Proceedings of International Conference on Toward and Over the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (GLOBAL 2011) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/12
An economic scale of nuclear energy was evaluated as a total amount of sales of electricity. It was 43,018 million dollars, including a fuel cycle cost by 10,860 million dollars. Due to several casualty accidents, for example, an earth quake attacked to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Units in 2007, the economic scale of nuclear energy was decreasing. The indirect effect of nuclear energy linked with the green technology was effective to avoid global warming. Hypothetical trading of carbon dioxide emission might save 4,000 million dollars, that is 10 percent of the ordinary earnings.
Radioisotopes, 60(4), p.189 - 201, 2011/04
The economic scale of the application of radiation was 37,308 million dollars, where the share was 56% for the industry, 7% for the agriculture and 37% for the medicine. The economic scale of the nuclear energy generated by 54 nuclear power plants was 43,018 million dollars. The share of the application of radiation was 46% and that of the nuclear energy was 54%. The total economic scale was 80,300 million dollars or 1.8% of the GDP in 2005.
Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Cutler, D.*
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 287(3), p.879 - 886, 2011/03
Bibliometric analysis was carried out for champion data comparisons among prestigious nuclear research institutes (PNRI) existed in Japan, the U. S., France and Germany. The analysis was relied on database INIS (IAEA), ECD (DOE), WOS (Thomson) and SCOPUS (Elsevier). INIS is advanced, key ex-post evaluating tool for determining general research paper-based champion. Over the 30-year time span of research paper publication, the world champion among 11 PNRI is JAERI confirmed by INIS but ORNL confirmed by ECD, WOS and SCOPUS, the latter two collected journal submitted research paper. Results from analytical tools used in bibliometric studies should be viewed with careful consideration to learn of any influencing factors because different characteristics exhibited by individual databases can sometimes generate conflicting bibliometric results. This was true among INIS, ECD, WOS and SCOPUS when looking at trends especially between 5-year periods.
JAEA-Review 2010-070, 18 Pages, 2011/01
The safety study of the silicide fuel for the use in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) under the power transient was carried out. (1) It was revealed from the experimental tests that the peak cladding surface temperature (PCST) for the abnormal control rod withdrawal (ACRW) during the reactor start-up was 137C and that for the cold coolant induction (CCI) at the secondary loop was 111C. The values were higher than those of the EUREKA-2 code calculation used for the JMTR licensing. (2) The PCST of the two tests did not exceed the minimum DNBR and the fuel integrity of them was kept without causing any fuel damage. Consequently, experimental results cleared the judging criteria for safety of ACRW and CCI. These experimental facts lead that the predictions made by the code for ACRW and CCI is safe enough.
JAEA-Review 2010-068, 34 Pages, 2011/01
(1)The waterside corrosion for the pressurized PWR fuel had no effect on the fuel failure occurred by the ballooned/rupture mechanism but that for the unpressurized PWR fuel had a significant effect to preventing the fuel from the failure occurred by the melt/brittle mechanism. The corroded film tended to minimize the temperature gradient across the cladding, to prevent the additional oxide formation and to reduce the hoop stress raised during the quench. As a result, the failure threshold of the corroded fuel was higher than that of the standard fuel. (2) The peak axial strain for the pressurized fuel increased with the increase of the oxide film, where the maximum was 4% for the 40 micron oxide film. However, the peak axial strain for the unpressurized fuel was within 1% irrespective to the oxide film thickness.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 48(1), p.113 - 119, 2011/01
An influence of fuel core density (2.2, 3.0 and 4.0 g/cc) on a fuel failure was studied comparing the silicide fuel (4.8 g/cc) as the reference. (1) The DNB value of the test specimens (below 4.8 g/cc) was 175 24 C, having no difference to the reference (180 14 C). (2) The reference fuel failed at the large temperature drop (above 94 C) and the short time to quench (below 0.13 s). The test specimens did not fail until 106 cal per gram fuel plate due to the enhanced plasticity of the aluminum matrix. The lower the fuel density, the more the plasticity enhanced. (3) Irrespective to fuel density, the bow was increased with the increasing PCST. Experimental fact revealed that maximum bow at JRR-3 operating (below 228 C) is 15% (0.4 mm), where the almost data are within 4% (0.1 mm). (4) For axial permanent strain evaluated by the plate thickness, the test specimens were expanded but the references were shrunk.
