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Journal Articles

Morphological reproductive characteristics of testes and fertilization capacity of cryopreserved sperm after the Fukushima accident in raccoon (${it Procyon lotor}$)

Komatsu, Kazuki*; Iwasaki, Tsugumi*; Murata, Kosuke*; Yamashiro, Hideaki*; Goh, V. S. T.*; Nakayama, Ryo*; Fujishima, Yohei*; Ono, Takumi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; et al.

Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 56(3), p.484 - 497, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:90.55(Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science)

We have established an archive system of livestock and wild animals from the surrounding ex-evacuation zone. Wildlife within the alert zone have been exposed to low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation for a long and continuous time. In this study, we analysed the morphological characteristics of the testes and in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of cryopreserved sperm of raccoons from the ex-evacuation zone of the FDNPP accident. This study revealed that the chronic and LDR radiation exposure associated with the FDNPP accident had no adverse effect on the reproductive characteristics and functions of male raccoons.

Journal Articles

Prediction of thermodynamic data for radium suitable for thermodynamic database for radioactive waste management using an electrostatic model and correlation with ionic radii among alkaline earth metals

Kitamura, Akira; Yoshida, Yasushi*

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 327(2), p.839 - 845, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:51.72(Chemistry, Analytical)

Thermodynamic data for radium for radioactive waste management have been predicted using an electrostatic model and correlation with the ionic radii of the alkaline earth metals. Estimation of the standard Gibbs free energy of formation and standard molar entropy of aqueous radium species and compounds has been based on such approaches as extrapolation of the thermodynamic properties of strontium and barium, and use of a model of ion pair formation. The predicted thermodynamic data for radium have been compared with previously reported values.

Journal Articles

Methodology development and determination of solubility-limiting solid phases for a performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes

Kitamura, Akira; Yoshida, Yasushi*; Goto, Takahiro*; Shibutani, Sanae*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(2), p.58 - 71, 2020/12

Evaluation and estimation of solubility values are required for a performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes. Selection of solubility-limiting solid phases (SSPs) that control the solubility of radionuclides is necessary for the evaluation and estimation of solubility values. The authors have developed a methodology for selection of the SSP through a calculation of saturation indices (SIs) using thermodynamic database to show a transparent procedure for the selection. Literature survey should be performed to confirm decision of the SSP from candidate SSPs which generally have larger SIs from realistic point of view for precipitation and solubility control. The authors have selected the SSPs for the elements of interest for the latest Japanese performance assessment in bentonite and cement porewaters after grouping various water compositions.

Journal Articles

Spallation and fragmentation cross sections for 168 MeV/nucleon $$^{136}$$Xe ions on proton, deuteron, and carbon targets

Sun, X. H.*; Wang, H.*; Otsu, Hideaki*; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi*; Ahn, D. S.*; Aikawa, Masayuki*; Fukuda, Naoki*; Isobe, Tadaaki*; Kawakami, Shunsuke*; Koyama, Shumpei*; et al.

Physical Review C, 101(6), p.064623_1 - 064623_12, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:56.26(Physics, Nuclear)

The spallation and fragmentation reactions of $$^{136}$$Xe induced by proton, deuteron and carbon at 168 MeV/nucleon were studied at RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory via the inverse kinematics technique. The cross sections of the lighter products are larger in the carbon-induced reactions due to the higher total kinetic energy of carbon. The energy dependence was investigated by comparing the newly obtained data with previous results obtained at higher reaction energies. The experimental data were compared with the results of SPACS, EPAX, PHITS and DEURACS calculations. These data serve as benchmarks for the model calculations.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of dark current profile for prediction of voltage holding capability on multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for ITER

Nishikiori, Ryo; Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Hiratsuka, Junichi; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 11, p.2401014_1 - 2401014_4, 2016/03

One of critical issues for high-energy high-current beam acceleration in ITER and JT-60SA is the high voltage holding which is dominated by vacuum discharges. The past results suggest that vacuum discharge occurs beyond the threshold of the dark current. The dark current can be derived from F-N theory where electric field enhancement factor beta is included. Though, beta could only be evaluated from the experiment previously. Therefore, the method to decide beta without experiment is required. This time dark currents were measured at three different areas to compare beta in different electric field. As a result, the effective electric field $$beta$$E, where E is average electric field, were found to be almost constant for different areas although the beta is largely different. By applying $$beta$$E, beta can be evaluated analytically, leading to the analytical prediction of the dark current and voltage holding capability without the measurements.

Journal Articles

Progress report of Japanese simulation research projects using the high-performance computer system Helios in the International Fusion Energy Research Centre

Ishizawa, Akihiro*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Imadera, Kenji*; Kasuya, Naohiro*; Kanno, Ryutaro*; Satake, Shinsuke*; Tatsuno, Tomoya*; Nakata, Motoki*; Nunami, Masanori*; Maeyama, Shinya*; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 92(3), p.157 - 210, 2016/03

The high-performance computer system Helios which is located at The Computational Simulation Centre (CSC) in The International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) started its operation in January 2012 under the Broader Approach (BA) agreement between Japan and the EU. The Helios system has been used for magnetised fusion related simulation studies in the EU and Japan and has kept high average usage rate. As a result, the Helios system has contributed to many research products in a wide range of research areas from core plasma physics to reactor material and reactor engineering. This project review gives a short catalogue of domestic simulation research projects. First, we outline the IFERC-CSC project. After that, shown are objectives of the research projects, numerical schemes used in simulation codes, obtained results and necessary computations in future.

Journal Articles

Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Nishikiori, Ryo; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B304_1 - 02B304_5, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:50.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Optimization techniques of the vacuum insulation design have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of Multi-Aperture Multi-Grid accelerators for giant negative ion sources for nuclear fusion. In this method, the nested multilayer configuration of each acceleration stage in the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages were based on the past experimental results of the area effect and the multi-aperture effect on the voltage holding capability. Moreover, total voltage holding capability of multi-stage was estimated by taking the multi-stage effect into account, which was experimentally obtained in this time. In this experiment, the multi-stage effect appeared as the superposition of breakdown probabilities in each acceleration stage, which suggested that multi-stage effect can be considered as the voltage holding capability of the single acceleration gap having the total area and aperture. The analysis on the MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation.

Journal Articles

Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Nishikiori, Ryo; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B322_1 - 02B322_4, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:50.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

In International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60 SA), the D$$^{-}$$ ion beams of 1 MeV, 40 A and 0.5 MeV, 22 A are required to produce 3600 s and 100 s for the neutral beam injection, respectively. In order to realize such as powerful D$$^{-}$$ ion beams for long duration time, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has energetically developed cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion sources (CsNIS) and electro-static multi-aperture and multi-stage accelerators (MAMuG accelerator) which are chosen as the reference design of ITER and JT-60 SA. In the development of the CsNIS, a 100s production of the H$$^{-}$$ ion beam has been demonstrated with a beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. At the higher current, the long pulse production of the negative ions has been tried by the mitigation of the arcing in the plasma inside the ion source. As for the long pulse acceleration of the negative ions in the MAMuG accelerator, the beam steering angle has been controlled to reduce the power loading of the acceleration grids A pulse duration time has been significantly extended from 0.4 s to 60 s at reasonable beam power for ITER requirement. The achieved pulse duration time is limited by the capacity of the power supplies in the test stand. In the range of $$<$$ 60 s, there are no degradations of beam optics and voltage holding capability in the accelerator. It leads to the further extension of the pulse duration time at higher power density. This paper reports the latest results of development on the negative ion source and accelerator at JAEA.

Journal Articles

Partition coefficient of Ra in witherite

Yoshida, Yasushi*; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki*; Yoshikawa, Hideki

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 303(1), p.147 - 152, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:34.2(Chemistry, Analytical)

A heterogeneous partition coefficient for Ra in BaCO$$_{3}$$ (witherite) was determined from a coprecipitation experiment using the free drift method. The initial solution was bubbled with 100% CO$$_{2}$$(g) and equilibrated with witherite. After a small amount of Ra was added into the solution, a coprecipioitation reaction was induced by increase of pH caused by degassing of CO$$_{2}$$ (g). A kinetic reaction of precipitation was restricted to be slow due to slow degassing of CO$$_{2}$$(g). Precipitation rate was observed to be enough low comparing with values of low precipitation rates to derive equilibirium partitioning of elements in coprecipitation experiments with CaCO$$_{3}$$ (calcite). The $$lambda$$-value derived for Ra was $$lambda$$ = (1.3$$pm$$0.7)$$times$$10$$^{-1}$$. This value was similar to that of Ra in CaCO$$_{3}$$ (calcite). It indicated that partitioning behavior of Ra in carbonate minerals did not depend on affinity in radius of a cation in host carbonate.

JAEA Reports

Establishment of data base files of thermodynamic data developed by OECD/NEA, 4; Addition of thermodynamic data for iron, tin and thorium

Yoshida, Yasushi*; Kitamura, Akira

JAEA-Data/Code 2014-022, 38 Pages, 2014/12

Thermodynamic data for compounds and complexes of elements with auxiliary species specialized in modeling requirements for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal systems have been developed by the Thermochemical Data Base (TDB) project of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Recently, thermodynamic data for aqueous complexes, solids and gases of thorium, tin and iron (Part 1) have been published in 2008, 2012 and 2013, respectively. These thermodynamic data have been selected on the basis of NEA's guidelines which describes peer review and data selection, extrapolation to zero ionic strength, assignment of uncertainty, and temperature correction; therefore the selected data are considered to be reliable. In the present report, text files of the selected data on some geochemical calculation programs are required. In the present report, the database files for the NEA's TDB with addition of selected data for iron, tin and thorium to the previous files have been established for use of PHREEQC, Geochemist's Workbench and EQ3/6. These files will be at the Website of thermodynamic, sorption and diffusion database in JAEA.

Journal Articles

Thermodynamic model for the solubility of Ba(SeO$$_{4}$$, SO$$_{4}$$) precipitates

Rai, D.*; Felmy, A. R.*; Moore, D. A.*; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi*

Radiochimica Acta, 102(8), p.711 - 721, 2014/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:16.75(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

The solubility of Ba(SeO$$_{4}$$, SO$$_{4}$$) precipitates was determined as a function of the BaSeO$$_{4}$$ mole fractions, ranging from 0.0015 to 0.3830, and time with an equilibration period extending to as long as 302 days. Equilibrium/steady state conditions in this system are reached in $$leq$$ 65 days. Pitzer's ion interaction model was used to calculate solid and aqueous phase activity coefficients. Thermodynamic analyses showed that the data do not satisfy Gibbs-Duhem equation, thereby demonstrating that a single-solid solution phase does not control both the selenate and sulfate concentrations. Our extensive data with [Ba], [SeO$$_{4}$$], and [SO$$_{4}$$] can be explained with the formation of an ideal BaSeO$$_{4}$$ solid solution phase that controls the selenium concentrations and a slightly disordered/less-crystalline BaSO$$_{4}$$(s) that controls the sulfate concentrations. In these experiments the BaSO$$_{4}$$ component of the solid solution phase never reaches thermodynamic equilibrium with the aqueous phase. Thermodynamic interpretations of the data show that both the ideal BaSeO$$_{4}$$ solid solution phase and less-crystalline BaSO$$_{4}$$(s) phase are in equilibrium with each other in the entire range of BaSeO$$_{4}$$ mole fractions investigated in this study.

JAEA Reports

Update of JAEA-TDB; Update of thermodynamic data for palladium and tin, refinement of thermodynamic data for protactinium, and preparation of PHREEQC database for use of the Br${o}$nsted-Guggenheim-Scatchard model

Kitamura, Akira; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi*

JAEA-Data/Code 2014-009, 69 Pages, 2014/06


The latest available thermodynamic data for palladium and tin were critically reviewed and the selected values were included into the JAEA-TDB for performance assessment calculations for geological disposal of radioactive high-level and TRU wastes. We made sure that the selected data are internally consistent with other data included in the compilation. This critical review specifically addressed thermodynamic data for (1) the palladium-hydroxide-chloride system, and (2) the solid oxides and hydroxido complexes of Sn(IV). We also selected thermodynamic data for other tin reactions from critical review of tin by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Furthermore, we refined some thermodynamic data for protactinium to estimate more reliable solubility values. We prepared text files of the updated thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC, EQ3/6 and Geochemist's Workbench. Use of the Br${o}$nsted-Guggenheim-Scatchard Model (SIT) for ionic strength corrections was applied to the PHREEQC database.

Journal Articles

Thermodynamic model for the solubility of BaSeO$$_{4}$$(cr) in the aqueous Ba$$^{2+}$$-SeO$$_{4}$$$$^{2-}$$-Na$$^{+}$$-H$$^{+}$$-OH$$^{-}$$-H$$_{2}$$O system; Extending to high selenate concentrations

Rai, D.*; Felmy, A. R.*; Moore, D. A.*; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi*

Radiochimica Acta, 102(9), p.817 - 830, 2014/04

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:9.16(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

The aqueous solubility of BaSeO$$_{4}$$(cr) was studied in Na$$_{2}$$SeO$$_{4}$$ solutions ranging in concentration from 0.0001 to 4.1$$^{-1}$$ and maintained in a N$$_{2}$$ atmosphere at room temperature (296 $$pm$$ 2 K). The studies were conducted from both the undersaturation and oversaturation directions, with equilibration periods ranging from 3 to 596 days. The equilibrium in this system was reached rather rapidly ($$leq$$ 3 days). The SIT and Pitzer's ion-interaction models were used to interpret these data and the predictions based on both of these models agreed closely with the experimental data.

Journal Articles

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering study of intraband charge excitations in hole-doped high-$$T_c$$ cuprates

Wakimoto, Shuichi; Ishii, Kenji; Kimura, Hiroyuki*; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiko*; Yoshida, Masahiro*; Adachi, Tadashi*; Casa, D.*; Fujita, Masaki*; Fukunaga, Yasushi*; Gog, T.*; et al.

Physical Review B, 87(10), p.104511_1 - 104511_7, 2013/03

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:44.02(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

JAEA Reports

Accumulation of experiences and knowledge for sodium cleaning treatment technology

Yoshida, Eiichi; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Yatabe, Toshio

JAEA-Technology 2012-033, 177 Pages, 2012/11


In JAEA, lots of tests using sodium had been carried out on the development of sodium component systems and sodium technologies for the experimental reactor JOYO and prototype reactor MONJU. When research and development has come to the end of the first stage for these reactors, those sodium test facilities has dismantled and attached sodium has been cleaned. Lots of experiences and knowledge of sodium cleaning treatment technologies has accumulated. In order to use those experiences and knowledge effectively for future sodium technology and research on the next generation fast reactors, experiences and knowledge of sodium technologies for typical systems and components has been evaluated and knowledge related important topics has been rearranged. Based on those evaluation and rearrangement, technical guidelines of sodium cleaning treatment technologies has been proposed for the purpose of effective reference of the past experiences and knowledge.

Journal Articles

$$gamma$$-ray irradiated organic thin film transistors based on perfluoropentacene with polyimide gate insulator

Takayanagi, Yutaro*; Ouchi, Hirokuni*; Duan, Z.*; Okukawa, Takanori*; Yanagi, Yuichiro*; Yoshida, Akira*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Hirao, Toshio; Nishioka, Yasushiro*

Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 25(4), p.493 - 496, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Polymer Science)

Organic thin film fields effect transistors are expected to be used in spacecrafts/satellites because they can realize large-size, mechanical flexibility, light weight and low-cost devices. N-channel field effect transistors with a Si/polyimide(PI)/perfluoropentacene/Au structure were fabricated, and irradiated with $$gamma$$-ray from Co source. The changes of the drain current vs. source/drain voltage characteristics were measured after every 200 Gy in silicon Gy(Si) irradiations up to the total dose of 1200 Gy(Si). The drain current gradually increased up to the total dose of 1200 Gy(Si). The threshold voltage decreased up to 400 Gy(Si), and gradually recovered above 600 Gy(Si). The mobility was almost unchanged up to 1200 Gy(Si). Those behaviors were explained by accumulation of positive trapped charge within the gate insulator PI near the interface. Evidence for the accumulation of interface traps was hardly observed.

JAEA Reports

Update of JAEA-TDB; Additional selection of thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases on nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium plutonium and americium, update of thermodynamic data on iodine, and some modifications

Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi*

JAEA-Data/Code 2012-006, 65 Pages, 2012/07


We additionally selected thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases of nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium to our thermodynamic database JAEA-TDB for geological disposal of radioactive waste of high-level and TRU wastes. We thermodynamically obtained equilibrium constant from addition and subtraction of Gibbs free energy of formation, which were selected in the thermochemical database project by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Furthermore, we collected and updated thermodynamic data on iodine, changed master species of technetium(IV), and added thermodynamic data on selenium due to improving reliability of the thermodynamic database. We prepared text files of the updated thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC, EQ3/6 and Geochemist's Workbench. These text files are contained in the attached CD-ROM and will be available on our Website.

Journal Articles

Evaluated and estimated solubility of some elements for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste using updated version of thermodynamic database

Kitamura, Akira; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi*

Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2010), Vol.2, p.365 - 373, 2011/00

We evaluated and estimated solubility of the 25 elements in the simulated pore waters established in the second progress report (H12) for safety assessment of geological disposal of HLW in Japan using the updated thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) and compared with the solubility values using the previous thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB). Furthermore, we tried to establish a technique to determine the solubility limiting solid for all target elements. It was found that most of the evaluated and estimated solubility values were not changed drastically, but the solubility values and dominant aqueous species for some elements were changed using the JAEA-TDB, e.g., due to introducing the formation constant of polynuclear hydrolysis species of zirconium and replacing the formation constant of mixed carbonatohydoxo complexes of thorium. Detail of the comparison and discussion about the evaluated and estimated solubility values between the JAEA- and the JNC- TDBs will be presented.

JAEA Reports

Preparation of text files of JAEA-TDB for geochemical calculation programs

Kitamura, Akira; Yoshida, Yasushi*

JAEA-Data/Code 2010-011, 37 Pages, 2010/09


We established a thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes. We prepared text files of the thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC, EQ3/6 and Geochemist's Workbench. These text files are contained in the attached CD-ROM and will be available on our Website (

Journal Articles

29th report of ITPA topical group meeting

Isayama, Akihiko; Sakakibara, Satoru*; Furukawa, Masaru*; Matsunaga, Go; Yamazaki, Kozo*; Watanabe, Kiyomasa*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Kenji*; Tamura, Naoki*; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 86(6), p.374 - 377, 2010/06

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