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Journal Articles

Early emergency responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency against the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident in 2011

Okuno, Hiroshi; Sato, Sohei; Kawakami, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tadao

Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 46(2), p.66 - 79, 2021/06

The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was a typical one of the disastrous damages that induced evacuation of the residents around the NPS, which was triggered by the hugest earthquake and associated tsunami. This paper summarized early responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), especially of its Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) to the off-site emergencies associated with the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper addressed activities of emergency preparedness of the NEAT before 2011 in relevant to the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS, the situation of the NEAT on March 11, 2011, and its early responses to the related off-site emergencies including those caused by the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper also discussed issues associated with complex disasters.

JAEA Reports

Registration and related activities of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for the response and assistance network of the International Atomic Energy Agency

Togawa, Orihiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Okuno, Hiroshi

JAEA-Review 2020-017, 36 Pages, 2020/09

JAEA-Review-2020-017.pdf:2.24MB

In 2010, the government of Japan joined the Response and Assistance Network (RANET) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in order to contribute to offering international assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. At that occasion, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was registered as the National Assistance Capability (NAC) having resources capable of the External Based Support (EBS) in the following seven areas: (1) aerial survey, (2) radiation monitoring, (3) environmental measurements, (4) assessment and advice, (5) internal dose assessment, (6) bioassay and (7) dose reconstruction. After the registration, three inquiries were directed to the JAEA about a possibility of its support. However, the JAEA's assistance has not eventually been realized. On the other hand, the JAEA participated almost every year in the international Convention Exercise (ConvEx) carried out by the IAEA in connection with RANET. This report describes an outline of the RANET and related activities of the JAEA for RANET registration and participation in the ConvEx.

Journal Articles

Preparedness and response for nuclear or radiological emergency as a designated public corporation

Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ebine, Noriya; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2019/05

In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of Japan undertakes a role to support the national government and local governments. This paper (1) illuminates the roles of the JAEA as a designated public corporation for preparedness and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency of nuclear facilities; (2) summarizes emergency response activities of the JAEA in accordance with its Disaster Management Operation Plan against the off-site radiological emergencies attributed to a loss of control of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that occurred in 2011; and (3) reports its activities in normal times especially participation in the drills organized by the national government and local governments in the light of the Basic Disaster Management Plan of Japan and Local Disaster Management Plans of prefectural governments, respectively.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of influence of splay fault growth on groundwater flow around geological disposal system

Takai, Shizuka; Takeda, Seiji; Sakai, Ryutaro*; Shimada, Taro; Munakata, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tadao

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 16(1), p.34 - 48, 2017/03

In geological disposal, direct effect on geological repositories by active faults is avoided at a stage of site characterization; however, uncertainty remains for avoidance of faults derived from the active faults, which are concealed deep under the ground and difficult to detect in advance. In this research, the influence of growth of undetected splay faults on natural barrier in a geological disposal system, which will caused by attack of the faults in the future, was evaluated. We investigated examples of splay faults in Japan and set conditions for growth of splay faults. Furthermore, we assumed a disposal site composed of sedimentary rocks and made a hydrogeological model of growth of splay faults. We carried out groundwater flow analyses, changing parameters such as location and depth of repository and growth velocity of splay faults. The results indicate that main flow path from the repository is changed into upward flow along the splay fault due to its growth and the average velocity to the ground surface becomes one or two orders of magnitude higher than that before its growth. The results also suggest that the splay fault growth leads into the possibility of downward flow of oxidizing groundwater from ground surface area.

Journal Articles

Sorption behavior of thorium onto granite and its constituent minerals

Iida, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao; Hemmi, Ko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(10), p.1573 - 1584, 2016/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:46.4(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The sorption behavior of thorium (Th) onto granitic rock and its major constituent were investigated by batch sorption experiments. Experiments were carried out under variable pH and carbonate concentrations. Distribution coefficients decreased with increased carbonate concentrations and showed the minimal value at pH 9-10. This sorption tendency was likely due to forming the hydroxide-carbonate complexes of Th in the solutions. The order of sorbability for Th was mica $$>$$ feldspar $$>$$ quartz = granite. The sorption behaviors of Th onto these minerals were analyzed by the triple-layer surface complexation model with the Visual Minteq computer program. The model calculations assuming the inner-sphere surface complexation of Th were able to explain the experimental results reasonably well. It was shown that the sorption behavior of Th onto granite can be explained primarily by the complexation with the surface sites of feldspar.

