Tomotsune, Yusuke; Yajima, Mayumi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya
Rodo Anzen Eisei Kenkyu, 16(1), p.29 - 43, 2023/02
During the first year of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, a total of about 45,000 employees of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) left their original workplaces to engage in telephone counseling, assistance of temporary return, and environmental monitoring. In particular, the staff who worked on the telephone counseling service, which directly contacted the residents, suffered from the stress associated with emotional labor. Systematic mental health care to the staff who engaged in these tasks was provided them in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of the JAEA. This paper considers this activity as a concrete example of "support for supporters" and discusses the mental health of the staff who provide support to the residents in a nuclear disaster.
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Hajime*
JAEA-Research 2022-003, 40 Pages, 2022/05
The excavation of large-scale underground facilities, such as geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, creates an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) with cracks around the tunnel. In the EDZ, oxygen invades the bedrock through unsaturated cracks and affects environmental conditions for nuclide migration. When a tunnel is excavated in a geological formation containing a high concentration of dissolved CH, such as the Neogene marine sediments, degassed CH prevents oxygen intrusion. However, it may be promoted through gas-phase diffusion through desaturation. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the method of estimating the spatial distribution of desaturation associated with the construction and operation of underground facilities in a stratum that contains a large amount of dissolved CH. A sequential excavation analysis that reflected the actual process of 10-year excavation of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was carried out along with gas-water two-phase flow analysis. The analysis results of the amount of groundwater and gas discharged from the URL were about 100 to 300 m d and 250 to 350 m d, respectively, as of January 2017. These results showed values close to the observations (100 m d and 300 m d, respectively). The analysis results of the saturation distribution were relatively high around the 250 m gallery and relatively low around the 350 m gallery, confirming that they are consistent with the in-situ observations. Although there were still technical issues of analysis regarding the conditions for groundwater drainage from the tunnel wall and the method of handling grout effects, the numerical calculation was generally appropriate. Although the results of the saturation distribution associated with the excavation were insufficient as the quantitative evaluation, they were almost correct from a qualitative point of view.
Yoshida, Hisao*; Yamamoto, Akira*; Hosokawa, Saburo*; Yamazoe, Seiji*; Kikkawa, Soichi*; Hara, Kenji*; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; Tanaka, Tsunehiro*
Topics in Catalysis, 64(9-12), p.660 - 671, 2021/08
Okuno, Hiroshi; Sato, Sohei; Kawakami, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tadao
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 46(2), p.66 - 79, 2021/06
The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was a typical one of the disastrous damages that induced evacuation of the residents around the NPS, which was triggered by the hugest earthquake and associated tsunami. This paper summarized early responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), especially of its Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) to the off-site emergencies associated with the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper addressed activities of emergency preparedness of the NEAT before 2011 in relevant to the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS, the situation of the NEAT on March 11, 2011, and its early responses to the related off-site emergencies including those caused by the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper also discussed issues associated with complex disasters.
Yamamoto, Kazuya; Makino, Takayoshi; Iso, Hidetoshi; Segawa, Tomoomi; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Ishii, Katsunori
JAEA-Technology 2021-002, 31 Pages, 2021/05
In the MOX fuel fabrication process, a dry recycle technology has been developed to effectively utilize dry recovered powder obtained by crushing out of specification MOX pellets. The particle size of the dry recovery powder is divided into three classes; coarse size (about 250 m or less), medium size (about 100 m or less), and fine size (about 10 m or less) by the current crushers, and the effect of controlling the density of sintered pellets is obtained to a certain extent by adding the dry recovered powder to the raw powder. In this report, with the aim of more finely adjusting the particle size of the dry recovery powder, a buhrstone mill and a collision plate-type jet mill were selected as grinders that can adjust the dry recovered powder within a particle size range of 250 m or less, and the particle size adjustment test was conducted to pulverize the tungsten-carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) pellets as a simulated material for the MOX pellets. The buhrstone mill can control the particle size within a certain range by adjusting the grindstone clearance, but particles with a particle size of 250 m or more may be discharged. On the contrary, it is expected that the particle size of the collision plate-type jet mill can be controlled in the range of 250 m or less by adjusting the classification zone clearance. Therefore, the collision plate-type jet mill is more suitable for adjusting the particle size of the dry recovered powder than the buhrstone mill.
