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Journal Articles

Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of low dissolved radiocesium concentrations in freshwater using different pre-concentration methods

Kurihara, Momo*; Yasutaka, Tetsuo*; Aono, Tatsuo*; Ashikawa, Nobuo*; Ebina, Hiroyuki*; Iijima, Takeshi*; Ishimaru, Kei*; Kanai, Ramon*; Karube, Jinichi*; Konnai, Yae*; et al.

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 322(2), p.477 - 485, 2019/11

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:25.74(Chemistry, Analytical)

We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of methods for determining low dissolved radiocesium concentrations in freshwater in Fukushima. Twenty-one laboratories pre-concentrated three of 10 L samples by five different pre-concentration methods (prussian-blue-impregnated filter cartridges, coprecipitation with ammonium phosphomolybdate, evaporation, solid-phase extraction disks, and ion-exchange resin columns), and activity of radiocesium was measured. The z-scores for all of the $$^{137}$$Cs results were within $$pm$$2, indicating that the methods were accurate. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) indicating the variability in the results from different laboratories were larger than the RSDs indicating the variability in the results from each separate laboratory.

Journal Articles

The Observation of a transient surface morphology in the femtosecond laser ablation process by using the soft X-ray laser probe

Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Tomita, Takuro*; Onishi, Naofumi*; Ito, Atsushi*; Eyama, Tsuyoshi*; Kakimoto, Naoya*; Izutsu, Rui*; Minami, Yasuo*; Baba, Motoyoshi*; et al.

X-Ray Lasers and Coherent X-Ray Sources; Development and Applications XI (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.9589), p.95890A_1 - 95890A_8, 2015/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:56.82

We have improved a soft X-ray laser (SXRL) interferometer synchronized with a Ti:Sapphire laser pulse to observe the single-shot imaging of the nano-scaled structure dynamics of the laser induced materials. By the precise imaging optics and double time fiducial system having been installed, the lateral resolution on the sample surface and the precision of the temporal synchronization between the SXRL and Ti:Sapphire laser pulses were improved to be 700 nm and 2 ps, respectively. By using this system, the initial stage (before 200 ps) of the ablation process of the Pt surface pumped by 80 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulse was observed by the comparison between the soft X-ray reflective image and interferogram. We have succeeded in the direct observation of the unique ablation process around the ablation threshold such as the rapid increase of the surface roughness and surface vibration.

Journal Articles

Observation of the dependence on the fluence and materials in femto-second laser ablation process by using the soft X-ray laser probe

Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro*; Nishikino, Masaharu; Eyama, Tsuyoshi*; Kakimoto, Naoya*; Minami, Yasuo*; Baba, Motoyoshi*; Onishi, Naofumi*; Ito, Atsushi*; Kawachi, Tetsuya; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2015-001, p.17 - 20, 2015/07

We have succeeded in simultaneous observation of the ablation front and the expansion front with thin filmy structure in the femto-second laser ablation process of a gold target by using the 13.9 nm soft X-ray probe (incident angle to the sample $$sim$$ 70 deg) with soft X-ray interferometer. The dependence on the laser local fluence and materials was obtained by the comparison between gold and tungsten.

Journal Articles

Hydrodynamics driven by ultrashort laser pulse; Simulations and the optical pump - X-ray probe experiment

Inogamov, N. A.*; Zhakhovsky, V. V.*; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Ishino, Masahiko; Agranat, M. B.*; Ashitkov, S. I.*; Faenov, A. Y.*; Khokhlov, V. A.*; et al.

Applied Physics B, 119(3), p.413 - 419, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:36.13(Optics)

Journal Articles

Observation of femtosecond laser ablation on Tungsten by using soft X-ray reflection and interference imaging

Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro*; Eyama, Tsuyoshi*; Kakimoto, Naoya*; Onishi, Naofumi*; Ito, Atsushi*; Baba, Motoyoshi*; Minami, Yasuo*; Kawachi, Tetsuya; et al.

