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Journal Articles

Dynamics of radiocaesium within forests in Fukushima; Results and analysis of a model inter-comparison

Hashimoto, Shoji*; Tanaka, Taku*; Komatsu, Masabumi*; Gonze, M.-A.*; Sakashita, Wataru*; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nishina, Kazuya*; Ota, Masakazu; Ohashi, Shinta*; Calmon, P.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106721_1 - 106721_10, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

This study was aimed at analysing performance of models for radiocesium migration mainly in evergreen coniferous forest in Fukushima, by inter-comparison between models of several research teams. The exercise included two scenarios of countermeasures against the contamination, namely removal of soil surface litter and forest renewal, and a specific konara oak forest scenario in addition to the evergreen forest scenario. All the models reproduced trend of time evolution of radiocesium inventories and concentrations in each of the components in forest such as leaf and organic soil layer. However, the variations between models enlarged in long-term predictions over 50 years after the fallout, meaning continuous field monitoring and model verification/validation is necessary.

Journal Articles

Radon inhalation decreases DNA damage induced by oxidative stress in mouse organs via the activation of antioxidative functions

Kataoka, Takahiro*; Shuto, Hina*; Naoe, Shota*; Yano, Junki*; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hanamoto, Katsumi*; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Terato, Hiroaki*; et al.

Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 62(5), p.861 - 867, 2021/09

Journal Articles

Dosimetry of radon progeny deposited on skin in air and thermal water

Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Kanzaki, Norie; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*

Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 62(4), p.634 - 644, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Biology)

It is held that the skin dose from radon progeny is not negligibly small and that introducing cancer is a possible consequence under normal circumstances, while there are a number of uncertainties in terms of related parameters such as activity concentrations in air, target cells in skin, skin covering materials, and deposition velocities. Meanwhile, an interesting proposal emerged in that skin exposure to natural radon-rich thermal water as part of balneotherapy can produce an immune response to induce beneficial health effects. The goal of the present study was to obtain generic dose coefficients with a focus on the radon progeny deposited on the skin in air or water in relation to risk or therapeutic assessments. We thus first estimated the skin deposition velocities of radon progeny in the two media based on data from the latest human studies. Using the optimized velocities, skin dosimetry was then performed under different assumptions regarding alpha-emitting source position and target cell (i.e., basal cells or Langerhans cells). Furthermore, the impact of the radon progeny deposition on effective doses from all exposure pathways relating to "radon exposure" was assessed using various possible scenarios. It was found that in both exposure media, effective doses from radon progeny inhalation are one to four orders of magnitude higher than those from the other pathways. In addition, absorbed doses on the skin can be the highest among all pathways when the radon activity concentrations in water are two or more orders of magnitude higher than those in air.

Journal Articles

Early emergency responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency against the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident in 2011

Okuno, Hiroshi; Sato, Sohei; Kawakami, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tadao

Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 46(2), p.66 - 79, 2021/06

The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was a typical one of the disastrous damages that induced evacuation of the residents around the NPS, which was triggered by the hugest earthquake and associated tsunami. This paper summarized early responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), especially of its Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) to the off-site emergencies associated with the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper addressed activities of emergency preparedness of the NEAT before 2011 in relevant to the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS, the situation of the NEAT on March 11, 2011, and its early responses to the related off-site emergencies including those caused by the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper also discussed issues associated with complex disasters.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of the redox state in mouse organs following radon inhalation

Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Shuto, Hina*; Yano, Junki*; Naoe, Shota*; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hanamoto, Katsumi*; Terato, Hiroaki*; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; et al.

Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 62(2), p.206 - 216, 2021/03

Radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in mouse organs, thereby contributing to inhibition of oxidative stress-induced damage. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the redox state of various organs in mice following radon inhalation. Mice inhaled radon at concentrations of 2 or 20 kBq/m$$^{3}$$ for 1, 3, or 10 days. The relationship between antioxidative function and oxidative stress was evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation coefficient compared with control mice subjected to sham inhalation. These findings suggested that radon inhalation altered the redox state in organs, but that the characteristics varied depending on the redox state in organs.

