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JAEA Reports

Study of fabrication of SiC-matrixed fuel compact for HTGR

Kawano, Takahiro*; Mizuta, Naoki; Ueta, Shohei; Tachibana, Yukio; Yoshida, Katsumi*

JAEA-Technology 2023-014, 37 Pages, 2023/08

JAEA-Technology-2023-014.pdf:2.35MB

Fuel compact for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is fabricated by calcinating a matrix consisting of graphite and binder with the coated fuel particle. The SiC-matrixed fuel compact uses a new matrix made of silicon carbide (SiC) replacing the conventional graphite. Applying the SiC-matrixed fuel compact for HTGRs is expected to improve their performance such as power densities. In this study, the sintering conditions for applying SiC as the matrix of fuel compacts for HTGR are selected, and the density and thermal conductivity of the prototype SiC are measured.

Journal Articles

Atomization mechanisms of a wall-impinging jet in a shallow pool

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Physics of Fluids, 35(7), p.073309_1 - 073309_17, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01

The atomization of a liquid jet in an immiscible liquid-liquid system is significant for the safety in the nuclear industry field. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed an evaluation method of a melt fuel behavior as a liquid jet in an immiscible liquid-liquid system for subsequence using mechanistic numerical simulation and has investigated liquid jet behavior in a shallow pool through numerical simulations and experiments. The paper clarifies the atomization mechanism in the wall-impinging liquid jet. Herein, the atomization behavior in the wall-impinging liquid jet in a shallow pool in an immiscible liquid-liquid system was studied in terms of droplet formation and flow field using numerical simulation and the dispersed-phase tracking method. The results show that the droplet formation in the liquid film flow of the wall-impinging liquid jet had the three patterns, and we obtained the droplet properties immediately after droplet formation and developed the theoretical criterion regions using the dimensionless numbers for droplet formation. We characterized the patterns by comparing them with the regions and elucidated the droplet formation mechanisms depending on their sources. Moreover, we elucidated that the relationship between droplet formation as the local behaviors of the jet and atomization as the whole behavior.

Journal Articles

Research on improvement of HTGR core power-density, 4; Feasibility study for a reactor core

Okita, Shoichiro; Mizuta, Naoki; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Goto, Minoru; Yoshida, Katsumi*; Nishimura, Yosuke*; Okamoto, Koji*

Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2023/05

Journal Articles

Experiment and numerical simulation of pulsation flow in single channel for Li-7 enrichment technology development by MCCCE method

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Makoto*; Kishimoto, Tadafumi*

Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2023/05

From the viewpoint of energy security in Japan and reduction of the environmental load, continuous operation of light water reactors is essential. Since a pH adjuster with enriched Li-7 ions is required for water quality control on PWR, the development of Li-7 enrichment technology is one of the key issues. The multi-channel counter-current electrophoresis (MCCCE) method has been developed as the technology with a low environmental load. To put this method into practical use, it is necessary to understand Li-7 ion behavior in the channel flow and optimize the experimental condition to separate Li-7 and its isotope. In this paper, to understand Li-7 ion behavior in a single channel of the experimental apparatus, a numerical simulation method based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a particle tracking method, TPFIT-LPT, was developed. In the method, the motion of multiple ions under the electric field was simulated as a particle with an added velocity by the electric field. The difference in the isotopes was represented by changing of the magnitude of the added velocity. We also considered that although it is impossible to measure the behavior of each ion, it is important to measure the flow velocity of the bulk fluid for the validation of the numerical simulation. We developed a lab-scale experimental apparatus in which the single channel of the actual apparatus was simplified to measure the flow velocity by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). We set a pulsation flow condition on the lab-scale experiment, which is one of difficult conditions for the numerical simulation, and measured the velocity. As the result, we confirmed that the pulsation flow was reproduced. We set the measured data as the inlet boundary condition of the numerical simulation and conducted it. As the numerical result, we confirmed the ions affected by the electric field moved upstream with pulsation. We also confirmed the effect of the electric field on the motion of the isotope.

Journal Articles

Measurement of fragments of a wall-impinging liquid jet in a shallow pool

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2022/10

For safety evaluation of nuclear reactors in severe accidents, it is important to estimate physical quantities of fragments generated from the molten fuel jet, which falls in a pool and breaks up. The evaluation method has been developed for the behavior as liquid jet with hydrodynamic interaction including fuel coolant interaction (FCI). In case of a shallow pool assumed in ex-vessel, the molten fuel jet is assumed to behave as wall-impinging liquid jet and to form liquid film flow spreading on the floor with/without fragmentation. In our research, focusing on hydrodynamic interaction and the transient 3-dimensional spreading on the floor, we have developed the evaluation method by numerical simulation using the two-phase flow simulation code with interface tracking method (TPFIT) developed by JAEA and, the experimental method using the 3D-LIF method in liquid-liquid system for the validation data. In our previous studies, we investigated the wall-impinging liquid jet behavior with fragmentation and observed that the liquid film flow had some characteristic parts transiently. Since it indicates that the quantities change depending on the parts and affect the safety evaluation, it is important to measure the quantities of the fragments generated from each part. This paper explains the measurement of the physical quantities of the fragments generated from each part of the wall-impinging liquid jet in a shallow pool for the validation of the numerical simulation. We conducted an experiment with the 3D-LIF method and segmented the experimental data based on the fragmentation point over the liquid film flow using the dispersed phase tracking method, developed by JAEA. Then, we measured the diameter and amount of the fragments from the segmented experimental data and investigated their changing trend.

