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JAEA Reports

Development of MIG2DF Version 2

Takai, Shizuka; Kimura, Hideo*; Uchikoshi, Emiko*; Munakata, Masahiro; Takeda, Seiji

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-007, 174 Pages, 2020/09

JAEA-Data-Code-2020-007.pdf:4.23MB

The MIG2DF computer code is a computer program that simulates groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in porous media for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The original version of MIG2DF was released in 1992. The original code employs a two-dimensional (vertical or horizontal cross-section, or an axisymmetric configuration) finite-element method to approximate the governing equations for density-dependent saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Meanwhile, for geological disposal of radioactive wastes, landscape evolution such as uplift and erosion needs to be assessed as a long-term geological and climate events, considering site conditions. In coastal areas, the impact to groundwater flow by change of salinity distribution to sea level change also needs to be considered. To deal with these events in the assessment, we have revised the original version of MIG2DF and developed the external program which enables MIG2DF to consider unsteady landscape evolution. In these developments, this report describes an upgrade of MIG2DF (Version 2) and presents the configuration, equations, methods, and verification. This reports also give the explanation external programs of MIG2DF: PASS-TRAC (the particle tracking code), PASS-PRE (the code for dataset preparation), and PASS-POST (the post-processing visualization system).

Journal Articles

Sensitivity analysis of external exposure dose for future burial measures of decontamination soil generated outside Fukushima prefecture

Shimada, Asako; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2020/08

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Dose estimation in recycling of removed soil as seaside protection forest (Contract research)

Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takai, Shizuka; Takeda, Seiji

JAEA-Research 2020-005, 47 Pages, 2020/06

JAEA-Research-2020-005.pdf:5.09MB

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, large quantities of radiocesium-contaminated soil were generated from decontamination activities in the Fukushima prefecture. The removed soil has been stored in the prefecture until its final disposal. To complete the final disposal outside Fukushima prefecture, reducing the disposal volume through recycling can prove effective. The Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOE) has presented a policy to recycle low-radioactive removed soil as recycled materials under the management of public authority. The recycling is limited to civil engineering structures in public projects. In this study, to contribute to guideline development for removed soil recycling by MOE, dose estimation in recycling of removed soil as embankment materials of seaside protection forest was conducted. First, additional doses to workers and the public in construction and service scenarios were evaluated. From the result, the radioactive cesium concentration level of recycled materials, where all additional doses meet the radiation criterion of 1 mSv/y, was derived to be 5,000 Bq/kg. Then, construction conditions were reviewed to reduce additional doses to the public in a service scenario. With the derived radioactivity level of 5,000 Bq/kg, the covered soil thickness of 39 cm or more limited the doses to less than 10 $$mu$$Sv/y. Finally, additional doses in a disaster scenario were evaluated. The doses were confirmed to be below 1 mSv/y when the removed soil of 5,000 Bq/kg was used.

Journal Articles

Dose estimation in the recycling of removed soil for land reclamation

Shimada, Asako; Nemoto, Hiromi*; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00569_1 - 19-00569_17, 2020/06

After treatments such as sieve classification and washing of decontamination soil taken in Fukushima prefecture, recycling of the treated soil in which radioactivity concentration level is relatively low to public engineering works is invented to reduce the amount of the decontamination soil that must be disposed of. In the present study, dose estimation for workers and the public was conducted from the viewpoint of application of recycling material of decontamination soil for land reclamation by considering exposure pathways from the construction to the servicing of the land as a greenery-covered area. In the case of revegetation with trees, uptake of Cs into trees was considered and the exposure from trees, trimmed or thinned trees, and organic deposit made from litter fall were evaluated. From the results, the concentration levels of radiocesium, $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs, for which the annual effective exposure dose does not exceed 1 mSv/y was calculated. In addition, the thickness of the cover soil required to maintain the exposure dose lower than 10 $$mu$$Sv/y for the public during servicing was ascertained. Furthermore, disasters were considered; for instance, by considering that tsunamis, fires, and concentrated heavy rain can increase exposure doses based on changes in the conditions of the reclamation land, we confirmed that the additional exposure dose during disaster and rehabilitation is lower than 1 mSv/y. Based on these evaluation results, we determined the concentration levels amenable to recycling.