Journal Articles

Analysis of the activities of the website "Question and Answer about radiation in Daily Life" after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and some lessons learned from it; To pass on this experience to the future

Kono, Takahiko; Shimo, Michikuni*; Hayakawa, Hironobu*; Taniguchi, Kazufumi*; Tanaka, Masato*; Tanaka, Hitomi*; Onoue, Yosuke*; Nagaya, Hiroshi*; Torii, Hiroyuki*; Uno, Kazuko*

Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 55(4), p.226 - 238, 2020/12

After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, artificial radionuclides such as radioactive cesium and iodine were released into the environment. It caused great anxiety not only in the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station but also in other regions of Japan. Some members of the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) which is a leading academic society in Japan in the field of radiation protection volunteered to establish the website called "Question and Answer about radiation in Daily Life" just after the accident to reduce the anxiety of the residents about the health effects of radiation. After that, Committee of "Question and Answer about radiation in Daily Life" was established in August 2011 in JHPS, and this activity had been carried out under the responsibility of the society that answered with sincerity against questions from the public as specialists until February 2013. The number of questions on the website had gradually decreased as time passed; therefore, the Committee members decided to end these activities in February 2013. In this paper, following contents were shown; the activities of the Q&A website for about two years, the issues of the stance on our activities, the information related to the website activities and the analysis of Twitter data. Based on the experience and the knowledge obtained from these activities, the issues and experiences that can be utilized in the initial response to emergencies for radiation protection experts as well as other fields are presented.

Journal Articles

Direct observation of the magnetic ordering process in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga$$_{1-x}$$Mn$$_{x}$$As via soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

Takeda, Yukiharu; Oya, Shinobu*; Pham, N. H.*; Kobayashi, Masaki*; Saito, Yuji; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaaki*; Fujimori, Atsushi*

Journal of Applied Physics, 128(21), p.213902_1 - 213902_11, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:24.67(Physics, Applied)

JAEA Reports

Registration and related activities of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for the response and assistance network of the International Atomic Energy Agency

Togawa, Orihiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Okuno, Hiroshi

JAEA-Review 2020-017, 36 Pages, 2020/09

JAEA-Review-2020-017.pdf:2.24MB

In 2010, the government of Japan joined the Response and Assistance Network (RANET) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in order to contribute to offering international assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. At that occasion, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was registered as the National Assistance Capability (NAC) having resources capable of the External Based Support (EBS) in the following seven areas: (1) aerial survey, (2) radiation monitoring, (3) environmental measurements, (4) assessment and advice, (5) internal dose assessment, (6) bioassay and (7) dose reconstruction. After the registration, three inquiries were directed to the JAEA about a possibility of its support. However, the JAEA's assistance has not eventually been realized. On the other hand, the JAEA participated almost every year in the international Convention Exercise (ConvEx) carried out by the IAEA in connection with RANET. This report describes an outline of the RANET and related activities of the JAEA for RANET registration and participation in the ConvEx.

Journal Articles

Release behavior of radionuclides from MOX fuels irradiated in a fast reactor during heating tests

Tanaka, Kosuke; Sato, Isamu*; Onishi, Takashi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Hirosawa, Takashi; Katsuyama, Kozo; Seino, Hiroshi; Ohno, Shuji; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Tokoro, Daishiro*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 536, p.152119_1 - 152119_8, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In order to obtain the release rate coefficients from fuels for fast reactors (FRs), heating tests and the subsequent analyses of the fission products (FPs) and actinides that are released were carried out using samples of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets irradiated at the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Three heating tests targeting temperatures of 2773, 2973 and 3173 K were conducted using an FP release behavior test apparatus equipped with a high-frequency induction furnace and solid FP sampling systems consisting of a thermal gradient tube (TGT) and filters. Irradiated fuel pellets were placed into a tungsten crucible, then loaded into the induction furnace. The temperature was raised continuously at a heating rate of 10 K/s to the targeted temperature and maintained for 500 s in a flowing argon gas atmosphere. The FPs and actinides released from the MOX fuels and deposited in the TGT and filters were quantified by gamma-ray spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Based on the analysis, the release rates of radionuclides from MOX fuels for FR were obtained and compared with literature data for light water reactor (LWR) fuels. The release rate coefficients of FPs obtained in this study were found to be similar to or lower than the literature values for LWR fuels. It was also found that the release rate coefficient data for actinides were within the range of variation of literature values for LWR fuels.