International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, 6(1), p.55 - 63, 2011/00
The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) loaded the 4.8g/cc silicide fuel for the core conversion from the high to the low enrichment ( 20wt%). In the experiment, the reactivity insertion of 0.35% per s, caused by the by the abnormal withdrawal of the control rod at the start up of the JMTR was assumed. The value was about twice the EUREKA2 computer code used for the licensing. As a result, the test specimen (4.8g/cc silicide fuel) had the peak cladding surface temperature of 137 C. The test specimen did not fail by quench mechanism because the time to quench tq was 0.11s and the temperature drop was 28 C. Usually the quench failure occurs at the rapid tq ( 0.13s) and the high temperature drop ( 94 C). The safety margin of the JMTR against the accident induced by the abnormal withdrawal of control rod was assured.
JAEA-Review 2010-054, 109 Pages, 2010/11
(1) The niobia doped PWR fuel (test specimen) did not fail below 260 cal/g defined as the failure threshold for RIA. (2) The fuel failure occurred by the cladding melt-brittle mechanism irrespective to the doping. (3) The test specimen caused a significant axial PCMI to the magnitude of 18%. (4)Above 276 cal/g, the test specimen restructured and formed the bonding, the small radial cracks, the metallic agglomeration and inclusion at the very narrow ring area. The grain size of the test specimen at the ring was reduced from original 31 to 10-21 microns. Meanwhile, undoped fuel grew the grain size from original 9 to 60 microns at the similar ring because of the recrystallization.
Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (INES-3), 10 Pages, 2010/11
(1) The cost of electricity generated by 54 Japanese light water reactors in 2005 is 42,682 million dollars (2) During a nuclear cycle the emitted carbons from LWR (22 g/kWh) is 1/23 to 1/44 of those from fossil power plants. The gross electricity produced in Japan in 2004 is about 8,651 TWh. Emitted carbons assuming that coal and petroleum are main carbon contributors are 7.43E08 ton carbon dioxide. The non-fossil fuels can suppress the amounts by 3.79E08 ton carbon dioxide, where the contributing ratio of nuclear energy is 57%. Because the price of carbon emission trading is 18.5 dollars for the developing country and 27.7 dollars for European Community (EC) per ton carbon dioxide, an indirect effect of green technology by Japanese LWRs is estimated to be 3,993 million dollars for the former and 5,989 million dollars for the latter. Consequently, the role of green technology to suppress the global warming is very significant and cost effective.
JAEA-Review 2010-033, 26 Pages, 2010/09
The silicide fuel fabricated by B&W (one TC) and that fabricated by CERCA (no TC) was pulsed with the reactivity of 1.43 dollar ($). The energy deposition was 115 cal per gram for the former and 98 cal per gram for the latter. In core transient fuel performance of the two was directly compared, using the data obtained from 4.8g/cc silicide fuels as the references. (1) The onset of DNB temperature for the B&W fuel was 154 C, which was the lowest among the references. (2) During the quenching, the B&W fuel had 269 C for the temperature difference (94 C for failure) and 0.079s for the time to quench (0.13s for failure). This situation brought the quench failure to the fuel. The failure mode was the through plate cracking. The CERCA fuel did not fail not telling the details due to the no in-core instrument.