Journal Articles

Dose estimation for contaminated soil storage in living environment

Takai, Shizuka; Shimada, Asako; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(1), p.1 - 7, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, most of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities outside Fukushima prefecture has been stored at decontamination sites such as schools, parks and residential lands (storage at sites) according to the Decontamination Guidelines. However, additional exposure due to the present storage has not been evaluated. Moreover, entering storage sites, which is not restricted for storage at sites, was not considered in safety assessment conducted in the guidelines. To continue the storage and confirm the effectiveness, understanding of present possible exposures is important. In this study, we evaluated exposure doses for residents and users of storage sites based on the present situation. As a result, annual doses due to residence were 10$$^{-2}$$ to 10$$^{-3}$$ mSv y$$^{-1}$$ and doses due to annual entries were of the order of 10$$^{-3}$$ mSv y$$^{-1}$$. Hence, we confirmed that the exposure due to present storage outside Fukushima is significantly less than 1 mSv y$$^{-1}$$.

Journal Articles

Development of dose estimation system integrating sediment model for recycling radiocesium-contaminated soil to coastal reclamation

Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji; Iimoto, Takeshi*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.372 - 375, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

The Ministry of the Environment has indicated the policy of recycling the contaminated soil generated by decontamination activity after the Fukushima accident. By recycling to coastal reclamation which is one of effective recycling application, dissolved radiocesium and absorbed radiocesium on soil particles will flow out to the ocean by construction, therefore evaluating radiocesium transition in ocean considering the both types of radiocesium is important for safety assessment. In this study, the radiocesium outflow during constructing and after constructing is modeled, and radiocesium transition in ocean is evaluated by Sediment model suggested in OECD/NEA. The adaptability of sediment model is confirmed by reproducing evaluation of the coastal area of Fukushima. We incorporate the sediment model to PASCLR2 code system to evaluate the doses from radiocesium in ocean.

Journal Articles

Current status and issues for clearance, 5; Concept of restricted use of contaminated rubbles in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS

Shimada, Taro; Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 61(7), p.531 - 534, 2019/07

Rubbles less than 5 $$mu$$Sv/h of surface dose rate, which are stored outdoor in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS (1F) site, will be recycled and applied in a restricted reuse only within 1F site in the future. However, there is no precedent for establishing the reference values such as dose and/or concentration for reuse or recycling under the existing exposure situation. In this study, we suggested a concept for establishing the reference radioactive concentration of recycling material for the restricted use in the 1F site. In addition, based on the concept, we calculated the reference radiocesium concentrations of the recycling material used for paved roads and the bases of concrete building.

Journal Articles

Dose estimation in recycling of decontamination soil from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident for land reclamation

Shimada, Asako; Nemoto, Hiromi*; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2019/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Study on restricted use of contaminated rubble on Fukushima Daiichi NPS site, 2; Validation of reference radiocesium concentration for recycling materials

Miwa, Kazuji; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.166 - 170, 2019/01

In this study, in order to validate the restricted use of recycling material at the reference radiocesium concentration (determined in series report (1)), we evaluated worker annual doses, air dose rate at the site boundary and impact of migrated radiocesium into groundwater. Firstly, we evaluated the additional annual dose for workers, on the assumption that typical workers coming in contact with the source after construction (Road: 1.2 mSv/y, Building: 1.3 mSv/y). Secondly, we evaluated the air dose rates by distance from road and building including recycling material, and investigated the distance for not exceeding 1 mSv/y (including additional dose rate by recycling and background dose rate of 0.6 mSv/y) at the site boundary (Road: 25 m, Building: 1 m). Thirdly, we evaluated the Cs migration in groundwater, and investigated the distance required for satisfying the operation target value ($$^{134}$$Cs: 1 Bq/L, $$^{137}$$Cs: 1 Bq/L) at the boundary (coastal line) (Road: 10 m, Building: 10 m).

Journal Articles

Study on restricted use of contaminated rubble on Fukushima Daiichi NPS site, 1; Estimation of reference radiocesium concentration for recycling materials

Shimada, Taro; Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.203 - 207, 2019/01

Rubbles less than 5 $$mu$$Sv/h of surface dose rate, which are stored outdoor in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS (1F) site, will be recycled and applied in a restricted reuse only within 1F site in the future. In this study, we suggested a concept for establishing the reference radioactive concentration of recycling material for the restricted use in the 1F site. Reference radiocesium concentration is calculated so that increased dose rate by restricted reuse does not exceed 1 $$mu$$Sv/h which is the minimum value of dose rate map in the 1F entire site. In order to justify the restricted reuse under the reference concentration calculated, additional occupational dose, dose rate at the site boundary and groundwater concentration at the outlet to the ocean are evaluated and confirmed that the values are below 2 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y and 1 Bq/cm$$^{3}$$ of $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs, respectively. And then calculated the reference radiocesium concentrations of the recycling material used for paved roads and the bases of concrete building.

