rays useful to quantify the $$^{239}$$Pu and $$^{235}$$U contributions. Of the time patterns tested in this study, we determined that irradiating the sample for 60-$$s$$ followed by a gamma-ray measurement of 60-$$s$$ was the best for a comparable one-hour total interrogation time.

論文

JAEA-JRC collaborative development of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear material evaluation, 3; Fissile mass estimation with uranium samples

Rossi, F.; 小泉 光生; Lee, H.-J.; Rodriguez, D.; 高橋 時音; Abbas, K.*; Bogucarska, T.*; Crochemore, J.-M.*; Pedersen, B.*; Varasano, G.*

61st Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM 2020), Vol.2, p.907 - 911, 2021/00

Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (DGS) is a nondestructive assay technique with the capability to quantify the fissile composition of small nuclear material samples from reprocessing plants. In recent years, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with the Joint Research Centre performed several experiments using uranium and plutonium standard samples. In this paper, we present some of our recent experiment results showing the feasibility of DGS for fissile mass estimation. In particular, we interrogate uranium samples of different enrichment and we are showing that we were able to qualify significant peaks even for a depleted uranium sample above 2.7 MeV. Applying correction factors for neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption, we obtained a mass linear correlation when considering total integrated counts above 3.3 MeV as well as specific individual peak counts. This work is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) under the subsidy for the "promotion for strengthening nuclear security and the like". This work was done under the agreement between JAEA and EURATOM in the field of nuclear material safeguards research and development.

論文

Correlating the fissile mass of standard uranium samples with delayed gamma rays from fission products

Rossi, F.; Bogucarska, T.*; 小泉 光生; Lee, H.-J.; Pedersen, B.*; Rodriguez, D.; 高橋 時音; Varasano, G.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164306_1 - 164306_7, 2020/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:37.81(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission Joint Research Centre are collaborating to develop delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy (DGS) for nuclear materials for safeguards verification in reprocessing plants. In this paper, we describe DGS interrogation using the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly with standard samples of different $$^{235}$$U enrichments. By analyzing gamma-ray spectra, we reveal a linear correlation between the sample mass and both the total counts above 3.3 MeV and the peak counts of specific high-energy gamma-ray. We were able to observe, qualify and quantify specific gamma rays peak down to the depleted uranium (0.5 g$$^{235}$$U) mass sample. Based on this, we demonstrate that our technique is able to estimate the total fissile mass with a statistical uncertainty $$<$$2% when taking into account self-shielding and gamma self-absorption corrections. Using integrated counts above 3.3 MeV we were able to reduce the mass-dependent bias for the higher enrichments ($$sim$$3 to 4%) to 4%. This work is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) under the subsidiary for the "promotion for strengthening nuclear security and the like". This work was done under the agreement between JAEA and EURATOM in the field of nuclear materials safeguards research and development.

論文

Utilizing nuclear data in delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy inverse Monte Carlo analysis

Rodriguez, D.; Abbas, K.*; Crochemore, J.-M.*; 小泉 光生; Nonneman, S.*; Pedersen, B.*; Rossi, F.; 瀬谷 道夫*; 高橋 時音

EPJ Web of Conferences, 239, p.17005_1 - 17005_5, 2020/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.1

While nondestructive assay techniques would improve the efficiency and time to quantify high-radioactivity nuclear material, there are no passive NDA techniques available to directly verify the U and Pu content. The JAEA and JRC are collaboratively developing the Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy to evaluate the fissile composition from the unique fission product yield distributions. We are developing an Inverse Monte Carlo method that simulates the interrogation and evaluates the individual contributions to the composite spectrum. While the current nuclear data affects the ability to evaluate the composition, the IMC analysis method can be used to determine the systematic uncertainty contributions and has the potential to improve the nuclear data. We will present the current status of the DGS collaborative work as it relates to the development of the DGS IMC analysis.

論文

Utilizing PUNITA experiments to evaluate fundamental delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy interrogation requirements for nuclear safeguards

Rodriguez, D.; 小泉 光生; Rossi, F.; 瀬谷 道夫; 高橋 時音; Bogucarska, T.*; Crochemore, J.-M.*; Pedersen, B.*; 高峰 潤

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.975 - 988, 2020/08

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:37.46(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Present safeguards verification methods of high-radioactivity nuclear material use destructive analysis techniques since passive nondestructive techniques are incapable of determining the nuclear material content. To improve this verification process, the JAEA and EC-JRC Ispra, Italy have been collaborating to develop delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for composition analysis of the fissile nuclides as an aspect of the MEXT subsidy for improving nuclear security and the like. Multiple experiments were performed over three years using PUNITA to interrogate U and Pu samples to determine the signature from the short-lived fission products. We observed many gamma rays useful to determine the composition of a mixed nuclear material sample. Presented here are the results of these measurements with correlations to the interrogation, mass, volume, and sample homogeneity.

論文

Corrigendum to "Model design of a compact delayed gamma-ray moderator system using $$^{252}$$Cf for safeguards verification measurements" [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 148C (2019) 114-125]

Rodriguez, D.; Rossi, F.; 高橋 時音; 瀬谷 道夫*; 小泉 光生

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 159, P. 109083_1, 2020/05

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:1.52(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Under the MEXT subsidy to improve nuclear security related development, there was a mistake made in the MCNP model of our initial Cf moderator design. This corrigendum includes the description of the mistake and the results from correcting this.

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