Journal Articles

Vibration of cantilever by jet impinging in axial direction

Tobita, Daiki*; Monji, Hideaki*; Yamashita, Susumu; Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takanori

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2022/10

Journal Articles

Overview of event progression of evaporation to dryness caused by boiling of high-level liquid waste in Reprocessing Facilities

Yamaguchi, Akinori*; Yokotsuka, Muneyuki*; Furuta, Masayo*; Kubota, Kazuo*; Fujine, Sachio*; Mori, Kenji*; Yoshida, Naoki; Amano, Yuki; Abe, Hitoshi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 21(4), p.173 - 182, 2022/09

Risk information obtained from probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of measures against severe accidents in nuclear facilities. The PRA methods used for reprocessing facilities are considered immature compared to those for nuclear power plants, and to make the methods mature, reducing the uncertainty of accident scenarios becomes crucial. In this paper, we summarized the results of literature survey on the event progression of evaporation to dryness caused by boiling of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) which is a severe accident in reprocessing facilities and migration behavior of associated radioactive materials. Since one of the important characteristics of Ru is its tendency to form volatile compounds over the course of the event progression, the migration behavior of Ru is categorized into four stages based on temperature. Although no Ru has been released in the waste in the high temperature region, other volatile elements such as Cs could be released. Sufficient experimental data, however, have not been obtained yet. It is, therefore, necessary to further clarify the migration behavior of radioactive materials that predominantly depends on temperature in this region.

Journal Articles

Experimental study of liquid spreading and atomization due to jet impingement in liquid-liquid systems

Yamamura, Sota*; Fujiwara, Kota*; Honda, Kota*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Naoki; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Physics of Fluids, 34(8), p.082110_1 - 082110_13, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:47.38(Mechanics)

Liquid spreading and atomization due to jet impingement in liquid-liquid systems are considered to be crucial for understanding the cooling behavior of high-temperature molten material in a shallow water pool. This phenomenon takes place when a liquid jet enters a pool filled with other immiscible liquid. The jet spreads radially after impinging on the floor while forming a thin liquid film and atomizing droplets. In this paper, we explain the result to quantify the unsteady three-dimensional behavior of the spreading jet by the employment of 3D-LIF measurements and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Under high flow velocity conditions, the phenomena of hydraulic jump and atomization of the liquid film occurred along with the spreading. To evaluate the spreading behavior, a comparison of the jump radius position of the liquid-liquid system as the representative value was made with the one calculated by the existing theory of a gas-liquid system. As the result, the spreading of the liquid film in the liquid-liquid system was suppressed compared with that in the gas-liquid system. Furthermore, the PTV method was successfully used to measure the velocity boundary layer and velocity profile in the liquid film, which are important factors that affect the spreading mechanism of the liquid film. These results revealed that in liquid-liquid systems, shear stress at the liquid-liquid interface causes a decrease in the flow velocity and suppressed the development of the velocity boundary layer. Also, to evaluate the atomization behavior, the number and diameter distribution of the droplets were measured from the acquired 3-dimensional shape data of the jet. As the result, the number of droplets increased with the flow velocity. Based on these results, we concluded that the spreading of the liquid film is affected by such atomization behavior.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of annular dispersed flow in simplified subchannel of light water cooled fast reactor RBWR

Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Naoki; Ono, Ayako; Furuichi, Hajime*; Katono, Kenichi*

Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2022/08

Journal Articles

Development of dispersed phase tracking method for time-series 3-dimensional interface shape data

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Yamamura, Sota*; Fujiwara, Kota*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 14 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA Reports

Effect of nitrous acid on migration behavior of gaseous ruthenium tetroxide into liquid phase

Yoshida, Naoki; Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Amano, Yuki; Abe, Hitoshi

JAEA-Research 2021-011, 12 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Research-2021-011.pdf:1.49MB

In boiling and drying accidents involving high-level liquid waste in fuel reprocessing plants, emphasis is placed on the behavior of ruthenium (Ru). Ru would form volatile species, such as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO$$_{4}$$), and could be released to the environment with coexisting gases, including nitric acid, water, or nitrogen oxides. In this study, to contribute toward safety evaluations of these types of accidents, the migration behavior of gaseous Ru into the liquid phase has been experimentally measured by simulating the condensate during an accident. The gas absorption of RuO$$_{4}$$ was enhanced by increasing the nitrous acid (HNO$$_{2}$$) concentration in the liquid phase, indicating the occurrence of chemical absorption. In control experiments without HNO$$_{2}$$, the lower the temperature, the greater was the Ru recovery ratio in the liquid phase. Conversely, in experiments with HNO$$_{2}$$, the higher the temperature, the higher the recovery ratio, suggesting that the reaction involved in chemical absorption was activated at higher temperatures.