Journal Articles

Study on criticality in natural barrier for disposal of fuel debris from Fukushima Daiichi NPS

Shimada, Taro; Takubo, Kazuya*; Takeda, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.183 - 187, 2018/11

After fuel debris is removed from the reactor containment vessel at Fukushima Daiichi NPS (1F) and collected in waste containers in the future, the waste containers will be disposed at a deep geological repository. The uranium inventory and uranium-235 ($$^{235}$$U) enrichment of the fuel debris are larger than those of high-level vitrified wastes which are produced from liquid waste during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Therefore, there is a possibility not to be excluded that a criticality occurs in the geological media where the uranium precipitates at the far-field from the repository, after the uranium located in the repository is dissolved by groundwater. In this study, we calculated the quantity of uranium precipitated at the natural barrier, and studied dimension of uranium deposited in the natural barrier and carried out the criticality analysis.

Journal Articles

Dose estimation in recycling of decontamination soil resulting from the Fukushima NPS accident for road embankments

Takai, Shizuka; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji

Health Physics, 115(4), p.439 - 447, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:46.85(Environmental Sciences)

After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident, large quantities of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities have been stored in the Fukushima Prefecture. To reduce the disposal volume, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan has presented a policy to recycle low-radioactive decontamination soil limited to civil engineering structures. However, there has been no practical instance or safety assessment of decontamination soil recycling. In this study, the way of ensuring the safety for decontamination soil recycling for road embankments was discussed. First, based on Japanese construction standards, additional doses to workers and the public in construction and service scenarios were evaluated. From the result, the radioactive cesium concentration level of recycled materials, where all additional doses meet the radiation criterion of 1 mSv y$$^{-1}$$, was derived to be 6,000 Bq kg$$^{-1}$$. To confine additional doses to the public in a service scenario below 0.01 mSv y$$^{-1}$$, soil slope protection of 40 cm or more was needed. Finally, additional doses in a disaster scenario were confirmed to be below 1 mSv y$$^{-1}$$.

Journal Articles

Safety assessment for recycling of soil generated from decontamination activities

Takeda, Seiji

Str${aa}$levern Rappot 2018:4 (Internet), p.62 - 64, 2018/04

The widespread environment was contaminated by radioactive cesium discharged by the severe accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Decontamination measures have been implemented extensively, resulting in the generation of large volume of decontamination soil that has been placed in temporary storage. To reduce the volume of decontamination soil, it can be effective to recycle the soil as construction material. This report shows the concept of safety assessment method for recycle to public projects in which the management system and allocation of responsibility are clarified, scenario construction and parameter selection, and also the results of safe assessment for the recycle to coastal levees.

Journal Articles

Dose estimation in recycling of decontamination soil due to Fukushima NPS accident as coastal levees

Takai, Shizuka; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji

Proceedings of International Waste Management Symposia 2018 (WM 2018) (Internet), 14 Pages, 2018/03

After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident, large quantities of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities have been stored in the Fukushima prefecture. To complete the final disposal of decontamination soil, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan presented policy to reduce the disposal volume by using low-level decontamination soil as recycled materials. The use will be limited to civil engineering structures in public projects, such as coastal levee and road embankment. However, there has been no example or safety assessment of recycling of decontamination soil. To contribute to guideline development for the recycling by the Ministry of the Environment, we conducted the safety assessment for recycling of decontamination soil as coastal levee. First, we evaluated additional doses to workers and the public in the case of construction and service of coastal levee. From the result, the radioactive cesium concentration level of recycled materials was derived to be 6,800 Bq/kg. For general designs of coastal levee in Japan, additional doses to the public in the case of service were below 0.01 mSv/y with derived radioactivity level. Finally, we confirmed additional doses in the case of disaster to be below 1 mSv/y.

Journal Articles

Challenges for enhancing Fukushima environment resilience, 6; The Use of the reclaimed materials derived from the removed soil on the basis of the security

Okada, Takashi; Takeda, Seiji; Nakata, Hisakazu

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 59(10), p.603 - 607, 2017/10

Because the reclaimed material is used, quantity of disposal of the removal soil can decrease. It is a strategic key to utilize the reclaimed material. As for this report, it is explained to about the fundamentals of the safe use of the reclaimed materials derived from the removed soil.