International Electronic Journal of Nuclear Safety and Simulation (Internet), 1(3), p.246 - 257, 2010/09
A LWR fuel consisted of UO pellet with zircaloy cladding and a research reactor fuel consisted of aluminide or silicide fuel cores with Al alloy. (1) LWR fuels were irradiated at the HBWR up to burn-up of 20 MWd/kgU and power ramped to have the PCI failure. The failure threshold of LWR was lower than that of HBWR. The in-core data was useful for obtaining the input data for the computer code FEMAXI. (2) Fresh or pre-irradiated LWR fuels were pulse-irradiated at the NSRR. For the fresh fuel, a failure occurred at 260 cal/g with cladding melt-brittle mechanism. For the pre-irradiated PWR fuel, a cladding split along one generatrix occurred at 118 cal/g. The failure mechanism may be the strong PCMI combined with the transient FGR. (3) Research reactor fuels failed by the through-plate cracking (les than 640 C) or cladding melt (above 640 C). A failure mechanism for the former was a tensile stress caused by a local uneven temperature profile during a quench.
Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ito, Keishiro*; Katsuki, Chisato*; Kawashima, Kei*; Shirabe, Masashi*
Scientometrics, 84(3), p.563 - 573, 2010/09
no abstracts in English
JAEA-Review 2010-031, 43 Pages, 2010/08
A champion of research paper at JAERI and those of foreign prestigious nuclear research institutes was studied taking the timeframe as long as 30 years (1978-2007) Tools were INIS, ECD, WOS and SCOPUS. (1) INIS judged that JAERI (32,859 papers) was the champion. ECD judged that the ORNL (36,608 papers) was the champion. WOS coincided with that of ECD. SCOPUS judged that ORNL (32,728 papers) was the champion. (2) Different characteristics exhibited by individual databases can sometimes generate conflicting bibliometric results. This was true among INIS, ECD, WOS and SCOPUS when looking at trends between 5-year periods. It implies that results from analytical tools used in bibliometric studies should be viewed with careful consideration to learn of any influencing factors. (3) Users from developed and developing countries assigned as the Member State IAEA would be better served using INIS and ECD. As the recent trend, the use of WOS and SCOPUS has tended to grow worldwide.
Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems for 21st Century (ISSNP 2010) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2010/08
A LWR fuel consisted of UO pellet with zircaloy cladding and a research reactor fuel consisted of UAlx or USi fuel cores with Al Mg alloy. (1) LWR fuels were irradiated at the HBWR up to burnup of 20 MWd/kgU and power ramped to have the PCI failure. The failure threshold of LWR was lower than that of HBWR. The incore data was used for obtaining the hoop stress and FGR run by the computer code FEMAXI. (2) Fresh or preirradiated LWR fuels were pulse irradiated at the NSRR. For the fresh fuel, a failure occurred at 260 cal/g fuel with cladding melt brittle mechanism. For the preirradiated PWR fuel, a cladding split along one generatrix occurred at 118 cal/g fuel. The failure mechanism is the strong PCMI combined with the transient FGR. (3) Research reactor fuels failed by the through plate cracking or cladding melt. A failure mechanism for the former was a tensile stress caused by a local uneven temperature profile during a quench.
Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Shoji*
JAEA-Review 2010-013, 29 Pages, 2010/06
A research independency was defined here as the continuity of the research and the development of a corresponded field with the evolution of history. The three parameters considered were actinides, positron and neutron. The year was covered from 1978 to 2002. INIS was used as the tool. The authors revealed that important factors that led the sustainable success of the research independency of the basic science study were the constant efforts to accomplish his mission, the education of their successors to instructing the explicit and tacit research findings and the construction of intellectual networking with learned circles and industries, who were in good collaboration with JAERI. These were quantitatively clarified by our bibliometric study. The research independency experienced the time-dependent stage of germination, development and declination due to the interaction between development and impeded factors.