Journal Articles

Review of engagement activities to promote awareness of radiation and its associated risk amongst the Japanese public before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Sakoda, Akihiro; Nomura, Naoki*; Kuroda, Yujiro*; Kono, Takahiko; Naito, Wataru*; Yoshida, Hiroko*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 41(4), p.1258 - 1287, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.25(Environmental Sciences)

Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, many radiation experts directly experienced a vast gap between ideal and real public understanding (PU) of radiation in risk communication. Therefore, this study collated and reviewed information about PU activities for radiation and its risk that six Japanese academic societies - which seemed to be socially neutral expert communities - related to radiation and radiation risk conducted before and after the accident. Activities these radiation-related societies provided to general public were discussed from the following perspectives: (1) difficulties in two-way communication due to resources, motivation, public interest and concerns; (2) balance between academic research and PU activities; (3) academic societies' building trust with the public whilst ensuring member experts' neutrality and independence; (4) discussions among academic societies to prepare for public engagement. We hope that this paper encourages experts and academic societies in radiation protection to hold more national and international discussions about their roles in public communication and outreach.

Journal Articles

Oxidation of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) surface using supersonic seeded oxygen molecular beam

Katsube, Daiki*; Ono, Shinya*; Takayanagi, Shuhei*; Ojima, Shoki*; Maeda, Motoyasu*; Origuchi, Naoki*; Ogawa, Arata*; Ikeda, Natsuki*; Aoyagi, Yoshihide*; Kabutoya, Yuito*; et al.

Langmuir, 37(42), p.12313 - 12317, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:7.58(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We investigated the oxidation of oxygen vacancies at the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) using supersonic seeded molecular beam (SSMB) of oxygen. The oxygen vacancies at the top-surface and sub-surface could be eliminated by the supply of oxygen using an SSMB. These results indicate that the interstitial vacancies can be mostly assigned to oxygen vacancies, which can be effectively eliminated by using an oxygen SSMB. Oxygen vacancies are present on the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) when it is untreated before transfer to a vacuum chamber. These vacancies, which are stable in the as-grown condition, could also be effectively eliminated using the oxygen SSMB.

Journal Articles

Summary results of subsidy program for the "Project of Decommissioning and Contaminated Water Management (Development of Analysis and Estimation Technology for Characterization of Fuel Debris (Development of Technologies for Enhanced Analysis Accuracy and Thermal Behavior Estimation of Fuel Debris))"

Koyama, Shinichi; Nakagiri, Toshio; Osaka, Masahiko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Masaki; Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Maeda, Koji; Sasaki, Shinji; Onishi, Takashi; Takano, Masahide; et al.

Hairo, Osensui Taisaku jigyo jimukyoku Homu Peji (Internet), 144 Pages, 2021/08

JAEA performed the subsidy program for the "Project of Decommissioning and Contaminated Water Management (Development of Analysis and Estimation Technology for Characterization of Fuel Debris (Development of Technologies for Enhanced Analysis Accuracy and Thermal Behavior Estimation of Fuel Debris))" in 2020JFY. This presentation summarized briefly the results of the project, which will be available shortly on the website of Management Office for the Project of Decommissioning and Contaminated Water Management.

Journal Articles

Application of OpenPET as 3-D imaging device of carbon distribution in fruit

Kurita, Keisuke; Miyoshi, Yuta*; Nagao, Yuto*; Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka*; Suzui, Nobuo*; Yin, Y.-G.*; Ishii, Satomi*; Kawachi, Naoki*; Hidaka, Kota*; Yoshida, Eiji*; et al.

QST-M-29; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2019, P. 106, 2021/03

Journal Articles

Restraint effect of coexisting nitrite ion in simulated high level liquid waste on releasing volatile ruthenium under boiling condition

Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Amano, Yuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Abe, Hitoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(2), p.145 - 150, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.83(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the "evaporation and dryness due to the loss of cooling functions" which is one of the severe accidents at reprocessing plants in Japan, ruthenium (Ru) is possible to be released much more than other elements to the environment. This cause is considered that the volatile Ru compound can be released from high level liquid waste (HLLW) as gaseous compound in adding to the release by entrainment. It was expected that the release of the volatile Ru compound from the HLLW may be able to be restrained by coexisting nitrite ion because of its reduction power. To confirm the effect of nitrite ion on the release behavior of the volatile Ru compound, four experiments of heating the simulated HLLW (SHLLW) with setting the concentration of nitrite ion in the SHLLW as a parameter ware carried out. As a result, the release of the volatile Ru compound was seemed to be restrained by adding nitrite sodium as a source of nitrite ion under certain boiling condition. This result may contribute to improve source term analysis in the evaporation and dryness due to the loss of cooling functions.