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-002, 26 Pages, 2021/05
Investigations employing numerical simulation have been conducted to study the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into sedimentary formations. By mimicking the conditions of the Horonobe underground research laboratory, numerical simulations aided geoscientific investigation of the effects of dissolved gas content and rock permeability on the desaturation (Miyakawa et al., 2019) and mechanisms of oxygen intrusion into the host rock (Miyakawa et al., 2021). These simulations calculated multi-phase flow, including flows of groundwater and exsolved gas, and conducted sensitivity analysis changing the dissolved gas content, rock permeability, and humidity at the gallery wall. Only the most important results from these simulations have been reported previously, because of publishers' space limitations. Hence, in order to provide basic data for understanding the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into rock, all data for 27 output parameters (e.g., advective fluxes of heat, gas, and water, diffusive fluxes of water, CH, CO, O, and N, saturation degree, water pressure, and mass fraction of each component) over a modeling period of 100 years are presented here.
Kawasaki, Kohei; Shinada, Kenta; Okamoto, Naritoshi; Kageyama, Tomio; Eda, Takashi; Okazaki, Hiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Otabe, Jun
JAEA-Technology 2020-025, 80 Pages, 2021/03
Plutonium Fuel Production Facility was built in 1988 for the purpose of mainly producing MOX fuel of the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, and large glove boxes were installed for handling unsealed nuclear fuel material remotely. The panels of these glove boxes are made of acrylic, except for those installed after December 2013. For fires inside the glove box, automatic fire extinguishing systems using halides have been introduced since the beginning of construction, but for fires outside the glove box, there have been issues with direct measures for acrylic. Therefore, we have developed a fireproof sheet that mitigates the effect of fire outside the glove box on the panels as much as possible. As a result, fire-retardant sheets have been selected and attached to the glove box panels. We conducted a flammability test of the acrylic plate attached with these fireproof sheets and a usage environment influence test of fireproof sheets, and obtained good results. In addition, we set up a working group in the Plutonium Fuel Development Center in view of reducing external exposure during the work of attaching fireproof sheets, in which we discussed and examined the work procedure, and summarized it in the basic procedure manual.
Okuno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya
JAEA-Review 2020-066, 32 Pages, 2021/02
The International Atomic Energy Agency (abbreviated as IAEA) has been implementing the Asian Nuclear Safety Network (abbreviated as ANSN) activities since 2002. As part of this effort, Topical Group on Emergency Preparedness and Response (abbreviated as EPRTG) for nuclear or radiation disasters was established in 2006 under the umbrella of the ANSN. Based on the EPRTG proposal, the IAEA conducted 23 Asian regional workshops in the 12 years from 2006 to 2017. Typical topical fields of the regional workshops were nuclear emergency drills, emergency medical care, long-term response after nuclear/radiological emergency, international cooperation, national nuclear disaster prevention system. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has produced coordinators for EPRTG since its establishment and has led its activities since then. This report summarizes the Asian regional workshops conducted by the IAEA based on the recommendations of the EPRTG.
Yamazoe, Seiji*; Yamamoto, Akira*; Hosokawa, Saburo*; Fukuda, Ryoichi*; Hara, Kenji*; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; Tsukuda, Tatsuya*; Yoshida, Hisao*; Tanaka, Tsunehiro*
Catalysis Science & Technology, 11(1), p.116 - 123, 2021/01
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*
Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.609 - 614, 2021/01
Desaturation is expected due to excavation of an underground repository, especially in the newly created fractures zone (EDZ). During the construction and operation of facilities, the air in the gallery infuses into the rock around the gallery though the excavation affected area and causes oxidation of host rock and groundwater, which increase nuclide mobilities. In the Horonobe underground research laboratory (HURL), which is excavated in the Neogene sedimentary formations, no pyrite dissolution or precipitation of calcium sulfates was found from the cores drilled in the rock around the gallery. The reason for no oxidation is estimated that the release of dissolved gases from groundwater due to pressure decrease flows against the air infusion. In this research, the mechanism of O intrusion into the rock was investigated by numerical multiphase flow simulation considering advection and diffusion of groundwater and gases. In the simulation, only Darcy's and Henry's laws were considered, that is, chemical reaction related to oxidation was not handled. The effects of dissolved gas and rock permeability on O infusion into the rock were almost identical. Decreasing humidity with relatively low permeability leads to extensive accumulation of O into the EDZ even though with a relatively large amount of dissolved gas. In the HURL, the shotcrete attenuates O concentration and keeps 100% humidity at the boundary of the gallery wall, which inhibits O infusion. Without the shotcrete, humidity at the gallery wall decreases according to seasonal changes and ventilation, which promotes O intrusion into the EDZ but the chemical reaction related to O buffering such as pyrite oxidation consumes O.
