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A Predicted CRISPR-mediated symbiosis between uncultivated archaea

Esser, S. P.*; Rahlff, J.*; Zhao, W.*; Predl, M.*; Plewka, J.*; Sures, K.*; Wimmer, F.*; Lee, J.*; Adam, P. S.*; McGonigle, J.*; et al.

Nature Microbiology (Internet), 8(9), p.1619 - 1633, 2023/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:79.8

CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotic cells from viruses, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Capitalizing on multi-omics approaches, we show here that the CRISPR-Cas systems of uncultivated archaea also play an integral role in mitigating potentially detrimental interactions with episymbionts. A comprehensive analysis of CRISPR-Cas-based infection histories revealed that uncultivated deep-subsurface archaeal primary-producers defend themselves from archaeal episymbionts of the DPANN superphylum of archaea, some of which are known to fuse their membranes with their host. We show that host cells counter these attacks by deploying one of two CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-B and type III-A) to target and disrupt essential genes in the episymbiont. However, genome-scale modeling of metabolic interactions between two deep subsurface host-symbiont systems revealed that host cells also benefit from the symbionts via metabolic complementation. We speculate that populations of these uncultivated archaeal episymbionts are currently transitioning from a parasitic lifestyle to one of mutualism, as must have occurred in countless mutualistic systems known today. By expanding our analysis to thousands of archaeal genomes, we conclude that CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance to archaeal episymbiosis evolved independently in various archaeal lineages and may be a wide-spread evolutionary phenomenon.


Field-tuned quantum renormalization of spin dynamics in the honeycomb lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet YbCl$$_3$$

Sala, G.*; Stone, M. B.*; Hal$'a$sz, G. B.*; Lumsden, M. D.*; Fay, A, F,*; Pajerowski, D. M.*; 河村 聖子; 金子 耕士; Mazzone, D. G.*; Simutis, G.*; et al.

Communications Physics (Internet), 6, p.234_1 - 234_7, 2023/08

We demonstrate and elucidate quantum effects on the honeycomb lattice through comprehensive inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the prototype honeycomb lattice quantum magnet YbCl$$_{3}$$ as a function of applied magnetic field. Examining the spectrum above the saturation field where linear spin-wave theory is essentially exact, we accurately determine the dominant nearest-neighbor Heisenberg interaction. Below the saturation field, we reveal a field-dependent energy renormalization of the entire magnetic spectrum; the sharp spin-wave modes as well as the multimagnon continuum. This renormalization is a quantum effect that can be accurately captured by the first 1=S correction in nonlinear spin-wave theory. Furthermore, we find that the application of a magnetic field induces a qualitatively new sharp feature inside the multimagnon continuum; the lower edge of a specific two-magnon component; which is complementary to the previously observed Van Hove singularity and demonstrates that structures within the multimagnon continuum can occur over a wide experimental parameter space and can be used as an additional means of identifying quantum phenomena.


Level structures of $$^{56,58}$$Ca cast doubt on a doubly magic $$^{60}$$Ca

Chen, S.*; Browne, F.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Lee, J.*; Obertelli, A.*; 角田 佑介*; 大塚 孝治*; 茶園 亮樹*; Hagen, G.*; Holt, J. D.*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 843, p.138025_1 - 138025_7, 2023/08

$$^{57,59}$$Scからの1陽子ノックアウト反応を用いて、$$^{56}$$Caと$$^{58}$$Caのガンマ崩壊を観測した。$$^{56}$$Caでは1456(12)keVの$$gamma$$線遷移が、$$^{58}$$Caでは1115(34)keVの遷移が観測された。どちらの遷移も暫定的に$$2^{+}_{1} rightarrow 0^{+}_{gs}$$と割り当てられた。有効核子間相互作用をわずかに修正した広い模型空間での殻模型計算では、$$2^{+}_{1}$$準位エネルギー、2中性子分離エネルギー、反応断面積が実験とよく一致し、N=34閉殻の上に新しい殻が形成されていることを裏付けた。その構成要素である$$0_{f5/2}$$$$0_{g9/2}$$軌道はほぼ縮退しており、これは$$^{60}$$Caが二重魔法核である可能性を排除し、Ca同位体のドリップラインを$$^{70}$$Caあるいはそれ以上にまで広げる可能性がある。