Journal Articles

Comparison of antioxidative effects between radon and thoron inhalation in mouse organs

Kobashi, Yusuke*; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*

Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 59(3), p.473 - 482, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:33.12(Biology)

Radon therapy has been traditionally performed globally for oxidative stress-related diseases. Many researchers have studied the beneficial effects of radon exposure in living organisms. However, the effects of thoron, a radioisotope of radon, have not been fully examined. In this study, we aimed to compare the biological effects of radon and thoron inhalation on mouse organs with a focus on oxidative stress. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 15 groups: sham inhalation, radon inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m$$^{3}$$ or 2000 Bq/m$$^{3}$$, and thoron inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m$$^{3}$$ or 2000 Bq/m$$^{3}$$ were carried out. Immediately after inhalation, mouse tissues were excised for biochemical assays. The results showed a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and total glutathione, and a significant decrease in lipid peroxide following thoron inhalation under several conditions. Additionally, similar effects were observed for different doses and inhalation times between radon and thoron. Our results suggest that thoron inhalation also exerts antioxidative effects against oxidative stress in organs. However, the inhalation conditions should be carefully analyzed because of the differences in physical characteristics between radon and thoron.

Journal Articles

Detailed structural study on the poly(vinyl alcohol) adsorption layers on a Si substrate with solvent vapor-induced swelling

Miyazaki, Tsukasa*; Miyata, Noboru*; Yoshida, Tessei*; Arima, Hiroshi*; Tsumura, Yoshihiro*; Torikai, Naoya*; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro*; Kanaya, Toshiji*; Kawaguchi, Daisuke*; et al.

Langmuir, 36(13), p.3415 - 3424, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:75.63(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Electronic structure of the high-$$T_{rm C}$$ ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and resonance photoemission spectroscopy studies

Sakamoto, Shoya*; Tu, N. T.*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Fujimori, Shinichi; Hai, P. N.*; Anh, L. D.*; Wakabayashi, Yuki K.*; Shibata, Goro*; Horio, Masafumi*; Ikeda, Keisuke*; et al.

Physical Review B, 100(3), p.035204_1 - 035204_8, 2019/07

Journal Articles

Electronic structure of the high-$$T_{rm C}$$ ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and resonance photoemission spectroscopy studies

Sakamoto, Shoya*; Tu, N. T.*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Fujimori, Shinichi; Hai, P. N.*; Anh, L. D.*; Wakabayashi, Yuki*; Shibata, Goro*; Horio, Masafumi*; Ikeda, Keisuke*; et al.

Physical Review B, 100(3), p.035204_1 - 035204_8, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:67.98(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Preparedness and response for nuclear or radiological emergency as a designated public corporation

Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ebine, Noriya; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2019/05

In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of Japan undertakes a role to support the national government and local governments. This paper (1) illuminates the roles of the JAEA as a designated public corporation for preparedness and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency of nuclear facilities; (2) summarizes emergency response activities of the JAEA in accordance with its Disaster Management Operation Plan against the off-site radiological emergencies attributed to a loss of control of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that occurred in 2011; and (3) reports its activities in normal times especially participation in the drills organized by the national government and local governments in the light of the Basic Disaster Management Plan of Japan and Local Disaster Management Plans of prefectural governments, respectively.

Journal Articles

Preliminary evaluation of local structure and speciation of lanthanoids in aqueous solution, iron hydroxide, manganese dioxide, and calcite using the L$$_{3}$$-Edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra

Ota, Atsuyuki*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Tsuno, Hiroshi*

Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 122(41), p.8152 - 8161, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:5.88(Chemistry, Physical)

We investigated the application of L$$_{3}$$-edge XANES spectra to the local structural analysis of lanthanoids in aqueous solution, iron hydroxide, manganese dioxide, and calcium carbonate. For each lanthanoid, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of lanthanoid compounds roughly decreased with increasing coordination numbers. However, they did not strictly reflect the local coordination sphere of the lanthanoid complex, but were rather sensitive to their chemical forms. The relationship between the magnitude of the FWHM values was determined by the crystal field splitting or degeneracy of 5d orbitals. The systematic variation of FWHM can be explained by the ligand strength of the ligand molecules (-H$$_{2}$$O$$^{0}$$, -O$$^{-}$$, -OH$$^{-}$$, -CO$$_{3}$$$$^{2-}$$, -Cl$$^{-}$$, and -O$$^{2-}$$) that cause the crystal field splitting. Therefore, the FWHM values of L$$_{3}$$-edge XANES of lanthanoid compounds may be more useful in speciation analysis rather than structural analysis such as EXAFS.

Journal Articles

Cation distribution and magnetic properties in ultrathin (Ni$$_{1-x}$$Co$$_{x}$$)Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$ (x=0-1) layers on Si(111) studied by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

Wakabayashi, Yuki*; Nonaka, Yosuke*; Takeda, Yukiharu; Sakamoto, Shoya*; Ikeda, Keisuke*; Chi, Z.*; Shibata, Goro*; Tanaka, Arata*; Saito, Yuji; Yamagami, Hiroshi; et al.