Okudaira, Takuya; Oku, Takayuki; Ino, Takashi*; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Kira, Hiroshi*; Sakai, Kenji; Hiroi, Kosuke; Takahashi, Shingo*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Endo, Hitoshi*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164301_1 - 164301_8, 2020/10
Togawa, Orihiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Okuno, Hiroshi
JAEA-Review 2020-017, 36 Pages, 2020/09
In 2010, the government of Japan joined the Response and Assistance Network (RANET) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in order to contribute to offering international assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. At that occasion, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was registered as the National Assistance Capability (NAC) having resources capable of the External Based Support (EBS) in the following seven areas: (1) aerial survey, (2) radiation monitoring, (3) environmental measurements, (4) assessment and advice, (5) internal dose assessment, (6) bioassay and (7) dose reconstruction. After the registration, three inquiries were directed to the JAEA about a possibility of its support. However, the JAEA's assistance has not eventually been realized. On the other hand, the JAEA participated almost every year in the international Convention Exercise (ConvEx) carried out by the IAEA in connection with RANET. This report describes an outline of the RANET and related activities of the JAEA for RANET registration and participation in the ConvEx.
Kawaguchi, Koichi; Segawa, Tomoomi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Makino, Takayoshi; Iso, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Katsunori
Funtai Kogakkai-Shi, 57(9), p.478 - 484, 2020/09
A collision plate type jet mill is assumed to be a pulverizer that can control the particle size for nuclear fuel fabrication. The collision plate type jet mill consists of two modules, a classifier and a mill chamber. Coarse component of powder is cycled in the equipment and finally pulverized into objective particle size. In this report, simulated crushed powders were classified and pulverized step by step, and particle size distribution were compared. The collision plate type jet mil can produce objective size particles with low overgrinding.
Metoki, Naoto; Aczel, A. A.*; Aoki, Dai*; Chi, S.*; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.*; Griveau, J.-C.*; Hagihara, Masato*; Hong, T.*; Haga, Yoshinori; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiko*; et al.
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 30, p.011123_1 - 011123_6, 2020/03
Rare earths (4) and actinides (5) provide variety of interesting states realized with competing interactions between the increasing number of electrons. Since crystal field splitting of many-body electron system is smaller than the bandwidth, (1) high resolution experiments are needed, (2) essentially no clear spectrum with well defined peaks is expected in itinerant Ce and U compounds, and (3) Np and Pu is strictly regulated. Therefore, systematic research on magnetic excitations by neutron scattering experiments of localized compounds and rare earth iso-structural reference is useful. We describe the electron states of heavy electron compounds NpPdAl and actinide and rare earth based iso-structural family.