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Analysis on the effect of forest decontamination on reducing the air dose rate using the three-dimensional transport code MCNP

Hemmi, Ko; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 24(1), p.3 - 14, 2017/06

Conditions of contaminated sources and ranges of forest decontamination that significantly reduce the air dose rate in residential areas were investigated by means of a sensitivity analysis related to the decontamination of the forest contaminated by radiocesium deriving from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The contaminated sources including $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs were assumed to be a layer of sedimented organic matter (the A$$_{0}$$ layer) and surface soils (the A$$_{1}$$ layer). The air dose rates were calculated using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. A slope number of the forest, angles, state of contaminant distribution, radiocesium content in the forest soils, decontamination ranges, distance from the forest boundary to an evaluation point, and height at the evaluation point were adopted as the parameters. The decontamination of a litter (A$$_{0}$$) layer within the distance of 20 m from the forest boundary was revealed to be effective in reducing the air dose rate when the source distribution was homogeneous. The air dose rates were significantly reduced by the decontamination of the A$$_{0}$$ layer within a distance of 40 m from the forest boundary on condition that the radiocesium content of the A$$_{0}$$ layer was larger than that of the A$$_{1}$$ layer and the source distribution was non-homogeneous, such as the forest areas beyond 20 m from the forest boundary, which were more heavily contaminated than those within 20 m.

JAEA Reports

Scenario development on application of engineering technology for geological disposal; Study of influence of earthquake at site construction, operation and closure stages and that impact on safety functions after closure of disposal facility (Contract research)

Takai, Shizuka; Takayama, Hideki*; Takeda, Seiji

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-020, 40 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2016-020.pdf:2.42MB

In this report, another group of scenarios for occurrence of earthquake at construction stage, operation stage and closure stage of disposal facility was presented. At first, we compiled information about damage cases of tunnel by earthquake and analyzed conditions for occurrence of damage. Base on this result and the previous report, information of influence of the accidents and human factors on safety functions and information of FEP about THMC variation, we specified events to be considered, which occur by earthquake and influence engineering barriers, natural barriers and long-term safety after closure stage of disposal facility. We compiled influence of the events on safety functions after closure stage of disposal and showed the chains of the influence on long-term safety as scenarios. These results were integrated as a database that could support development of scenarios caused by application of engineering technologies to geological disposal.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of influence of splay fault growth on groundwater flow around geological disposal system

Takai, Shizuka; Takeda, Seiji; Sakai, Ryutaro*; Shimada, Taro; Munakata, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tadao

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 16(1), p.34 - 48, 2017/03

In geological disposal, direct effect on geological repositories by active faults is avoided at a stage of site characterization; however, uncertainty remains for avoidance of faults derived from the active faults, which are concealed deep under the ground and difficult to detect in advance. In this research, the influence of growth of undetected splay faults on natural barrier in a geological disposal system, which will caused by attack of the faults in the future, was evaluated. We investigated examples of splay faults in Japan and set conditions for growth of splay faults. Furthermore, we assumed a disposal site composed of sedimentary rocks and made a hydrogeological model of growth of splay faults. We carried out groundwater flow analyses, changing parameters such as location and depth of repository and growth velocity of splay faults. The results indicate that main flow path from the repository is changed into upward flow along the splay fault due to its growth and the average velocity to the ground surface becomes one or two orders of magnitude higher than that before its growth. The results also suggest that the splay fault growth leads into the possibility of downward flow of oxidizing groundwater from ground surface area.

Journal Articles

Sensitivity analysis on safety functions of engineered and natural barriers for fuel debris disposal

Shimada, Taro; Nishimura, Yuki; Takeda, Seiji

MRS Advances (Internet), 2(12), p.687 - 692, 2017/01

A disposal measure for fuel debris generated at the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has been studied so far. However, physical and chemical properties of the fuel debris have not yet investigated in reactor containment vessels. In order to investigate the safety function of barriers required for disposal of fuel debris, sensitivity analyses for radionuclide migration were carried out, considering with uncertainty of the properties. As a result, it is indicated that it was important for evaluation of fuel debris disposal to obtain the physical and chemical properties of $$^{14}$$C and $$^{129}$$I during release to groundwater, in addition to $$^{238}$$U.

171 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)