Takai, Shizuka; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji; Koike, Katsuaki*
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 251, p.104097_1 - 104097_12, 2022/12
When assessing the risk from an underground environment that is contaminated by radioactive nuclides and hazardous chemicals and planning for remediation, the contaminant plume distribution and the associated uncertainty from measured data should be estimated accurately. While the release history of the contaminant plume may be unknown, the extent of the plume caused by a known source and the associated uncertainty can be calculated inversely from the concentration data using a geostatistical method that accounts for the temporal correlation of its release history and groundwater flow modeling. However, the preceding geostatistical approaches have three drawbacks: (1) no applications of the three-dimensional plume estimation in real situations, (2) no constraints for the estimation of the plume distribution, which can yield negative concentration and large uncertainties, and (3) few applications to actual cases with multiple contaminants. To address these problems, the non-negativity constraint using Gibbs sampling was incorporated into the geostatistical method with groundwater flow modeling for contaminant plume estimation. This method was then tested on groundwater contamination in the Gloucester landfill in Ontario, Canada. The method was applied to three water soluble organic contaminants: 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and diethyl ether. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by the general agreement of the calculated plume distributions of the three contaminants with concentration data from 66 points in 1982 (linear correlation coefficient of about 0.7). In particular, the reproduced large spill of organic contaminants of 1,4-dioxane in 1978 was more accurate than the result of preceding minimum relative entropy-based studies. The same peak also appeared in the tetrahydrofuran and diethyl ether distributions approximately within the range of the retardation factor derived from the fraction of organic carbon.
Sasagawa, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji
Proceedings of 31st International Conference Nuclear Energy for New Europe (NENE2022) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2022/12
In the risk assessment of the decommissioning phase, the inventory of radioactivity accumulated in filters and other materials changes with the progress of dismantling work under normal conditions, and a method that can evaluate the public exposure dose during an accident in which these changes are taken into account is required. The inventories (the mobile radioactive contaminants) include filters in which radioactive dust dispersed by equipment cutting work has accumulated and combustible waste generated by decontamination work. In this study, we developed a method to evaluate the accumulation of mobile contaminants in filters by calculating the amount of dust transferred into the air during equipment cutting operations using a model that evaluates the volume of the cutting kerf width and the dispersion ratio. Furthermore, the amount of the mobile contaminants that accumulates in local filters and building filters for each equipment was evaluated using this method, taking into account differences in cutting methods (underwater or in air) and work processes, and the equipment and work processes that should be focused on during regulatory inspections were studied preliminarily. It was suggested that some equipment cut in air generate the same amount of the mobile contaminants compared to reactor internals with high radioactivity that are cut in underwater. This indicates that the mobile contaminant is one of the important indicators in nuclear regulatory inspections that influence the selection of inspection targets.
Takai, Shizuka; Namekawa, Masakazu*; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 69(7), p.1789 - 1798, 2022/07
To reduce a large amount of contaminated concrete rubble stored in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station site, recycling low-radioactivity rubble within the site is a possible remedy. To promote recycling while ensuring safety, not only the average radioactivity but also the radioactivity distribution of concrete rubble should be efficiently evaluated because the details of rubble contamination caused by the accident remain unclear and likely include hotspots. However, evaluating inhomogeneous contamination of thick and/or dense materials is difficult using previous measurement systems, such as clearance monitors. This study experimentally confirmed the potential applicability of image reconstruction algorithms for radioactivity distribution evaluation in concrete rubble filled in a chamber. Radiation was measured using plastic scintillation fiber around the chamber (50 50 40 cm). Localized hotspots were simulated using standard sources of Cs, which is one of the main nuclides of contaminated rubble. The radioactivity distribution was calculated for 100 or 50 voxels (voxel size: (10 cm) or 10 10 20 cm) constituting the chamber. For 100 voxels, inner hotspots were undetected, whereas, for 50 voxels, both inner and surface hotspots were reconstructible. The distribution evaluated using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm was the most accurate; the average radioactivity was estimated within 70% accuracy in all seven cases.
