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JAEA Reports

Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant FY 2017

Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Mizutani, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Kono, Takahiko; Hosomi, Kenji; Hokama, Tomonori; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Natsumi; et al.

JAEA-Review 2018-025, 171 Pages, 2019/02

JAEA-Review-2018-025.pdf:3.81MB

Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2016 to March 2017. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and were exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.

Journal Articles

Improvement of a physical model for blockage formation of solid-liquid mixture flow with freezing for core safety evaluation of SFRs

Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Kamiyama, Kenji; Tobita, Yoshiharu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(5), p.530 - 538, 2018/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:55.09(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant FY 2016

Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Mizutani, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Hosomi, Kenji; Nagaoka, Mika; Hokama, Tomonori; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Koike, Yuko; et al.

JAEA-Review 2017-028, 177 Pages, 2018/01

JAEA-Review-2017-028.pdf:3.61MB

Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2016 to March 2017. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and were exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.

JAEA Reports

Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant FY 2015

Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Mizutani, Tomoko; Hosomi, Kenji; Nagaoka, Mika; Hokama, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hiroya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Natsumi; Maehara, Yushi; et al.

JAEA-Review 2016-035, 179 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Review-2016-035.pdf:4.2MB

Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2015 to March 2016. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and were exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.

Journal Articles

Improvements to the simmer code model for steel wall failure based on EAGLE-1 test results

Toyooka, Junichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Toru

Proceedings of 10th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-10) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2016/11

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2015 (Contract research)

Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro; Mori, Airi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Shimada, Kazumasa; Hirouchi, Jun; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Urabe, Yoshimi; Nakanishi, Chika*; Yamada, Tsutomu*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2016-016, 131 Pages, 2016/10

JAEA-Research-2016-016.pdf:20.59MB

By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. In addition, background dose rate monitoring was conducted around Sendai Nuclear Power Station. These results of the aerial radiation monitoring using the manned helicopter in the fiscal 2015 were summarized in the report.

Journal Articles

An Empirical correlation to predict the distance for fragmentation of simulated Molten-Core materials discharged into a sodium pool

Matsuba, Kenichi; Isozaki, Mikio; Kamiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Toru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

Proceedings of 11th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-11) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2016/10

In order to evaluate the distance for fragmentation of molten core material discharged into the lower sodium plenum during core disruptive accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors, experiments with simulated molten materials and coolants (water, sodium) was carried out, where an empirical correlation of the distance for fragmentation was developed. The empirical correlation developed by this study showed a good agreement with the measurement results obtained by the present experiments. It was found that in order to well-predict the distance for fragmentation in sodium, thermal phenomena, such as sodium boiling and resultant vapor expansion, needed to be considered.

Journal Articles

Experimental discussion on fragmentation mechanism of molten oxide discharged into a sodium pool

Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Toyooka, Junichi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Zuyev, V. A.*; Kolodeshnikov, A. A.*; Vassiliev, Y. S.*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(3), p.15-00595_1 - 15-00595_8, 2016/06

To develop a method for evaluating the distance for fragmentation of molten core material discharged into sodium, the particle size distribution of alumina debris obtained in the FR tests was analyzed. The mass median diameters of solidified alumina particles were around 0.3 mm, which are comparable to particle sizes predicted by hydrodynamic instability theories such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. However, even though hydrodynamic instability theories predict that particle size decreases with an increase of Weber number, such the dependence of particle size on We was not observed in the FR tests. It can be interpreted that this tendency of measured mass median suggests that before hydrodynamic instabilities sufficiently grow to induce fragmentation, thermal phenomena such as local coolant vaporization and resultant vapor expansion accelerate fragmentation.

Journal Articles

Analysis on ex-vessel loss of coolant accident for a water-cooled fusion DEMO reactor

Watanabe, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Makoto; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Yoji; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Uto, Hiroyasu; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Araki, Takao*; Asano, Shiro*; Asano, Kazuhito*

Proceedings of 26th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering (SOFE 2015), 6 Pages, 2016/06

Safety studies of a water-cooled fusion DEMO reactor have been performed. In the event of the blanket cooling pipe break outside the vacuum vessel, i.e. ex-vacuum vessel loss of coolant accident (ex-VV LOCA), the pressurized steam and air may lead to damage reactor building walls which have confinement function, and to release the radioactive materials to the environment. In response to this accident, we proposed three cases of confinement strategies. In each case, the pressure and thermal loads to the confinement boundaries and total mass of tritium released to outside the boundaries were analyzed by accident analysis code MELCOR modified for fusion reactor. These analyses developed design parameters to maintain the integrity of the confinement boundaries.

Journal Articles

Distance for fragmentation of a simulated molten-core material discharged into a sodium pool

Matsuba, Kenichi; Isozaki, Mikio; Kamiyama, Kenji; Tobita, Yoshiharu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(5), p.707 - 712, 2016/05

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:17.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to develop an evaluation method of the distance for fragmentation of molten core material discharged into the sodium plenum, a sodium experiment with visual observation was conducted using an X-ray imaging system. In the current experiments, 0.9 kg of molten aluminum (initial temperature: around 1473 K) was discharged into a sodium pool (initial temperature: 673 K) through a nozzle (inner diameter: 20 mm). Based on the experimental results, the distance for fragmentation of the liquid column was estimated to be 100 mm in the experiments. Through the sodium experiment, useful knowledge was obtained for the future development of an evaluation method of the distance for fragmentation of molten core material. As a next step, sodium experiments using higher-density molten materials will be conducted to enrich the experimental knowledge. Besides, a new semi-empirical correlation will be developed to evaluate more appropriately the distance for fragmentation under CDA conditions.

Journal Articles

Development of the evaluation methodology for the material relocation behavior in the core disruptive accident of sodium-cooled fast reactors

Tobita, Yoshiharu; Kamiyama, Kenji; Tagami, Hirotaka; Matsuba, Kenichi; Suzuki, Toru; Isozaki, Mikio; Yamano, Hidemasa; Morita, Koji*; Guo, L.*; Zhang, B.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(5), p.698 - 706, 2016/05

AA2015-0794.pdf:2.46MB

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:36.86(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The in-vessel retention (IVR) of core disruptive accident (CDA) is of prime importance in enhancing safety characteristics of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the CDA of SFRs, molten core material relocates to the lower plenum of reactor vessel and may impose significant thermal load on the structures, resulting in the melt through of the reactor vessel. In order to enable the assessment of this relocation process and prove that IVR of core material is the most probable consequence of the CDA in SFRs, a research program to develop the evaluation methodology for the material relocation behavior in the CDA of SFRs has been conducted. This program consists of three developmental studies, namely the development of the analysis method of molten material discharge from the core region, the development of evaluation methodology of molten material penetration into sodium pool, and the development of the simulation tool of debris bed behavior.

Journal Articles

Design concept of conducting shell and in-vessel components suitable for plasma vertical stability and remote maintenance scheme in DEMO reactor

Uto, Hiroyasu; Takase, Haruhiko; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tobita, Kenji; Mori, Kazuo; Kudo, Tatsuya; Someya, Yoji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 103, p.93 - 97, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:17.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Conceptual design of in-vessel component including conducting shell has been investigated in Broader Approach (BA) DEMO design activities, in order to propose feasible DEMO reactor from plasma vertical stability and engineering viewpoint. The conducting shell for the plasma vertical stability will be incorporated behind blanket module, while the location must be close to the plasma surface as possible for the plasma stabilization. We evaluated dependence of the plasma vertical stability on the conducing shell parameters by using a 3-dimensional eddy current analysis code (EDDYCAL). The calculation results showed that the conducting shell requires more than 0.01 m thickness of Cu-alloy on DEMO. On the other hand, the electromagnetic force at the plasma disruption is a few times larger than no conducting shell case because of larger eddy current on conducting shell. The engineering design issues of in-vessel components for plasma vertical stability are presented.

Journal Articles

Thermohydraulic responses of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO to loss-of-coolant accidents

Nakamura, Makoto; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Yoji; Uto, Hiroyasu; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Gulden, W.*

Nuclear Fusion, 55(12), p.123008_1 - 123008_7, 2015/12

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:66.55(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Major in- and ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO reactor have been analysed. Analyses have identified responses of the DEMO systems to these accidents and pressure loads to confinement barriers for radioactive materials. The thermohydraulic analysis results suggests that the in- and ex-vessel LOCAs crucially threaten integrity of the primary and final confinement barriers, respectively. As for the in-vessel LOCA, it was found that the pressure in the vacuum vessel reaches its design value due to the LOCA even though a pressure suppression system is in service. As for the ex-vessel LOCA, the pressure load to the tokamak hall due to the double-ended break of the primary cooling pipe was found to be so large that integrity of the hall was crucially challenged. Mitigations of the loads to the confinement barriers are also discussed.

Journal Articles

A Numerical study on local fuel-coolant interactions in a simulated molten fuel pool using the SIMMER-III code

Cheng, S.; Matsuba, Kenichi; Isozaki, Mikio; Kamiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Toru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 85, p.740 - 752, 2015/11

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:7.1(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Design study of blanket structure based on a water-cooled solid breeder for DEMO

Someya, Yoji; Tobita, Kenji; Uto, Hiroyasu; Tokunaga, Shinsuke; Hoshino, Kazuo; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1872 - 1875, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:3.62(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Blanket concept with simplified interior for mass production has been developed with a mixed bed of Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ and Be$$_{12}$$Ti pebbles, a coolant condition of 15.5 MPa and 290-325$$^{circ}$$C and cooling tubes only without any partitions. A neutronics analysis ensured the blanket concept meets a self-sufficient supply of tritium. However, this concept is vulnerable to the inner pressure. A plant availability for DEMO may drop to a lower value, because a potential of resume operations after an accident such as a coolant leakage in blanket is not considered. The blanket design will be revisited for the availability. Considering the continuity with the ITER-TBM option of Japan and the engineering feasibility of fabrication, our design study focuses on a water-cooled solid breeding blanket using the mixed pebbles bed. A breakage of the blanket casing should be avoided not to contaminate the plasma chamber with water and breeding materials. A water-cooled solid blanket with inner pressure tightness is estimated by the ANSYS code. As a results, the pressure tightness of 8 MPa (water vapor pressure at 300$$^{circ}$$C) can be compatible with the self-sufficient production of tritium when the blanket is as thick as about 0.9 m and the ribs are arranged in the radial direction. Therefore, the blanket concept with pressure tightness of 8 MPa is adopted with depressurization system as which a tritium recovery system such as helium purge-gas line is posteriorly arranged in blanket to serve. On the other hand, a handling of decay heat is a serious problem at an accident such as LOCA. Coolant flow is divided into the blanket to secure heat removal for the safety. Finally, the blanket segmentation with the shape and dimension of blanket and routing of coolant flow has also been proposed. Moreover, overall TBR is estimated with torus configuration based in the segmentation using three-dimensional MCNP calculation.

Journal Articles

Comparative evaluation of remote maintenance schemes for fusion DEMO reactor

Uto, Hiroyasu; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Yoji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1648 - 1651, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:26.62(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Maintenance schemes are one of the critical issues in DEMO design, significantly affecting the configuration of in-vessel components, the size of toroidal field coil, the arrangement of poloidal field coils, reactor building, hot cell and so forth. Therefore, the maintenance schemes should satisfy many design requirements and criteria to assure reliable and safe plant operation and to attain reasonable plant availability. In this study, we categorize various schemes in term of (1) the maintenance port position for transporting blanket segments, (2) blanket segmentation, and (3) divertor segmentation. In reviewing these assessment factors, the separated sector transport using the vertical maintenance ports with small divertor cassette maintenance scheme was found to be a more probable maintenance approach. This presentation describes engineering design of each maintenance schemes and evaluation results of comparison among maintenance schemes.

Journal Articles

Management strategy for radioactive waste in the fusion DEMO reactor

Someya, Yoji; Tobita, Kenji; Uto, Hiroyasu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; Tokunaga, Shinsuke