JAEA-Review 2010-004, 61 Pages, 2010/06
For post evaluation, the Department of Material Science was divided into four, namely Region 1 Material Science in Radiation Field, 2 Ultimate Property and New Material Science, 3 Actinide Chemistry and 4 Facility Development and Operation. Obtained results are as follows. (1) For the predominance of the research region, the region 3 (31%) had a predominance. (2) For the dissemination of achievement, the region 1 (28%) had an excellent external networking. (3) For research activeness of a laboratory evaluated by means of the numbers of JAERI original papers, the region 4 or 3 was judged to have predominance. (4) The present results were compared with those obtained from JAERI Pier Review, which was carried out by the outside intellectuals. The conclusion was in a good agreement in terms of the rate of attainability of the goal and the dissemination of achievement and repercussion effect.
Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Komoda, Fumio*
JAEA-Review 2010-003, 28 Pages, 2010/06
By using the database INSPEC, an ex-post evaluation of the safety research was carried out by a technology interaction analysis. Selected institutions were JAERI, ORNL and FZK. As the control term of INSPEC a water-reactor-safety was utilized and studied the established key technologies and the interacted technological elements. (1) For a nuclear safety research JAERI held priority to 22 out of 30 key technologies consisted of the nuclear fuels, the nuclear materials and so on. JAERI contributed much to Japan. For ORNL and FZK, 19 and 20 key technologies were held priorities. ORNL was in the ascendant at the nuclear power plant operation, while FZK held priority to the radiation protection. (2) JAERI and FZK interacted strongly with the accident, the engineering calculation, the fuel cladding and the reactor core cooling. The interaction was enhanced by an international cooperation like LOFT. As for JAERI and ORNL, they interacted strongly with the instruments and the research reactors.
Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Nagano, Koji*
Proceedings of 2010 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP '10) (CD-ROM), p.2140 - 2149, 2010/06
(1) The cost of electricity generated by 54 Japanese light water reactors in 2005 is 16,466 million dollars at the supply end and is 42,682 million dollars at the demand end. (2) The nuclear market is expensive for the construction cost (2.0 cent per kWh) but cheap for the fuel cost (1.4 cent per kWh). The introduction of LWR can reduce gross amounts of fuels and then increase the gross domestic products (GDP). (3) During a nuclear cycle the emitted carbons from LWR (22g per kWh) is from one 23rd to one 44th of those from fossil power plants. The gross electricity produced in Japan in 2004 is about 8,651 TWh. Emitted carbons assuming that coal and petroleum are main carbon contributors are 7.43E08 ton. The no fossil fuels can suppress the amounts by 3.79E08 ton, where the contributing ratio of nuclear energy is 57%. An indirect effect of green technology by Japanese LWRs is estimated to be from 3,993 to 5,989 million dollars.
Proceedings of 31st International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR 2009) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2010/03
Power transient test was conducted on un-irradiated silicide mini-plate fuels. A failure threshold of tested fuel is revealed between 82 and 94 cal per gram fuel plate. Failure mechanism of a through plate cracking is a thermal stress caused by a large temperature drop (T 94C), combined with a rapid quench (0.13s). Additionally, a water channel closure (plate bowing) was studied by triplet and single plate configurations as a function of peak cladding surface temperature (PCST). From this study adaptability of licensing criteria (228C) applied to the water channel closure of Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3) and Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) silicide fuels are experimentally confirmed.
Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kawashima, Kei*; Katsuki, Chisato*; Ito, Keishiro*
JAEA-Review 2009-050, 13 Pages, 2010/02
Bibliometric study by means of research papers revealed the followings; (1) Nuclear Safety Research (NSR) performed in Japan is the 2nd highest in the world followed by USA. The share of JAERI for safety paper publication is about 25% in Japan (2) During past 25 years, JAERI is predominant at 39 safety fields out of 97, that is, 40% to the total. This is the fact revealed from comparison of published number of research papers with those of other organizations. (3) JAERI is recently changing its stress point from reactor-oriented accidents to the down stream of nuclear fuel cycling. There existed impact of TMI-2 accident on NSR-JAERI, especially in the field of thermal hydraulics, LOCA, severe accident and risk analysis.