"Southwestern" boundary of the $$N = 40$$ island of inversion; First study of low-lying bound excited states in $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V

Elekes, Z.*; Juh$'a$sz, M. M.*; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; 吉田 数貴; 緒方 一介*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064321_1 - 064321_10, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

$$^{59}$$Vと$$^{61}$$Vの低励起準位構造を初めて探索した。$$^{61}$$Vについては中性子ノックアウト反応と陽子非弾性散乱が、$$^{59}$$Vについては中性子ノックアウト反応データが得られた。$$^{59}$$Vについては4つ、$$^{61}$$Vについては5つの新たな遷移が確認された。Lenzi-Nowacki-Poves-Sieja (LNPS)相互作用に基づく殻模型計算との比較によって、それぞれの同位体について確認されたガンマ線のうち3つが、first 11/2$$^{-}$$状態とfirst 9/2$$^{-}$$状態からの崩壊と決定された。$$^{61}$$Vについては、($$p$$,$$p'$$)非弾性散乱断面積は四重極変形と十六重極変形を想定したチャネル結合法により解析されたが、十六重極変形の影響により、明確に反転の島に属するとは決定できなかった。


$$beta^-$$ decay of exotic P and S isotopes with neutron number near 28

Tripathi, V.*; Bhattacharya, S.*; Rubino, E.*; Benetti, C.*; Perello, J. F.*; Tabor, S. L.*; Liddick, S. N.*; Bender, P. C.*; Carpenter, M. P.*; Carroll, J. J.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064314_1 - 064314_14, 2022/12

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:44(Physics, Nuclear)



Extended $$p_{3/2}$$ neutron orbital and the $$N = 32$$ shell closure in $$^{52}$$Ca

Enciu, M.*; Liu, H. N.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Nowacki, F.*; 緒方 一介*; Poves, A.*; 吉田 数貴; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 129(26), p.262501_1 - 262501_7, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Laser stripping for 1.3 GeV H$$^{-}$$ beam at the SNS

Gorlov, T.*; Aleksandrov, A.*; Cousineau, S.*; Liu, Y.*; Oguz, A. R.*; Kay, M.*; Saha, P. K.

Proceedings of the 2022 North American Particle Accelerator Conference (NAPAC 2022) (Internet), p.702 - 704, 2022/08

The conventional method of H$$^{-}$$ charge-exchange injection by using a solid stripper foil has serious drawbacks such as, a short foil lifetime, unexpected failure and moreover a high residual radiation due to uncontrolled foil scattering beam losses at high-intensity operation. To overcome all those issues, an H$$^{-}$$ stripping by using only lasers or by laser assisted are being extensively studied at J-PARC and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, USA, respectively. However, a reduction of the laser power to realize the laser stripping is a common issue at both labs. In this research, different schemes and methods of laser stripping, especially for an effective excitation of the ground state hydrogen atom are considered. Among all methods the most realistic and practical scheme seems to be the sequential excitation scheme by using two types of laser. In this case, a laser power can be reduced to 1/25 as compared to a single step excitation. Due to a lower H$$^{-}$$ energy, a deep UV laser is used at J-PARC. Such a reduction of the laser power is further useful for a realistic implementation.


Transport model comparison studies of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

Walter, H.*; Colonna, M.*; Cozma, D.*; Danielewicz, P.*; Ko, C. M.*; Kumar, R.*; 小野 章*; Tsang, M. Y. B*; Xu, J.*; Zhang, Y.-X.*; et al.