Fusion Science and Technology, 68(2), p.423 - 427, 2015/09

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:22.06(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The radioactive waste is generated in every replacement of an in-vessel component. Maintenance scheme is to replace the blanket segment and divertor cassette independently, as the lifetime of them is different. The blanket segment consists of some blanket modules mounted to back-plate. Total weight is estimated to amount to about 6,648 ton (1,575 ton of blanket module, 3,777 ton of back-plate, 372 ton of conducting shell and 924 ton of divertor cassette). In base case, main parameters of DEMO reactor are 8.2 m of major radius and 1.35 GW of fusion output. The lifetimes of blanket segment and divertor cassette are assumed to be 2.2 years and 0.6 year, respectively, 52,487 ton wastes is generated in plant life of 20 years. Therefore, there is a concern that a contamination controlled area for the radioactive waste may increase because much the waste is generated in every replacement. In this paper, management scenario is proposed to reduce the radioactive waste. The back-plates and cassette bodies (628 ton) of divertor was reused. As a result, the displacement per atom (DPA) of the back-plates of SUS316L was 0.2 DPA/year and that of the cassette bodies of F82H was 0.6 DPA/year. Therefore, reusing the back-plates and cassette bodies would be possible, if re-welding points are arranged under neutron shielding. It was found that radioactive waste could be reduced to 20%, when tritium breeding materials are recycled. Finally, a design of DEMO building such as a hot cell and temporary storage etc. is proposed.

Journal Articles

Simulation study of power load with impurity seeding in advanced divertor "short super-X divertor" for a tokamak reactor

Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Shinya, Kichiro*; Uto, Hiroyasu; Tokunaga, Shinsuke; Tobita, Kenji; Ono, Noriyasu*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 463, p.1238 - 1242, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:15.29(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Arrangements of interlink divertor coils and divertor geometries for short super-X was proposed as the Demo advanced divertor design. Performance of plasma detachment under the large heat flux was investigated to optimize the divertor design, using SONIC simulation with Ar impurity seeding, where Pout = 500 MW, ne = 7$$times$$10$$^{19}$$ m$$^{-3}$$ at the core-edge boundary and the same diffusion coefficients for ITER simulation. Effects on the plasma temperature and density distributions were compared to the conventional divertor. The first run results with the same radiation power fraction of 0.92 in the conventional divertor showed that full detached plasma is produced, the maximum radiation region was maintained upstream the divertor target, and both the plasma heat load plus radiation load at the target was reduced to 10 MWmm$$^{-2}$$ level. Simulation for the lower radiation power fractions of 0.8-0.9 was also performed, and physics issues of the short super-X divertor are discussed.

Journal Articles

Neutronics analysis for fusion DEMO reactor design

Someya, Yoji; Tobita, Kenji; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Uto, Hiroyasu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; Tokunaga, Shinsuke

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05

This paper presents neutronics analysis mainly focused on key design issues for self-sufficient tritium production based on the conceptual design study carried out for a fusion DEMO reactor in past several years, which includes new findings regarding design methodology of breeding blanket. Self-sufficient production of tritium is one of the most critical requirements for fusion reactors. We considered a fusion DEMO reactor with a major radius of about 8 m and fusion output of 1.5 GW with breeding blanket consisting of a mixed bed of Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ and Be$$_{12}$$Ti pebbles. The net tritium breeding ratio (TBR) was estimated to be 1.15 with a three-dimensional analysis with the MCNP-5 with nuclear library of FENDL-2.1, satisfying a self-sufficient supply of tritium (net TBR$$>$$1.05). Throughout the research, we found that tritium breeding capability (i.e., local TBR) of breeding blanket is less dependent on the arrangement of cooling pipe in the blanket when the neutron wall loading is lower than about 1.5 MW/m$$^{2}$$ which is met in the DEMO considered. The result suggests that tolerance for the installation of cooling pipes in each blanket module will not be a critical matter. In addition, we found that a gap of about 0.02 m between neighboring blanket modules has little impact on the gross TBR.

Journal Articles

Experimental discussion on fragmentation mechanism of molten oxide discharged into a sodium pool

Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Toyooka, Junichi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Zuev, V. A.*; Kolodeshnikov, A. A.*; Vasilyev, Y. S.*

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05

To develop a method for evaluating the distance for fragmentation of molten core material discharged into sodium, the particle size distribution of alumina debris obtained in the FR tests was analyzed. The mass median diameters of solidified alumina particles were around 0.4 mm, which are comparable to particle sizes predicted by hydrodynamic instability theories such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. However, even though hydrodynamic instability theories predict that particle size decreases with an increase of Weber number, such the dependence of particle size on We was not observed in the FR tests. It can be interpreted that the tendency of measured mass median diameters (i.e., non-dependence on Weber number) suggests that before hydrodynamic instabilities sufficiently grow to induce fragmentation, thermal phenomena such as local coolant vaporization and resultant vapor expansion accelerate fragmentation.

429 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)