Journal Articles

Mineralogical changes and associated decrease in tritiated water diffusivity after alteration of cement-bentonite interfaces

Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Tsukada, Manabu; Hoshino, Seiichi*; Tanaka, Tadao

Clay Minerals, 51(2), p.279 - 287, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:31.56(Chemistry, Physical)

Alteration of bentonite-cement interfaces and accompanying changes in diffusivity of tritiated water was experimentally investigated using intact hardened cement specimens. The alteration by carbonate solution was accompanied by mineralogical changes at the interface and a decrease in the diffusivity to 70% of the initial value after 180-day period. Another alteration under silicate system contacting hardened cement and compacted bentonite was accompanied by mineralogical changes at the interface and a decrease in the diffusivity to 71% of the initial value after 600-day period. The changes in the diffusivity were much less than those observed for mixed specimens of granulated hardened cement and bentonite where the diffusivity decreased down to 20% of the initial value over 180 days. The results were extrapolated to 15 years under simple assumptions and showed good agreement with those observed in the cement-argillite interface at Tournemire URL. Such an explanation enhances our confidence in our assessment of alteration of cement-bentonite systems and can be a base for using our data and models in long term assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

Journal Articles

Evaluation for influence of new volcanic eruption on geological disposal site

Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji; Sakai, Ryutaro*; Takubo, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tadao

MRS Advances (Internet), 1(61), p.4081 - 4086, 2016/00

Volcanic eruption which may affect geological disposal system directly depends on the regional location in Japan. It is required that the disposal site should be located far from existing volcanos. However, there are regions where it is impossible to exclude the possibility of appearance of new volcanic activity on the site even if the site is located far from existing volcanos. In order to identify the influence of volcanic eruption at disposal site to public if it occurs public exposure doses were evaluated based on the two scenarios considering types of eruption at new volcanic activity in Japan. One is the exposure by tephra widespread by Strombolian eruption and deposited on the ground surface, including radionuclides from vitrified waste forms after a volcanic conduit penetrated disposal galleries. The other is that by waste forms appeared at the surface by Merapi type pyroclastic flow. Exposure doses of the residents living on the tephra do not exceed 1mSv/y even when the eruption occurs at 1,000 years after closure of disposal site. Dose rate for the volcanic researchers temporarily approaching waste forms becomes less than 1mSv/h when the eruption occurs 100,000 years after. It indicated that attention should be paid to the impact by Merapi type pyroclastic flow on researchers approaching waste forms appeared rather than that by Strombolian eruption on residents living on the tephra widespread.

Journal Articles

Migration behavior of particulate radioactive cesium species generated at ground surface

Tanaka, Tadao

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2015/05

It is necessary to confirm that there is no significant radioactivity remaining on NPP site, for the site release beforehand. Cesium 137 ($$^{137}$$Cs) is the typical radionuclide caused from NPP. In this research, generation of particulate $$^{137}$$Cs species at ground surface and its migration behavior were examined. Migration experiments were carried out by a column method, in which deionized water was fed intermittently at the drying interval for 7 days into a sand layer contaminated with $$^{137}$$Cs. A portion of the $$^{137}$$Cs in the upper surface region, which formed particulate species by sorbing on fine particles, migrated into the deeper layer. Fine particle itself also was generated at the sand surface by weathering. The sand was weathered during the drying period, so that small amount of fine particles including $$^{137}$$Cs was newly dissociated from the sand. Such particulate $$^{137}$$Cs species may be accumulated slowly by repeated cycles of rainfall and drying, during long term.