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 125, p.103962_1 - 103962_90, 2022/07

 被引用回数:32 パーセンタイル:96.94(Physics, Nuclear)

原子核-原子核衝突や原子核の状態方程式の研究において、反応計算モデルは重要なツールとなり、世界中で開発が進んでいる。本論文は、原子力機構のJQMD-2.0を含め、現在開発中の複数のコード開発者の協力により、これらコードを同じ条件で比較することで共通点や差異を明らかにしたプロジェクトTransport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP)を総括したものである。参加したコードはBoltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck(BUU)法に基づく13のコードと、Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD)法に基づく12のコードであった。プロジェクトでは、Au原子核同士を衝突させてその終状態を観測する現実的な計算や、一辺が640nmの箱に核子を詰めて時間発展させる仮想的な計算を行った。その結果、BUU法コードとQMD法コードは計算原理が異なるため、計算の設定に関係なく系統的な差異が生じることが明らかになった。その一方で、同じ方法を採用するコード間の比較では、時間発展を細かく計算することでコード間の差は埋まっていき、一定の収束値を持つことが示された。この結果は今後開発される同分野のコードのベンチマークデータとして有用なものであるだけでなく、原子核基礎物理学の実験や理論研究の標準的な指針としても役に立つことが期待される。


Status of the uncertainty quantification for severe accident sequences of different NPP-designs in the frame of the H-2020 project MUSA

Brumm, S.*; Gabrielli, F.*; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.*; Groudev, P.*; Ou, P.*; Zhang, W.*; Malkhasyan, A.*; Bocanegra, R.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Berda$"i$, M.*; et al.

Proceedings of 10th European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research (ERMSAR 2022) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/05

The current HORIZON-2020 project on "Management and Uncertainties of Severe Accidents (MUSA)" aims at applying Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in the modeling of Severe Accidents (SA), particularly in predicting the radiological source term of mitigated and unmitigated accident scenarios. Within its application part, the project is devoted to the uncertainty quantification of different severe accident codes when predicting the radiological source term of selected severe accident sequences of different nuclear power plant designs, e.g. PWR, VVER, and BWR. Key steps for this investigation are, (a) the selection of severe accident sequences for each reactor design, (b) the development of a reference input model for the specific design and SA-code, (c) the selection of a list of uncertain model parameters to be investigated, (d) the choice of an UQ-tool e.g. DAKOTA, SUSA, URANIE, etc., (e) the definition of the figures of merit for the UA-analysis, (f) the performance of the simulations with the SA-codes, and, (g) the statistical evaluation of the results using the capabilities, i.e. methods and tools offered by the UQ-tools. This paper describes the project status of the UQ of different SA codes for the selected SA sequences, and the technical challenges and lessons learnt from the preparatory and exploratory investigations performed.


$$Q$$-dependent collective relaxation dynamics of glass-forming liquid Ca$$_{0.4}$$K$$_{0.6}$$(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{1.4}$$ investigated by wide-angle neutron spin-echo

Luo, P.*; Zhai, Y.*; Falus, P.*; Garc$'i$a Sakai, V.*; Hartl, M.*; 古府 麻衣子; 中島 健次; Faraone, A.*; Z, Y.*

Nature Communications (Internet), 13, p.2092_1 - 2092_9, 2022/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:38.97(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The relaxation behavior of glass formers exhibits spatial heterogeneity and dramatically changes upon cooling towards the glass transition. However, the underlying mechanisms of the dynamics at different microscopic length scales are not fully understood. We measured the $$Q$$-dependent coherent intermediate scattering function of a prototypical ionic glass former Ca$$_{0.4}$$K$$_{0.6}$$(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{1.4}$$, in the highly viscous liquid state. In contrast to the structure modulated dynamics for $$Q$$ $$<$$ 2.4 $AA$^{-1}$$, i.e., at and below the structure factor main peak, for $$Q$$ $$>$$ 2.4 $AA$^{-1}$$, beyond the first minimum above the structure factor main peak, the stretching exponent exhibits no temperature dependence and concomitantly the relaxation time shows smaller deviations from Arrhenius behavior. This finding indicates a change in the dominant relaxation mechanisms around a characteristic length of 2.6 AA, below which the relaxation process exhibits a temperature independent distribution and more Arrhenius-like behavior.


A First glimpse at the shell structure beyond $$^{54}$$Ca; Spectroscopy of $$^{55}$$K, $$^{55}$$Ca, and $$^{57}$$Ca

小岩井 拓真*; Wimmer, K.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Barbieri, C.*; Duguet, T.*; Holt, J. D.*; 宮城 宇志*; Navr$'a$til, P.*; 緒方 一介*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 827, p.136953_1 - 136953_7, 2022/04

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:66.35(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

中性子過剰核$$^{54}$$Caでは、新魔法数34が発見されて以来、その構造を知るために多くの実験がなされてきたが、それを超える中性子過剰核の情報は全く知られてこなかった。本論文では、理化学研究所RIBFにて$$^{55}$$K, $$^{55}$$Ca, $$^{57}$$Caの励起状態から脱励起するガンマ線を初めて観測した結果を報告した。それぞれ1つのガンマ線しか得られなかったものの、$$^{55}$$Kおよび$$^{55}$$Caのデータは、それぞれ、陽子の$$d_{3/2}$$$$s_{1/2}$$軌道間のエネルギー差、中性子の$$p_{1/2}$$$$f_{5/2}$$軌道間のエネルギー差を敏感に反映し、両方とも最新の殻模型計算によって200keV程度の精度で再現できることがわかった。また、1粒子状態の程度を特徴づける分光学的因子を実験データと歪曲波インパルス近似による反応計算から求め、その値も殻模型計算の値と矛盾しないことがわかった。


Overview and main outcomes of the pool scrubbing lumped-parameter code benchmark on hydrodynamic aspects in IPRESCA project

Marchetto, C.*; Ha, K. S*; Herranz, L. E.*; 廣瀬 意育; Jankowski, T.*; Lee, Y.*; Nowack, H.*; Pellegrini, M.*; Sun, X.*

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 17 Pages, 2022/03

After the Fukushima Daiichi accident of March 2011, one of the main concerns of the nuclear industry has been the research works for improving atmospheric radioactive release mitigation systems. Pool scrubbing is an important process in reactors that mitigates radioactive release. It is based on the injection of gases containing fission products through a water pool. Bubble hydrodynamics, as a result of gas injection and the associated water pool thermal-hydraulics, is an important aspect of the process since the bubble size, shape, velocity, etc. influence the fission product trapping at the bubble interface with the water. Computer codes dedicated to the pool scrubbing have been mainly developed in the 90's last century and modelling drawbacks have been identified in particular for bubble hydrodynamics. One of IPRESCA project objectives is to improve the pool scrubbing modelling. In order to highlight the main modelling issues, a benchmark exercise has been performed focusing on the bubble hydrodynamics. This benchmark, performed by nine organisations coming from six countries, aims at simulating a basic configuration, a single upward injector in ambient conditions, experimentally characterized in the RSE tests carried out in the European PASSAM project. In this paper, a short description of the code modelling and a comparison between the code results and the experimental data are presented and discussed. Then, outcomes from the benchmark result analysis and proposals of improvements are emphasized.


Modelling and simulation of the source term for a sodium cooled fast reactor under hypothetical severe accident conditions; Final report of a coordinated research project

Arokiaswamy, J. A.*; Batra, C.*; Chang, J. E.*; Garcia, M.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Klimonov, I. A.*; Kriventsev, V.*; Li, S.*; Liegeard, C.*; Mahanes, J.*; et al.

IAEA-TECDOC-2006, 380 Pages, 2022/00



MIRS: an imaging spectrometer for the MMX mission

Barucci, M. A.*; Reess, J.-M.*; Bernardi, P.*; Doressoundiram, A.*; Fornasier, S.*; Le Du, M.*; 岩田 隆浩*; 中川 広務*; 中村 智樹*; Andr$'e$, Y.*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.211_1 - 211_28, 2021/12

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:71.98(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)



Paramagnetic spin Hall magnetoresistance

大柳 洸一*; Gomez-Perez, J. M.*; Zhang, X.-P.*; 吉川 貴史*; Chen, Y.*; Sagasta, E.*; Chuvilin, A.*; Hueso, L. E.*; Golovach, V. N.*; Sebastian Bergeret, F.*; et al.