Physical Review Materials (Internet), 2(10), p.104416_1 - 104416_12, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:37.83(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

JAEA Reports

Research of the tasks on risk communication enforcement in fiscal year 2016 (Contract research)

Tanaka, Masaru*; Kawara, Osami*; Ishizaka, Kaoru*; Ohata, Yuki*; Fukuike, Iori*; Kawase, Keiichi; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Miyagawa, Hiroshi*; Ishimori, Yuu

JAEA-Research 2018-001, 98 Pages, 2018/06

JAEA-Research-2018-001.pdf:2.49MB

In the 2016 fiscal year, communication cases on general waste disposal facility construction plans in recent years were surveyed. Results suggested as follows: (1) Existing long-term relationships or agreements in local area promote local accepting. (2) An operator needs to consider alternative plans and explain reasons for the decision making to local stakeholders. (3) Even after first announcement of a new plan, an operator needs to review the plan depending on local concerns. (4) Announcement of a new plan will activate communications on local development including the site redevelopment.

Journal Articles

Electronic structure and magnetic properties of the half-metallic ferrimagnet Mn$$_{2}$$VAl probed by soft X-ray spectroscopies

Nagai, Kodai*; Fujiwara, Hidenori*; Aratani, Hidekazu*; Fujioka, Shuhei*; Yomosa, Hiroshi*; Nakatani, Yasuhiro*; Kiss, Takayuki*; Sekiyama, Akira*; Kuroda, Fumiaki*; Fujii, Hitoshi*; et al.

Physical Review B, 97(3), p.035143_1 - 035143_8, 2018/01

AA2017-0644.pdf:1.01MB

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:63.24(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We have studied the electronic structure of ferrimagnetic Mn$$_{2}$$VAl single crystals by means of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and resonant soft X-ray inelastic scattering (RIXS). We have successfully observed the XMCD signals for all the constituent elements. The Mn L$$_{2,3}$$ XAS and XMCD spectra are reproduced by spectral simulations based on density-functional theory, indicating the itinerant character of the Mn 3$$d$$ states. On the other hand, the V 3$$d$$ electrons are rather localized since the ionic model can qualitatively explain the V L$$_{2,3}$$ XAS and XMCD spectra. This picture is consistent with local $$dd$$ excitations revealed by the V L$$_{3}$$ RIXS.

Journal Articles

Fabrication and short-term irradiation behaviour of Am-bearing MOX fuels

Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kosuke; Koyama, Shinichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Seki, Takayuki; Katsuyama, Kozo

NEA/NSC/R(2017)3, p.341 - 350, 2017/11

In order to investigate the effect of the addition of americium to MOX fuels on the irradiation behaviour, the "Am-1" program is being conducted at the JAEA. The Am-1 program consists of two short-term irradiation tests of 10-min and 24-h irradiation periods, and a steady-state irradiation test. The short-term irradiation tests and their post irradiation examinations (PIEs) have been successfully completed. To date, the data for PIE of the Am-MOX fuels focused on the microstructural evolution and redistribution behaviour of Am at the initial stage of irradiation have been obtained and reported. In this paper, the results obtained from the Am-1 program are reviewed and detailed descriptions of the fabrication and inspection techniques for the Am-MOX fuels prepared for the program are provided. PIE data for the Am-MOX fuels at the initial stage of irradiation have been accumulated. In this paper, unpublished PIE data for the Am-MOX fuels are also presented.

Journal Articles

Characterization of the PTW 34031 ionization chamber (PMI) at RCNP with high energy neutrons ranging from 100 - 392 MeV

Theis, C.*; Carbonez, P.*; Feldbaumer, E.*; Forkel-Wirth, D.*; Jaegerhofer, L.*; Pangallo, M.*; Perrin, D.*; Urscheler, C.*; Roesler, S.*; Vincke, H.*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 153, p.08018_1 - 08018_5, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03

At CERN, gas-filled ionization chambers PTW-34031 (PMI) are commonly used in radiation fields including neutrons, protons and $$gamma$$-rays. A response function for each particle is calculated by the radiation transport code FLUKA. To validate a response function to high energy neutrons, benchmark experiments with quasi mono-energetic neutrons have been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University. For neutron irradiation with energies below 200 MeV, very good agreement was found comparing the FLUKA simulations and the measurements. In addition it was found that at proton energies of 250 and 392 MeV, results calculated with neutron sources underestimate the experimental data due to a non-negligible gamma component originating from the target $$^{7}$$Li(p,n)Be reaction.

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