Journal Articles

Analysis of radionuclide migration with consideration of spatial and temporal change of migration parameters due to uplift and denudation

Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji; Mukai, Masayuki; Munakata, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tadao

Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.1744, p.229 - 234, 2015/04

Integrated safety assessment methodology which analyzes radionuclide migration reflecting the spatial and temporal changes of disposal systems was developed for a geological disposal site with uplift and denudation, and then some case analyses for an assumed site with sedimentary rocks were carried out. The combination of uniform uplift and denudation has the most effect on the radionuclide migration because the groundwater flow velocity increases with decreasing the depth from the ground surface. In the case without denudation, tilted uplift has more effect than uniform uplift because flow velocity in tilted uplift increase with increasing hydraulic gradient. The long-term change of the geological structures including the uplift and denudation, the hydraulic conditions, and the recharge and outlet of the groundwater around a candidate site should be carefully investigated to determine the appropriate the place,depth and layout of the repository.

Journal Articles

Estimation of doses from radioactively contaminated disaster wastes reused for pavements

Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Tanaka, Tadao

Hoken Butsuri, 50(1), p.36 - 49, 2015/03

It is desirable that the disaster wastes contaminated by radioactive cesium after the severe accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Plant are reused as much as possible in order to minimize the quantity to be disposed of. Ministry of the Environment showed the policy that the wastes containing cesium of higher concentration than the clearance level (100 Bq/kg) were reusable as materials of construction such as subbase course materials of pavements under controlled condition with measures to lower exposure doses. In this study, in order to provide technical information for making a guideline on the use of contaminated concrete materials recycled from disaster wastes as pavement, doses for workers and the public were estimated, and the reusable concentration of radioactive cesium in the wastes was evaluated. It was shown that the external exposure of the public (children) residing near the completed pavement gave the minimum radiocesium concentration in order to comply with the dose criteria. The recycled concrete materials whose average concentration of cesium lower than 2,700 Bq/kg can be used as the subbase course materials of pavements.

Journal Articles

Characterization on the radioactive aerosols dispersed during plasma arc cutting of radioactive metal piping

Shimada, Taro; Tanaka, Tadao

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 303(2), p.1345 - 1349, 2015/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:48.62(Chemistry, Analytical)

In order to understand the production and dispersion behavior of radioactive aerosols during dismantling of nuclear facilities, plasma arc cutting experiments were conducted. Particle size distribution of the aerosols was obtained by sampling air into ELPI which could classify particles into 12 stages of 50% cutoff aerodynamic diameter ranging from 0.007 to 9.9 $$mu$$m. $$^{60}$$Co specific radioactivity of diameter 0.05 $$mu$$m during cutting of surface contaminated piping indicated the maximum value of approximately 2.7E+4 Bq/g which was fifty times as much as the average value of all of aerosols. That of 9.9$$mu$$m was approximately 100 Bq/g which was the eighth part of the average value. Compared with those for the activated piping, the difference of specific radioactivity between maximum and minimum values were larger in contaminated piping. It is considered that contaminants on the piping were directly melted and vaporized by plasma arc and then condensed into smaller particles.

Journal Articles

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and clearance

Tanaka, Tadao; Shimada, Taro; Tanaka, Kenichi*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 56(11), p.740 - 744, 2014/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

An Attempt to select thermodynamic data and to evaluate the solubility of radioelements with uncertainty under HLW disposal conditions

Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Takeda, Seiji; Nishimura, Yuki; Iida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Tadao

Radiochimica Acta, 102(11), p.999 - 1008, 2014/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:10.78(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

An attempt was made to select thermodynamic data with uncertainties and to evaluate the solubility of radioelements with uncertainties considering variation in groundwater chemistry. The thermodynamic data was selected by reviewing the JAEA-TDB released in 2012. Data for Nb, Pd and Pa were revised from the viewpoint of the consistency of the data selection process. Data for Se, U and Pa were revised from the viewpoint of the conservativeness. Up-to-date ternary calcium-metal(IV)-OH complexes were adopted for Zr, Th, U, Np and Pu. A Monte Carlo-based probabilistic calculation code, PA-SOL, was used for probabilistic analysis of the solubility.

Journal Articles

Experimental verification of models assessing Eh evolution induced by corrosion of carbon steel overpack

Sakamaki, Keiko; Kataoka, Masaharu; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Iida, Yoshihisa; Kamoshida, Michio; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, 49(6), p.450 - 454, 2014/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Corrosion experiments of a carbon steel plate embedded in bentonite mixture were conducted toverify our models assessing Eh evolution induced by corrosion of carbon steel overpack. Theexperimental results showed that the Eh decreased for the first 200 days and was subsequentlystabilised at around -450 mV; corrosion products were identified as magnetite and Fe waspresent mostly as divalent Fe within a 5 mm range from the carbon steel plate. Reactive transportmodelling was performed to assess the Eh evolution in the system using kinetic dissolution modelfor metallic iron and thermodynamic equilibrium models for other chemical reactions and closelyreproduced the experimental results. The models were verified only under the conditionsemployed in this study.