Journal Articles

Consistent modelling of material weight loss and gas release due to pyrolysis and conducting benchmark tests of the model; A Case for glovebox panel materials such as polymethyl methacrylate

Ono, Takuya; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Amano, Yuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Abe, Hitoshi

PLOS ONE (Internet), 16(1), p.e0245303_1 - e0245303_16, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:5.52(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

It is necessary to consider how a glove box's confinement function will be lost when evaluating the amount of radioactive material leaking from a nuclear facility during a fire. In this study, we build a model that consistently explains the weight loss of glove box materials because of heat input from a flame and accompanying generation of the pyrolysis gas. The weight loss suggests thinning of the glove box housing, and the generation of pyrolysis gas suggests the possibility of fire spreading. The target was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), used as the glove box panel. Thermal gravimetric tests on PMMA determined the parameters to be substituted in the Arrhenius equation for predicting the weight loss in pyrolysis. The pyrolysis process of PMMA was divided into 3 stages with activation energies of 62 kJ/mol, 250 kJ/mol, and 265 kJ/mol. Furthermore, quantifying the gas composition revealed that the composition of the pyrolysis gas released from PMMA can be approximated as 100 percent methyl methacrylate. This result suggests that the released amount of methyl methacrylate can be estimated by the Arrhenius equation. To investigate the validity of such estimation, a sealed vessel test was performed. In this test, we observed increase of the number of gas molecules during the pyrolysis as internal pressure change of the vessel. The number of gas molecules was similar to that estimated from the Arrhenius equation, and indicated the validity of our method. Moreover, we also performed the same tests on bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (PC) for comparison. In case of PC, the number of gas molecules obtained in the vessel test was higher than the estimated value.

JAEA Reports

Effect of nitrogen oxides on decomposition behavior of gaseous ruthenium tetroxide

Yoshida, Naoki; Amano, Yuki; Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Abe, Hitoshi

JAEA-Research 2020-014, 33 Pages, 2020/12

JAEA-Research-2020-014.pdf:3.66MB

Considering the boiling and drying accident of high-level liquid waste in fuel reprocessing plant, Ruthenium (Ru) is an important element. It is because Ru would form volatile compounds such as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO$$_{4}$$) and could be released into the environment with other coexisting gasses such as nitric oxides (NOx) such as nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO$$_{2}$$). To contribute to the safety evaluation of this accident, we experimentally evaluated the effect of NOx on the decomposition and chemical change behavior of the gaseous RuO$$_{4}$$ (RuO$$_{4}$$(g)). As a result, the RuO$$_{4}$$(g) decomposed over time under the atmospheric gasses with NO or NO$$_{2}$$, however, the decomposition rate was slower than the results of experiments without NOx. These results showed that the NOx stabilized RuO$$_{4}$$(g).

Journal Articles

Decomposition behavior of gaseous ruthenium tetroxide under atmospheric conditions assuming evaporation to dryness accident of high-level liquid waste

Yoshida, Naoki; Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Amano, Yuki; Abe, Hitoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(11), p.1256 - 1264, 2020/11

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:73.58(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Emphasis has been placed on the behavior of ruthenium (Ru) in the evaporation to dryness accident due to the loss of cooling functions (EDLCF) of high-level liquid waste in fuel reprocessing plants. It is because Ru would form volatile compounds such as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO$$_{4}$$) and could be released into the environment with other coexisting gasses such as nitric acid (HNO$$_{3}$$), water (H$$_{2}$$O). To contribute to the safety evaluation of this accident, we experimentally evaluated the decomposition and chemical change behavior of the gaseous RuO$$_{4}$$ (RuO$$_{4}$$(g)) under the various atmospheric conditions: temperature and composition of coexisting gasses. As a result, the behavior of the RuO$$_{4}$$(g) was diverse depending on the atmospheric conditions. In the experiments with the dry air or H$$_{2}$$O vapor, decomposition of RuO$$_{4}$$(g) was observed. In the experiment with the mixed gas which containing HNO$$_{3}$$, almost no decomposition of the RuO$$_{4}$$(g) was observed, and chemical form of the RuO$$_{4}$$(g) was retained.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of liquid jet behavior in shallow pool by interface tracking method

Suzuki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Naoki; Yamamura, Sota*; Abe, Yutaka*

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2020/08

166 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)