Shimada, Taro; Nemoto, Hiromi*; Takeda, Seiji
Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 57(1), p.5 - 29, 2022/03
Of the asbestos-containing wastes arising from the dismantling activities of nuclear facilities, those with radioactive concentrations that do not need to be treated as radioactive substances will be cleared from the nuclear regulatory control. Those will be disposed of or recycled as specially controlled industrial waste based on the Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act. The authors constructed evaluation scenarios according to the treatment manual for asbestos-containing waste and evaluated public exposure doses per year for 33 radionuclides. Based on the evaluated doses, the radioactive concentration corresponding to the dose criteria of 10 Sv/y for clearance was calculated for each radionuclide and scenario. As a result, the evaluated concentration was equal to or higher than the current clearance level. It was confirmed that the application of the current clearance level for asbestos-containing wastes did not affect safety.
Miwa, Kazuji; Namekawa, Masakazu*; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji
MRS Advances (Internet), 7(7-8), p.165 - 169, 2022/03
We have developed evaluation method of radiocesium (RCs) migration by surface runoff and soil erosion in considering vertical distribution of RCs in initial contaminated soil and concentration of RCs in different particle size. RCs migration on ground surface during single year has been evaluated in virtual site contaminated uniformly by Cs-137. As a result, RCs has concentrated in the impoundment, and 0.18% of total inventory in the site migrated into the sea. These results suggest that surface migration of RCs effects increasing of external exposure at impoundment and internal exposure from ingestion of marine product.
Takahashi, Tomoyuki*; Fukaya, Yukiko*; Iimoto, Takeshi*; Uni, Yasuo*; Kato, Tomoko; Sun, S.*; Takeda, Seiji; Nakai, Kunihiro*; Nakabayashi, Ryo*; Uchida, Shigeo*; et al.
Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 56(4), p.288 - 305, 2021/12
We report the results of activities related to the Task Group of Parameters Used in Biospheric Dose Assessment Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal at the Japan Health Physics Society.
Shimada, Asako; Tsukahara, Takehiko*; Nomura, Masao*; Kim, M. S.*; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(11), p.1184 - 1194, 2021/11
Determining the completeness of nuclear reactor decommissioning is an important step in safely utilizing nuclear power. For example, Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident can be treated as background radioactivity, so determining the origin of Cs is essential. To accomplish this, measuring the Cs/Cs isotope ratio can be useful, so this study optimized a solvent extraction method, with calixarene-bis(t-octylbenzo-crown-6) [BOBCalixC6] in 1-octanol, to purify radioactive Cs, radiocesium, from a solution of major environmental soil elements and mass spectrometry interference elements. This optimized method was applied to Cs purification in soil samples (40 g), and the final solutions contained a total of 10g/ml of the major soil elements and ng/ml concentrations at most of interfering elements. Soil samples collected near the FDNPS were then purified, and the Cs/Cs isotope ratios were measured, using both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and triple quadrupole induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QQQ). The results of each of these measurements were compared, and we found that Cs isotope ratios obtained by TIMS were more precise, by an order of magnitude, while the ICP-QQQ results possessed good abundance sensitivities. A slightly higher Cs/Cs ratio in the northwest area of the FDNPS was observed, while other areas exhibited similar values, all within the measurement error range, which indicated different origins of radiocesium. These results agreed with previously reported Cs/Cs activity distributions, suggesting that this ratio may be useful in identifying radiocesium origins for evaluating future nuclear reactor decommissions.
Takai, Shizuka; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji; Koike, Katsuaki*
Joho Chishitsu, 32(3), P. 95, 2021/09
We received best presentation award GEOINROUM-2021 for the presentation on "Estimation of contaminated materials concentration by a geostatistical method with groundwater flow". We submit the comments of impression for getting the Award to Geoinformatics.
Shimada, Asako; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji
Health Physics, 120(5), p.517 - 524, 2021/05
Takahashi, Tomoyuki*; Uchida, Shigeo*; Takeda, Seiji; Nakai, Kunihiro*
KURNS-EKR-11, p.97 - 102, 2021/03
This paper outlines the status of IAEA database compilation for migration parameters depending elements in a biosphere such as soil-to-plant transfer factor and bioconcentration factor of marine products, and the status of utilization of the database in dose evaluation of radioactive waste disposal in Japan. Additionally, in the case of applying a new database to the dose evaluation for future radioactive waste disposal in a specific area. We summarized the opinions of specialists and result of general discussion about future strategies to make a new database for their parameters, perspectives to be considered in it, issues, etc.
Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.
High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02
As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Takai, Shizuka; Kimura, Hideo*; Uchikoshi, Emiko*; Munakata, Masahiro; Takeda, Seiji
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-007, 174 Pages, 2020/09
The MIG2DF computer code is a computer program that simulates groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in porous media for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The original version of MIG2DF was released in 1992. The original code employs a two-dimensional (vertical or horizontal cross-section, or an axisymmetric configuration) finite-element method to approximate the governing equations for density-dependent saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Meanwhile, for geological disposal of radioactive wastes, landscape evolution such as uplift and erosion needs to be assessed as a long-term geological and climate events, considering site conditions. In coastal areas, the impact to groundwater flow by change of salinity distribution to sea level change also needs to be considered. To deal with these events in the assessment, we have revised the original version of MIG2DF and developed the external program which enables MIG2DF to consider unsteady landscape evolution. In these developments, this report describes an upgrade of MIG2DF (Version 2) and presents the configuration, equations, methods, and verification. This reports also give the explanation external programs of MIG2DF: PASS-TRAC (the particle tracking code), PASS-PRE (the code for dataset preparation), and PASS-POST (the post-processing visualization system).
Shimada, Asako; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji
Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2020/08
no abstracts in English
Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takai, Shizuka; Takeda, Seiji
JAEA-Research 2020-005, 47 Pages, 2020/06
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, large quantities of radiocesium-contaminated soil were generated from decontamination activities in the Fukushima prefecture. The removed soil has been stored in the prefecture until its final disposal. To complete the final disposal outside Fukushima prefecture, reducing the disposal volume through recycling can prove effective. The Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOE) has presented a policy to recycle low-radioactive removed soil as recycled materials under the management of public authority. The recycling is limited to civil engineering structures in public projects. In this study, to contribute to guideline development for removed soil recycling by MOE, dose estimation in recycling of removed soil as embankment materials of seaside protection forest was conducted. First, additional doses to workers and the public in construction and service scenarios were evaluated. From the result, the radioactive cesium concentration level of recycled materials, where all additional doses meet the radiation criterion of 1 mSv/y, was derived to be 5,000 Bq/kg. Then, construction conditions were reviewed to reduce additional doses to the public in a service scenario. With the derived radioactivity level of 5,000 Bq/kg, the covered soil thickness of 39 cm or more limited the doses to less than 10 Sv/y. Finally, additional doses in a disaster scenario were evaluated. The doses were confirmed to be below 1 mSv/y when the removed soil of 5,000 Bq/kg was used.
Shimada, Asako; Nemoto, Hiromi*; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00569_1 - 19-00569_17, 2020/06
After treatments such as sieve classification and washing of decontamination soil taken in Fukushima prefecture, recycling of the treated soil in which radioactivity concentration level is relatively low to public engineering works is invented to reduce the amount of the decontamination soil that must be disposed of. In the present study, dose estimation for workers and the public was conducted from the viewpoint of application of recycling material of decontamination soil for land reclamation by considering exposure pathways from the construction to the servicing of the land as a greenery-covered area. In the case of revegetation with trees, uptake of Cs into trees was considered and the exposure from trees, trimmed or thinned trees, and organic deposit made from litter fall were evaluated. From the results, the concentration levels of radiocesium, Cs and Cs, for which the annual effective exposure dose does not exceed 1 mSv/y was calculated. In addition, the thickness of the cover soil required to maintain the exposure dose lower than 10 Sv/y for the public during servicing was ascertained. Furthermore, disasters were considered; for instance, by considering that tsunamis, fires, and concentrated heavy rain can increase exposure doses based on changes in the conditions of the reclamation land, we confirmed that the additional exposure dose during disaster and rehabilitation is lower than 1 mSv/y. Based on these evaluation results, we determined the concentration levels amenable to recycling.
Takai, Shizuka; Shimada, Asako; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(1), p.1 - 7, 2020/01
After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, most of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities outside Fukushima prefecture has been stored at decontamination sites such as schools, parks and residential lands (storage at sites) according to the Decontamination Guidelines. However, additional exposure due to the present storage has not been evaluated. Moreover, entering storage sites, which is not restricted for storage at sites, was not considered in safety assessment conducted in the guidelines. To continue the storage and confirm the effectiveness, understanding of present possible exposures is important. In this study, we evaluated exposure doses for residents and users of storage sites based on the present situation. As a result, annual doses due to residence were 10 to 10 mSv y and doses due to annual entries were of the order of 10 mSv y. Hence, we confirmed that the exposure due to present storage outside Fukushima is significantly less than 1 mSv y.
Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji; Iimoto, Takeshi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.372 - 375, 2019/10
The Ministry of the Environment has indicated the policy of recycling the contaminated soil generated by decontamination activity after the Fukushima accident. By recycling to coastal reclamation which is one of effective recycling application, dissolved radiocesium and absorbed radiocesium on soil particles will flow out to the ocean by construction, therefore evaluating radiocesium transition in ocean considering the both types of radiocesium is important for safety assessment. In this study, the radiocesium outflow during constructing and after constructing is modeled, and radiocesium transition in ocean is evaluated by Sediment model suggested in OECD/NEA. The adaptability of sediment model is confirmed by reproducing evaluation of the coastal area of Fukushima. We incorporate the sediment model to PASCLR2 code system to evaluate the doses from radiocesium in ocean.
Shimada, Taro; Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO, 61(7), p.531 - 534, 2019/07
Rubbles less than 5 Sv/h of surface dose rate, which are stored outdoor in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS (1F) site, will be recycled and applied in a restricted reuse only within 1F site in the future. However, there is no precedent for establishing the reference values such as dose and/or concentration for reuse or recycling under the existing exposure situation. In this study, we suggested a concept for establishing the reference radioactive concentration of recycling material for the restricted use in the 1F site. In addition, based on the concept, we calculated the reference radiocesium concentrations of the recycling material used for paved roads and the bases of concrete building.
Shimada, Asako; Nemoto, Hiromi*; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2019/05
no abstracts in English
Miwa, Kazuji; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.166 - 170, 2019/01
In this study, in order to validate the restricted use of recycling material at the reference radiocesium concentration (determined in series report (1)), we evaluated worker annual doses, air dose rate at the site boundary and impact of migrated radiocesium into groundwater. Firstly, we evaluated the additional annual dose for workers, on the assumption that typical workers coming in contact with the source after construction (Road: 1.2 mSv/y, Building: 1.3 mSv/y). Secondly, we evaluated the air dose rates by distance from road and building including recycling material, and investigated the distance for not exceeding 1 mSv/y (including additional dose rate by recycling and background dose rate of 0.6 mSv/y) at the site boundary (Road: 25 m, Building: 1 m). Thirdly, we evaluated the Cs migration in groundwater, and investigated the distance required for satisfying the operation target value (Cs: 1 Bq/L, Cs: 1 Bq/L) at the boundary (coastal line) (Road: 10 m, Building: 10 m).