Journal Articles

In-situ radioactivity measurement for the site release after decommissioning of nuclear power plants

Tanaka, Tadao; Shimada, Taro; Sukegawa, Takenori

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.832 - 835, 2014/04

According to a basic policy of Japan, nuclear power plant sites are allowed to be released from nuclear safety regulations after the plants are decommissioned. It is necessary to confirm that there is no significant radioactivity remaining on the sites, for the site release beforehand. Cobalt 60 is one of the typical radionuclide for nuclear power plants. In the evaluation concept, all of cobalt 60, which is in reality distributed across the area of interest, are assumed to be the single point source located at the furthest position on the surface of the area from a Ge detector. In such a configuration, minimum detectable time was supplied by Monte Carlo calculations, and the minimum detectable time was approximately equal to the actual measurement time of the point source by the Ge detector. These results mean that the proposed evaluation method was reasonable for the conservative evaluation of cobalt 60 remaining in the nuclear power plant sites.

Journal Articles

Sorption behavior of hydroselenide (HSe$$^{-}$$) onto iron-containing minerals

Iida, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(3), p.305 - 322, 2014/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:37.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Sorption behaviors of HSe$$^{-}$$ onto iron-containing minerals, magnetite, goethite, ferrous oxide and biotite, were investigated by batch sorption experiments under reducing conditions. The sorption ratios for goethite, as representative examples, show negative dependence on pH and independence of the NaCl concentration. The results indicate that the sorption behavior of HSe$$^{-}$$ is inner sphere surface complexation to ferrol sites. The triple layer model was used in the analysis of the sorption behavior of HSe$$^{-}$$ with Visual Minteq computer program. The intrinsic equilibrium constant was determined by the fitting of model calculations to the experimental results to be 5.5. The value was close to the value of HS$$^{-}$$ (5.3) which is chemically analogous to HSe$$^{-}$$.

Journal Articles

Modification and verification of regional groundwater flow model

Munakata, Masahiro; Amano, Kenji; Tanaka, Tadao

JNES-RE-2013-9032, p.36 - 54, 2014/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Construction of evaluation model for rainwater cultivation amount

Munakata, Masahiro; Amano, Kenji; Tanaka, Tadao

JNES-RE-2013-9032, p.63 - 78, 2014/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Alkaline dissolution behavior of montmorillonite under compacted condition

Sawaguchi, Takuma; Kadowaki, Mitsushi*; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Mukai, Masayuki; Tanaka, Tadao

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 20(2), p.71 - 78, 2013/12

The dissolution rate for montmorillonite under compacted condition was studied in order to evaluate long-term alteration behavior of bentonite buffer materials by highly alkaline groundwater. The dissolution rate of compacted montmorillonite was found to be larger than that of montmorillonite in compacted sand-bentonite mixtures at 130 $$^{circ}$$C, which revealed that the dissolution of montmorillonite was inhibited by decreasing the activity of hydroxide ions (${it $alpha$$_O$$_H$$^-$}$) in the compacted mixtures including accessory minerals such as silica. In order to provide reliability for the analysis of bentonite-alteration using a formula of dissolution rate of montmorillonite, it is important to quantify the decrease of ${it $alpha$$_O$$_H$$^-$}$ in the compacted mixtures and to formulate the dissolution rate of compacted montmorillonite.

Journal Articles

The Present situation and future prospects of groundwater colloids studies on the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in Japan

Nagao, Seiya*; Niibori, Yuichi*; Tanaka, Tadao; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Saito, Takumi*; Kirishima, Akira*; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Iijima, Kazuki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Iwatsuki, Teruki; et al.

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 20(1), p.3 - 14, 2013/06

This paper shows a current status of groundwater colloids studies on the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in Japan, and summaries realistic approach of the colloids studies at a substantial research network for Japanese universities and institutes.

192 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)