Reza Gakkai Dai-471-Kai Kenkyukai Hokoku; Tanhacho Ryoshi Bimu Hassei To Sono Oyo, p.9 - 12, 2014/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Submicron scale image observation with a grazing incidence reflection-type single-shot soft X-ray microscope

Baba, Motoyoshi*; Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro*; Minami, Yasuo*; Takei, Ryota*; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Toru

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 53(8), p.080302_1 - 080302_4, 2014/08

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:32.34(Physics, Applied)

A grazing incidence reflection-type soft X-ay microscope, using a Fresnel zone plate and a soft X-ray laser with wavelength 13.9 nm and pulse width 7 ps, was developed. Submicron size groove structures made on a Pt film were clearly captured at a single shot exposure, with spatial resolution of about 360 nm. A wide field view of 100 $$mu$$m square was secured under the Kohler illumination. This microscope also had a large depth of focus of more than 100 $$mu$$m and was proven to have a sufficient performance for observing surface morphological changes.

Journal Articles

Time-resolved soft X-ray imaging of femtosecond laser ablation process in metals

Tomita, Takuro*; Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Minami, Yasuo*; Takei, Ryota*; Baba, Motoyoshi*; Eyama, Tsuyoshi*; Takayoshi, Shodai*; Kaihori, Takeshi*; Morita, Toshimasa; et al.

Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 9(2), p.137 - 142, 2014/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:30.7(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Femtosecond laser ablation processes on platinum, gold, and tungsten were observed by the single shot pump and probe reflective imaging using a soft X-ray laser probe. To avoid the timing error due to the jitter, we adopted a posteriori correction technique by simultaneous measurement of timing between the pump and probe pulses for every single shot, using a soft X-ray streak camera. A clear difference was found in the temporal behavior of the dynamical response of the soft X-ray reflectivity depending on the irradiated laser fluence in these three materials. On the other hand, the narrow dark rings were found in Pt and W, while an additional bright ring was found outside the dark disk in Au. Our result gives the experimental data comparable with various numerical simulations.

Journal Articles

Temperature dependence of electric conductivities in femtosecond laser modified areas in silicon carbide

Deki, Manato*; Oka, Tomoki*; Takayoshi, Shodai*; Naoi, Yoshiki*; Makino, Takahiro; Oshima, Takeshi; Tomita, Takuro*

Materials Science Forum, 778-780, p.661 - 664, 2014/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:74.5

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Single event gate rupture in SiC MOS capacitors with different gate oxide thicknesses

Deki, Manato*; Makino, Takahiro; Kojima, Kazutoshi*; Tomita, Takuro*; Oshima, Takeshi

Materials Science Forum, 778-780, p.440 - 443, 2014/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:55.58

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Observation of the laser-induced surface dynamics using the single-shot soft X-ray laser probe

Hasegawa, Noboru; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ishino, Masahiko; Imazono, Takashi; Kaihori, Takeshi; Morita, Toshimasa; Sasaki, Akira; Terakawa, Kota*; et al.

X-Ray Lasers 2012; Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol.147, p.117 - 120, 2014/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0

We have developed the femto-second laser pump and soft X-ray laser probe system in order to observe the dynamical processes of the femto-second laser ablation. By using this system, we succeed to obtain the temporal evolution of the soft X-ray reflectivity from the laser induced Pt surface. The results lead that the rate of decrease in the reflectivity of the probe beam has a non-linear relation with the pump laser fluence.

Journal Articles

Measurement of femtosecond laser ablation by soft X-ray laser interferometory and reflective imaging

Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Ishino, Masahiko; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Minami, Yasuo*; Terakawa, Kota*; Takei, Ryota*; Baba, Motoyoshi*; Suemoto, Toru; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2013-001, p.16 - 19, 2013/09

The dynamics of the femtosecond laser ablation is still not clear at the early stage. Several studies on the time-resolved imaging of femtosecond laser ablation process have been performed on various materials. In this study, we have demonstrated a pump and probe imaging of the metal surface morphology during the femtosecond laser ablation by using the laser-driven plasma induced soft X-ray laser (SXRL) as a probe beam. The pumping laser used for ablation was a Ti:Sapphire laser system based on chirped pulse amplification. The pump beam had a Gaussian profile and the focal spot size on the metal surface was about 70 micron at FWHM. The dependence for the pump laser fluence of the ablation surface expansion and the surface condition (roughness and density gradient) were observed from the soft X-ray interferogram and reflective image, respectively.

Journal Articles

Observation of the nano-scale surface dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation by time-resolved soft X-ray imaging technique

Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro*; Minami, Yasuo*; Takei, Ryota*; Baba, Motoyoshi*; Eyama, Tsuyoshi*; Takayoshi, Shodai*; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hatomi, Daiki*; et al.

Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.8849, p.88490E_1 - 88490E_6, 2013/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:73.91

We have developed the pump and probe interferometer and reflective imaging technique of the metal surfaces during the femtosecond laser ablation by using the laser-driven soft X-ray laser at the wavelength of 13.9 nm. The pumping laser used for ablation was a Ti: Sapphire laser pulse with the duration of 80 fs pulse at a central wavelength of 795 nm, and had a gaussian spatial profile. By using the X-ray imaging technique, the time resolved image of nano-scaled ablation dynamics of the platinum and the gold pumped by a femtosecond laser pulse was obtained.

Journal Articles

Breakdown voltage in silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor devices induced by ion beams

Oshima, Takeshi; Deki, Manato; Makino, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Naoya; Onoda, Shinobu; Hirao, Toshio*; Kojima, Kazutoshi*; Tomita, Takuro*; Matsuo, Shigeki*; Hashimoto, Shuichi*

AIP Conference Proceedings 1525, p.654 - 658, 2013/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.05

Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors were fabricated on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, and the leakage current through the gate oxide during heavy ion irradiation was investigated in order to evaluate dielectric breakdown induced by heavy ions (Single Event Gate Rupture: SEGR). The gate oxide at thickness ranges between 60 and 80 nm was formed using pyrogenic oxidation at 1100 $$^{circ}$$C for 60 min. Circular electrodes with 180 $$mu$$ diameter were formed using Al evaporation and a lift-off technique. The leakage current observed through the gate oxide was monitored during 18 MeV oxygen (O) or nickel (Ni) ions. As a result, although no significant difference in the value of the electric field at the dielectric breakdown (around 8.2 MV/cm) was observed between non-irradiated and 18 MeV-O irradiated samples, the value decreased to be 7.3 MV/cm in the case of 18 MeV-Ni ion incidence. The Linier Energy Transfer (LET) for 18 MeV-O is 7 MeV cm$$^{2}$$/mg, and this value is smaller than that for 18 MeV-Ni (24 MeV cm$$^{2}$$/mg). Also, 18 MeV-Ni ions deposit energy in narrower regions than 18 MeV-O ions. Thus, it can be concluded that the high density of charge induced by 18 MeV-Ni ions triggers SEGR in SiC MOS capacitors.

Journal Articles

Experimental verification of femtosecond laser ablation schemes by time-resolved soft X-ray reflective imaging

Tomita, Takuro*; Yamamoto, Minoru*; Hasegawa, Noboru; Terakawa, Kota*; Minami, Yasuo*; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ishino, Masahiko; Kaihori, Takeshi*; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Tetsuya; et al.

Optics Express (Internet), 20(28), p.29329 - 29337, 2012/12

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:66.14(Optics)

Pump and probe reflective imaging using a soft X-ray laser probe was applied to the observation of the early stage of femtosecond laser ablation process on platinum. In strongly excited area, drastic and fast reflectivity drop was observed. In moderately excited area, the decay of the reflectivity is slower than that in the strongly excited area, and the reflectivity reaches its minimum at t = 160 ps. In weakly excited area, laser-induced reflectivity change was not observed. These results give the critical information about the femtosecond laser ablation.

Journal Articles

LET dependence of gate oxide breakdown of SiC-MOS capacitors due to single heavy ion irradiation

Deki, Manato; Makino, Takahiro; Tomita, Takuro*; Hashimoto, Shuichi*; Kojima, Kazutoshi*; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 10th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Applications (RASEDA-10) (Internet), p.78 - 81, 2012/12

Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on Silicon Carbide (SiC) under applied biases were irradiated with heavy ions. The relationship between critical electric field (E$$_{rm CR}$$) and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) was investigated. As a results of 9 MeV-Ni, 18 MeV-Ni, Kr-322 MeV and 454 MeV-Xeirradiation (the values of LET are 14.6, 23.8, 42.2 and 73.2 MeV cm$$^{2}$$/mg, respectively), reciprocal value of E$$_{rm CR}$$ increases with increasing LET. The similar relationship was also reported Si MOS capacitors. However, the increase in SiC MOS capacitors is smaller than that in Si ones because the generation energy of one electron-hole pair for SiC is larger than that for Si.

Journal Articles

Imaging of ablation dynamics by soft X-ray laser

Tomita, Takuro*; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Toru

Reza Kenkyu, 40(8), p.592 - 597, 2012/08

A single-shot soft X-ray laser pulse was used as a probe to investigate the early stage of the laser ablation process on platinum caused by the femtosecond near-infrared pump pulse. From time-resolved interferometry, we observed the dilation of the ablation front on a scale of 10 nm in the picosecond region. In the reflective imaging, we found three distinct types of dynamical responses, depending on the radial position in the pump beam spot. These characteristic behaviors correspond to different laser fluence and were attributed to different ablation schemes: spallation, homogeneous nucleation, and fragmentation/vaporization, which have been predicted from molecular dynamics simulation.

Journal Articles

Development of the X-ray interferometer and the method of temporal synchronization of X-ray and optical pulse

Hasegawa, Noboru; Yamamoto, Minoru*; Terakawa, Kota*; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Minami, Yasuo*; Tomita, Takuro*; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Toru

AIP Conference Proceedings 1465, p.23 - 27, 2012/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.13

We have developed a soft X-ray laser (SXRL) interferometer capable of the single-shot imaging of nano-scaled structure dynamics. The depth and lateral resolutions of the interferometer were about 1 nm and 1.8 micron, respectively. We observed the initial stage ($$sim$$50 ps) of the ablation process of the Pt surface pumped by a 70 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulse. The expansion speed of the Pt surface (34 nm/50 ps) indicated that the nano-bubble structures were formed in the initial stage of the ablation. In order to observe the detailed dynamics, the precision of temporal synchronization between the pump and probe pulses was improved to be 3 ps by adopting a portion of the SXRL and pump beams as the time fiducials.

Journal Articles

Picosecond soft-X-ray laser interferometer for probing nanometer surface structure

Ochi, Yoshihiro; Terakawa, Kota*; Hasegawa, Noboru; Yamamoto, Minoru*; Tomita, Takuro*; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Minami, Yasuo*; Nishikino, Masaharu; Imazono, Takashi; Ishino, Masahiko; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(1), p.016601_1 - 016601_3, 2012/01

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:41.8(Physics, Applied)

We have developed a soft X-ray laser interferometer based on the double Lloyd's mirror and obtained a single shot interferogram by a 7-ps pulse at the wavelength of 13.9 nm. Micrometer grooves with 5-nm depth were successfully reconstructed from the interferogram. The lateral and depth resolutions were estimated to be 1.5 $$mu$$m and better than 1 nm, respectively. This interferometer will be an attractive diagnostic device for observing transiently changing nano-scale deviations on solid surfaces.

Journal Articles

Source development and novel applications of laser-driven plasma X-ray lasers in JAEA

Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ishino, Masahiko; Imazono, Takashi; Oba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Maki; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Momoko; et al.

X-Ray Lasers 2010; Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol.136, p.15 - 24, 2011/12

This paper reviews recent improvement in the source development of laser-driven X-ray lasers and the applications in the research fields of material science, laser processing, X-ray imaging, and radiation damage in biological cells. In the application for material science, we have firstly observed temporal correlation between the domain structures of ferro-electric substance under the Curie temperature. In the laser processing, new X-ray laser interferometer reveals us the nano-scale surface distortion of substance pumped by a femto-second optical pulse. In the X-ray diffraction image, we have taken several static images of micro-structure of samples: now we are trying to extend the objective to nano-scale dynamics using pump and probe method. In the radiation damage of biological cells, we observed double strand break in DNA using X-ray laser exposure; this results are compared with the case using incoherent several KeV X-ray exposure.

Journal Articles

Development of the X-ray interferometer and the method of spatial and temporal synchronization of XRL and optical pulse

Hasegawa, Noboru; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Terakawa, Kota*; Tomita, Takuro*; Yamamoto, Minoru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Oba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Imazono, Takashi; et al.

X-Ray Lasers 2010; Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol.136, p.353 - 358, 2011/12

The understanding of the dynamics of the initial process is important for the micro processing and welding by the ultra-short laser pulse. The X-ray laser is suitable for probing this initial process because it has short wavelength (Ni-like Ag, 13.9 nm) and short duration (7 ps). For this investigation, the origin of time of the pumping pulse is quite important. In this study, we used the scintillation plate and the plasma gate technique to realize the spatial and temporal synchronization of the pump and probe pulses. For the spatial alignment, a CsI scintillation plate that was set at the sample position was illuminated by both the X-ray laser pulse, and the fluorescence light were detected by the CCD camera. For the temporal synchronization, we set a thin foil at the sample position. We measured the transmission of the X-ray laser while changing a temporal delay of the pumping laser with respect to the time of X-ray laser pulse to obtain the origin of the irradiation time.

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