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*
Proceedings of 5th ISRM Young Scholars' Symposium on Rock Mechanics and International Symposium on Rock Engineering for Innovative Future (YSRM 2019 and REIF 2019) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2019/12
The construction and operation of geological repositories require excavation and ventilation of galleries, with significant groundwater drainage. Desaturation of rock around galleries is unavoidable and may affect hydraulic properties and redox conditions. This study used numerical modeling to assess the influence of dissolved gas on the degree of saturation of rock surrounding excavated galleries, focusing on siliceous mudstone rock in the 140 m, 250 m, and 350-m-deep galleries of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan. Based on previous electrical survey, the degree of saturation in the 250 m gallery was higher than that in the 140 m and 350 m galleries. In the Horonobe area, deep groundwater contains high concentrations of dissolved methane, and exsolution of this methane from pore water can affect desaturation. Simple numerical modeling, including simulation of multiphase flows, was undertaken for each gallery to confirm the effect of dissolved gas and rock permeability on desaturation. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying dissolved gas contents and permeability. Results indicate that the dissolved gas content affects both the degree of saturation and its spatial extent, whereas rock permeability affects only the latter. Higher dissolved gas concentrations result in lower degrees of saturation with a greater spatial extent of desaturation, and higher permeability leads to greater extents of desaturation. It is therefore likely that gas content, rather than rock permeability, caused the observed variations in the saturation degree.
Okudaira, Takuya; Oku, Takayuki; Sakai, Kenji; Ino, Takashi*; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Hiroi, Kosuke; Shinohara, Takenao; Kakurai, Kazuhisa*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Shimizu, Hirohiko*; et al.
Proceedings of Science (Internet), 356, p.029_1 - 029_5, 2019/12
The technology development section carries out the development of the neutron polarization device: He Spin Filter. It is often used for the fundamental physics region. In order to explain the matter-dominated universe, a time reversal violation is necessary and searches for new physics are conducted in the world. The T-violation search using a polarized neutron beam is planned at J-PARC. A large He spin filter is needed to polarize high energy neutrons for the experiment and is developed in JAEA. Recently, we developed the accurate measurement system to evaluate the polarization of He and a vacuum system to make the He spin filter, and large He spin filters for epi-thermal neutron was made using the system. The current status of the development of the He spin filter will be talked.
Segawa, Tomoomi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Makino, Takayoshi; Iso, Hidetoshi; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Sato, Hisato; Fukasawa, Tomonori*; Fukui, Kunihiro*
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.738 - 745, 2019/09
In the MOX fuel fabrication process, the dry grinding technology of mixed oxide pellets have been developed for the effective use of nuclear fuel materials. To develop a technology to control the particle size of dry recovered powder, the performance of the buhrstone mill and the collision plate type jet mill were studied using a simulated powder of particle size distribution about 500 m. We found that the particle size can be controlled at the range of about 250 m or less by both by adjusting the clearance between the grinding wheels of the buhrstone mill, and the clearance and elevation angle of the clarification zone of the collision plate type jet mill. And furthermore, the collision plate type jet mill is considered to be suitable for particle size control because the operating parameters of the classifier can be finely adjusted.
Nakamura, Kazuya*; Yamamoto, Yusuke*; Suzuki, K.*; Takao, Tomoaki*; Murakami, Haruyuki; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 25(3), p.4200704_1 - 4200704_4, 2015/06
Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Mizuno, Takashi
JAEA-Data/Code 2014-033, 43 Pages, 2015/03
Development of technologies to investigate properties (conditions) of deep geological environment and models development of geological environment have been pursued in "Geoscientific Research" in the Horonobe underground research laboratory (Horonobe URL) project. A geochemical model of groundwater evolution which is a part of geological environment model requires the data of groundwater chemistry around the Horonobe URL for the development. This report summarizes the data obtained for 3 years (i.e., from the fiscal year 2011 to 2013), especially for the results for measurement of physico-chemical parameters and analysis of groundwater chemistry, in the Horonobe URL project.
Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Aoki, Kazufumi; Okamoto, Akiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Kume, Nobuhide; Nakanishi, Chika; Koie, Masahiro; Kawamata, Hiroyuki; et al.
JAEA-Review 2014-048, 69 Pages, 2015/02
JAEA was assigned as a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of disaster responses or response in the event of a military attack, etc. In order to fulfill the tasks, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear emergency, NEAT dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response institutions of the national and local governments, police, fire fighters, self-defense forces, etc. in addition to the JAEA itself. The NEAT also researches nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations. In the FY2013, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, etc. (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency response personnel for the national and local governments, etc. (3) Researches on nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and sending useful information (4) International contributions to Asian countries on nuclear disaster preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations