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Journal Articles

Radioactivity decontamination in and around school facilities in Fukushima

Saegusa, Jun; Tagawa, Akihiro; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kazuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ishida, Junichiro

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(3), p.15-00609_1 - 15-00609_7, 2016/06

After the Fukushima nuclear accident, JAEA lead off demonstration tests to find out effective decontamination methods for various school facilities in Fukushima. It included (1) dose reduction measures at schoolyards, (2) purification of swimming pool water and (3) removal of surface contamination of playground equipments. Through these tests, they established practical methods suitable for each situation; (1) At school yards, dose rates were drastically reduced by removing topsoil which was then placed in trenches of 1 m deep; (2) For the purification of pool water, the flocculation-coagulation treatment was found to be effective for collecting radiocesium dissolved in the water; (3) Demonstration tests for playground equipments, such as horizontal bars and a sandbox wood frame, suggested that effectiveness of decontamination considerably varied depending on the material, paint or coating condition. This paper reviews these demonstrations.

Journal Articles

Radioactivity decontamination in and around school facilities in Fukushima

Saegusa, Jun; Tagawa, Akihiro; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kazuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ishida, Junichiro

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2015/05

After the Fukushima nuclear accident, JAEA lead off demonstration tests to find out effective decontamination methods for various school facilities in Fukushima. It included (1) dose reduction measures at schoolyards, (2) purification of swimming pool water and (3) removal of surface contamination of playground equipments. Through these tests, they established practical methods suitable for each situation; (1) At school yards, dose rates were drastically reduced by removing topsoil which was then placed in trenches of 1 m deep; (2) For the purification of pool water, the flocculation-coagulation treatment was found to be effective for collecting radiocesium dissolved in the water; (3) Demonstration tests for playground equipments, such as horizontal bars and a sandbox wood frame, suggested that effectiveness of decontamination considerably varied depending on the material, paint or coating condition. This paper reviews these demonstrations.

JAEA Reports

Enhancement of the methodology of repository design and post-closure performance assessment for preliminary investigation stage, 3; Progress report on NUMO-JAEA collaborative research in FY2013 (Joint research)

Shibata, Masahiro; Sawada, Atsushi; Tachi, Yukio; Makino, Hitoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Oda, Chie; Ishidera, Takamitsu; et al.

JAEA-Research 2014-030, 457 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Research-2014-030.pdf:199.23MB

JAEA and NUMO have conducted a collaborative research work which is designed to enhance the methodology of repository design and post-closure performance assessment in preliminary investigation stage. With regard to (1) study on rock suitability in terms of hydrology, based on some examples of developing method of hydro-geological structure model, acquired knowledge are arranged using the tree diagram, and model uncertainty and its influence on the evaluation items were discussed. With regard to (2) study on scenario development, the developed approach for "defining conditions" has been reevaluated and improved from practical viewpoints. In addition, the uncertainty evaluation for the effect of use of cementitious material, as well as glass dissolution model, was conducted with analytical evaluation. With regard to (3) study on setting radionuclide migration parameters, based on survey of precedent procedures, multiple-approach for distribution coefficient of rocks was established, and the adequacy of the approach was confirmed though its application to sedimentary rock and granitic rock. Besides, an approach for solubility setting was developed including the procedure of selection of solubility limiting solid phase. The adequacy of the approach was confirmed though its application to key radionuclides.

Journal Articles

Manufacturing technology and material properties of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel forgings for ITER TF coil cases

Oshikawa, Takumi*; Funakoshi, Yoshihiko*; Imaoka, Hiroshi*; Yoshikawa, Kohei*; Maari, Yasutaka*; Iguchi, Masahide; Sakurai, Takeru; Nakahira, Masataka; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo

Proceedings of 19th International Forgemasters Meeting (IFM 2014), p.254 - 259, 2014/09

ITER is a large-scale experiment that aims to demonstrate that it is possible to produce commercial energy from fusion. ITER Toroidal Field Coil Case (hereinafter referred to as "ITER TFCC") is one of the important components of ITER. The ITER TFCC materials are made of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel and having various configurations. The ITER TFCC material which manufactured by JCFC has a complex configuration with heaver thickness than other materials. It is difficult to form near net shape to delivery configuration by ordinary open die forging method such as upset and stretching, because the ITER TFCC materials manufactured by JCFC have a complex configuration. Therefore ingot weight and lead time of machining increase when ITER TFCC materials are forged by ordinary open die forging method. Moreover, in order to get good attenuation at Ultrasonic examination, it is necessarily to make fine and uniform grain of the material. However, it is impossible to control grain size of austenitic stainless steel by heat treatment. The grain becomes fine and uniform by only forging process with suitable condition. Therefore, JCFC has studied suitable forging method to become near net shape to delivery configuration and also to get fine grain of center of the material. Based on these result, ITER TFCC materials were manufactured. This innovative forging process led to reduce the weight of ingot compared with general forging. And it had good Ultrasonic attenuation. It was confirmed that the results of material test and nondestructive examination satisfied the requirements of Japan domestic agency (hereinafter referred to as "JADA"). Moreover, the test coupons were taken from center of thick part of product and used for various tests. As the result of tests, it was confirmed that results of material test satisfied the requirements of JADA. It is clear that this innovative forging method is very suitable process for manufacturing of ITER TFCC materials.

Journal Articles

Decontamination of school facilities in Fukushima-city

Yoshikawa, Hideki; Iijima, Kazuki; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Kenso; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Kitamura, Akira; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Yui, Mikazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.1518, p.269 - 275, 2013/10

Following the release of radionuclides into the environment as a result of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) had to develop an immediate and effective method of reducing the dose rate received by students in school facilities. A demonstration of a reducing method was carried out by JAEA at a junior high school ground and kindergarten yard in the center of Fukushima-city. Dose rates of the released radionuclides are largely controlled by the ground level contamination and accumulation of mainly cesium-137 ($$^{137}$$Cs) and cesium-134 ($$^{134}$$Cs) in populated areas. An effective means of reducing dose rate was to remove the surface soil and to bury it on-site under fresh uncontaminated soil or soil collected under deep depth at the site for shielding. The dose rate at1 m above ground level was reduced from 2.5 $$mu$$Sv/h to 0.15 $$mu$$Sv/h.

Journal Articles

Nishiyama reservoir; Lead sources, inventory, and the influence of the Nagasaki atomic bomb

Katahira, Kenshi*; Moriwaki, Hiroshi*; Ishitake, Miho*; Kokubu, Yoko; Yamazaki, Hideo*; Yoshikawa, Shusaku*

Soil and Sediment Contamination, 22(8), p.1003 - 1012, 2013/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:3.47(Environmental Sciences)

The objective of this study was to reveal historical changes in environmental pollution, including the influence of the Nagasaki atomic bomb, based on heavy metal concentrations in sediment core samples. Lead isotope ratios were used to determine the sources of Pb. A sediment core was sampled from a reservoir about 3 km east of the hypocenter of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. It was reported in a previous study that this sediment core contained high activities of $$^{239+240}$$Pu and $$^{137}$$Cs at the 1945 layer as a result of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. Concentrations of heavy metals and the Pb isotope ratios in sediments were measured using ICP-MS. The results show a spiked peak in the Pb concentrations in the same layer as that of the $$^{239+240}$$Pu and $$^{137}$$Cs. It is thought that the spiked peak is due to the loading of Pb by the Nagasaki atomic bombing, and this is supported by further results showing that the Pb isotope ratios in this layer were different from those in other layers.

Journal Articles

Prevention of powder adhesion on substrate using nanoparticle coating

Suzuki, Michitaka*; Yoshikawa, Mao*; Iimura, Kenji*; Satone, Hiroshi*; Ishii, Katsunori

Funtai Kogakkai-Shi, 50(6), p.405 - 409, 2013/06

The glass substrate is coated by the silica nanoparticle suspension using dipping or spin coat method and dried in an electric oven. The glass substrate surface is covered with nanoparticle thin layer and the transparent and tiny rugged surface can be produced on a substrate. It was experimentally confirmed to prevent dust adhesion by covering the surface of the glass substrate with nanoparticle. The adhesion force between particle and substrate is measured by the centrifugal method and the relation between the adhesion force and the surface roughness is discussed from experimental and theoretical point of view. The measured and calculated results by Van der Waals force show that adhesion force decreased with the increment of the surface roughness. From the results, nanoparticle coating is very effective to prevent the dust adhesion on the substrate and the various application of nanoparticle coating can be expected.

JAEA Reports

Nuclear Facilities Management Section Mutsu Office, Aomori Research and Development Center operations report; FY 2010&2011

Nagane, Satoru; Kyoya, Masahiko; Matsuno, Satoru; Hatanaka, Koki; Tobinai, Kazuhito; Hori, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Katsumi; Yoshikawa, Seiji

JAEA-Review 2013-003, 56 Pages, 2013/05

JAEA-Review-2013-003.pdf:9.35MB

Nuclear Facilities Management Section implements the operation, maintenance and decommissioning of the first nuclear ship MUTSU and the operation and maintenance of the liquid waste facility and the solid waste facility where a small amount of nuclear fuel is used. This is the report on the operations of the Nuclear Facilities Management Section for FY 2010 and FY 2011.

JAEA Reports

Investigation on dose rate reduction at Fukushima University Junior High School and Kindergarten

Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kazuki; Zaima, Naoki; Munakata, Masahiro; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Nakayama, Shinichi

JAEA-Review 2012-045, 129 Pages, 2013/01

JAEA-Review-2012-045.pdf:15.94MB

This report shows the records of JAEA's investigation on dose rate reduction at the Fukushima University Junior High School and Kindergarten. The main outcomes are as follows. (1) ${it In-situ}$ experiments were performed to investigate intrusion depth of radiocesium in the soil. Based on the experiment, we proposed a countermeasure to reduce air dose rates. (2) The action we proposed allowed dose rate reduction to about one tenth to one twentieth at playgrounds. (3) Follow-up monitoring was performed after one year, and shows no obvious evidence of recontamination at the playgrounds. (4) Decontamination of a tree was tested. Radiocesium was accumulated around the root. By removing the soil, the air dose rate at about one-meter distance from the tree was decreased.

Journal Articles

Irradiation history of Itokawa regolith material deduced from noble gases in the Hayabusa samples

Nagao, Keisuke*; Okazaki, Ryuji*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Miura, Yayoi*; Osawa, Takahito; Bajo, Kenichi*; Matsuda, Shintaro*; Ebihara, Mitsuru*; Ireland, T.*; Kitajima, Fumio*; et al.

Science, 333(6046), p.1128 - 1131, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:118 Percentile:95.65(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

A steroid surface materials record regolith processes and a history of cosmic-ray irradiation. Noble gas isotopes in three rocky grains from Itokawa have been determined. High concentrations of solar He, Ne, and Ar, as high as those in lunar soils, are released at variable temperatures from each sample. The isotopic compositions are essentially identical to those of solar wind but distinguishable in He relative abundance. These noble gas characteristics can be explained by repeated implantation and preferential loss of solar He by removal of weathered He-rich rim on the grain surface through friction among regolith grains on Itokawa. Residence time of regolith materials on Itokawa is alculated to be shorter than 10 Myr, suggesting that regolith materials of small asteroids would escape easily to space.

JAEA Reports

Nuclear Facilities Management Section Mutsu Office, Aomori Research and Development Center operations report; FY 2009

Nagane, Satoru; Matsuno, Satoru; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tobinai, Kazuhito; Hori, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Katsumi; Yoshikawa, Seiji

JAEA-Review 2011-001, 49 Pages, 2011/03

JAEA-Review-2011-001.pdf:2.3MB

Nuclear Facilities Management Section is liquid nuclear waste facility, a small nuclear fuel treatment facility, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of the nuclear ship "MUTSU", which carried out the operation and maintenance services of solid waste facilities. This paper, for the Nuclear Facilities Management Section FY2009 (April 2009 - March 2010) summarized results of operations.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Synthesis of phase I investigation 2001 - 2005, Volume "Geological disposal research"

Fujita, Tomo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Matsui, Hiroya; Tanai, Kenji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; et al.

JAEA-Research 2011-001, 193 Pages, 2011/03

JAEA-Research-2011-001.pdf:5.23MB

This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project, of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the surface-based investigations in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project as an example of actual geological environment.

Journal Articles

Investigation of nano porous SiC based fibers synthesized by precursor method

Kita, Kenichiro; Narisawa, Masaki*; Nakahira, Atsushi*; Mabuchi, Hiroshi*; Ito, Masayoshi*; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masahito

Advances in Polymer Derived Ceramics and Composites; Ceramic Transactions, Vol.213, p.45 - 50, 2010/06

Journal Articles

Overview of the R&D activities of water cooled ceramic breeder blanket

Enoeda, Mikio; Hirose, Takanori; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Tsuru, Daigo; Yoshikawa, Akira; Seki, Yohji; Nishi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi

Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-18) (CD-ROM), p.645 - 649, 2010/05

This paper overviews the research and development activity of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Blanket in Japan. Japan is performing development of WCCB Blanket as the primary candidate of the breeding blanket for the fusion DEMO reactor. Regarding the development of blanket module fabrication technology, a real scale First Wall (FW) was fabricated using Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel (RAFMS) F82H. Using fabricated FW mockup, thermo-hydraulic performance and high heat flux tests were successfully performed with the heat flux equivalent to ITER TBM condition, 0.5 MW/m$$^{2}$$, 80 cycles with the coolant condition as DEMO, 15 MPa 300 $$^{circ}$$C. Also, real scale Side Wall (SW) and real scale breeder pebble bed structure have been successfully fabricated. Furthermore, assembling of the real scale FW plate mockup and SW plate mockup was successfully performed. Development of major key technologies for the WCCB TBM structure fabrication has been almost completed.

Journal Articles

Synthesis and properties of ceramic fibers from polycarbosilane/polymethylphenylsiloxane polymer blends

Kita, Kenichiro; Narisawa, Masaki*; Nakahira, Atsushi*; Mabuchi, Hiroshi*; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masahito

Journal of Materials Science, 45(13), p.3397 - 3404, 2010/04

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:34.55(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We synthesized ceramic fibers based on silicon carbide (SiC) from polymer blends of polycarbosilane (PCS) and polymethylphenylsiloxane (PMPhS). PMPhS was compatible with PCS up to 30 mass%. The polymer blend was formed a transparent melt at temperatures higher than 513 K and the softening point was also lowered by adding PMPhS. 15 mass% of PMPhS to PCS was the most suitable condition for obtaining thin fibers with an average diameter of 14.4 $$mu$$m and the ceramic yield of the cured fiber was 85.5% after pyrolysis at 1273 K. In spite of the small diameter, the resulting tensile strength at 1273 K was rather limited at 0.78 GPa. After high temperature pyrolysis at 1673$$sim$$1773 K, a porous nanocrystalline SiC fiber with a unique microstructure was obtained with surface area of 70$$sim$$150 m$$^{2}$$/g.

JAEA Reports

Characteristics of water flow distribution in TBM side wall

Yoshikawa, Akira; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Seki, Yohji; Hirose, Takanori; Tsuru, Daigo; Ezato, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Kenji; Nishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2009-077, 23 Pages, 2010/03

JAEA-Technology-2009-077.pdf:2.62MB

In the side wall of TBM, parallel flow channels are considered. In the cooling channels structure, the flow distribution probably arises from the pressure drop in the channels. The purpose of this study is to clarify the water flow distribution in the side wall and design the cooling channels structure so that structural material of the side wall can be kept under the allowable temperature. The structural material for assumed flow rates and the flow distribution were estimated, and then the cooling channels structure was designed. The design was verified using the mockup made of the vinyl chloride pipe. For the verified design, the mockup made of F82H is manufactured, and the water flow distribution and the pressure drop were measured. It was found that the heat removal capability was sufficient in this design. From these results, the design for the cooling channels structure in the side wall is established so that enough water flow to cool the structural material is kept.

Journal Articles

Tuning of MEBT-Chopper by using wire scanner monitor

Sato, Susumu; Miura, Akihiko; Igarashi, Zenei*; Ikegami, Masanori*; Ueno, Akira; Sako, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takatoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

Proceedings of 6th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (CD-ROM), p.298 - 300, 2010/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Design of beam diagnostic systems for energy upgraded linac

Miura, Akihiko; Sato, Susumu; Sako, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Igarashi, Zenei*; Ikegami, Masanori*

Proceedings of 6th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (CD-ROM), p.733 - 735, 2010/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

High-temperature pyrolysis of ceramic fibers derived from polycarbosilane-polymethylhydrosiloxane polymer blends with porous structures

Kita, Kenichiro; Narisawa, Masaki*; Nakahira, Atsushi*; Mabuchi, Hiroshi*; Ito, Masayoshi*; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masahito

Journal of Materials Science, 45(1), p.139 - 145, 2010/01

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:31.88(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The polymer blends of polycarbosilane (PCS) and polymethylohydrosiloxane with high molecular weight (PMHS-h) were prepared by freeze-drying process. Melt viscosity, themogravimetric analysis, and gas evolution from the polymer blends were analyzed. The polymer blend of HSah15 (15 mass% PMHS-h to PCS) was melt-spun to fiber form, curing by thermal oxidation and pyrolyzed at various temperatures up to 1773 K. The fibers were investigated by tensile tests, FE-SEM observation, and XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis. After pyrolysis at 1273 K, there were amounts of pores in the cross sections of the fiber derived from HSah15, and after pyrolysis at 1773 K, no remarkable $$beta$$-SiC crystal were formed on the outside surface of the fiber derived from HSah15.

Journal Articles

Formation of continuous pore structures in Si-C-O fibers by adjusting the melt spinning condition of a polycarbosilane - polysiloxane polymer blend

Kita, Kenichiro; Narisawa, Masaki*; Mabuchi, Hiroshi*; Ito, Masayoshi*; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masahito

Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 92(6), p.1192 - 1197, 2009/06

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:55.5(Materials Science, Ceramics)

124 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)