Physical Review B, 104(13), p.134428_1 - 134428_14, 2021/10

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:69.73(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We report the observation of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in a paramagnetic insulator. By measuring the transverse resistance in a Pt/Gd$$_3$$Ga$$_5$$O$$_{12}$$ (GGG) system at low temperatures, paramagnetic SMR is found to appear with an intensity that increases with the magnetic field aligning GGG's spins. The observed effect is well supported by a microscopic SMR theory, which provides the parameters governing the spin transport at the interface. Our findings clarify the mechanism of spin exchange at a Pt/GGG interface, and demonstrate tunable spin-transfer torque through the field-induced magnetization of GGG. In this regard, paramagnetic insulators offer a key property for future spintronic devices.


Investigation of the ground-state spin inversion in the neutron-rich $$^{47,49}$$Cl isotopes

Linh, B. D.*; Corsi, A.*; Gillibert, A.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Barbieri, C.*; Chen, S.*; Chung, L. X.*; Duguet, T.*; G$'o$mez-Ramos, M.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 104(4), p.044331_1 - 044331_16, 2021/10


 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:54.62(Physics, Nuclear)



Neutron capture cross sections of light neutron-rich nuclei relevant for $$r$$-process nucleosynthesis

Bhattacharyya, A.*; Datta, U.*; Rahaman, A.*; Chakraborty, S.*; Aumann, T.*; Beceiro-Novo, S.*; Boretzky, K.*; Caesar, C.*; Carlson, B. V.*; Catford, W. N.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 104(4), p.045801_1 - 045801_14, 2021/10


 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:23.07(Physics, Nuclear)



Observation of nuclear-spin Seebeck effect

吉川 貴史*; Reitz, D.*; 伊藤 宏陽*; 巻内 崇彦*; 杉本 宜陽*; 恒川 翔*; 大門 俊介*; 大柳 洸一*; Ramos, R.*; 高橋 三郎*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 12, p.4356_1 - 4356_7, 2021/07

 被引用回数:16 パーセンタイル:89.02(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Thermoelectric effects have been applied to power generators and temperature sensors that convert waste heat into electricity. The effects, however, have been limited to electrons to occur, and inevitably disappear at low temperatures due to electronic entropy quenching. Here, we report thermoelectric generation caused by nuclear spins in a solid: nuclear-spin Seebeck effect. The sample is a magnetically ordered material MnCO$$_3$$ having a large nuclear spin $$(I=5/2)$$ of $$^{55}$$Mn nuclei and strong hyperfine coupling, with a Pt contact. In the system, we observe low-temperature thermoelectric signals down to 100 mK due to nuclear-spin excitation. Our theoretical calculation in which interfacial Korringa process is taken into consideration quantitatively reproduces the results. The nuclear thermoelectric effect demonstrated here offers a way for exploring thermoelectric science and technologies at ultralow temperatures.


Pairing forces govern population of doubly magic $$^{54}$$Ca from direct reactions

Browne, F.*; Chen, S.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; 緒方 一介*; 宇都野 穣; 吉田 数貴; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; Calvet, D.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(25), p.252501_1 - 252501_7, 2021/06

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:75.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Relevance of hydrogen bonded associates to the transport properties and nanoscale dynamics of liquid and supercooled 2-propanol

Zhai, Y.*; Luo, P.*; 長尾 道弘*; 中島 健次; 菊地 龍弥*; 川北 至信; Kienzle, P. A.*; Z, Y.*; Faraone, A.*

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 23(12), p.7220 - 7232, 2021/03

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:34.26(Chemistry, Physical)

2-Propanol was investigated, in both the liquid and supercooled states, as a model system to study how hydrogen bonds affect the structural relaxation and the dynamics of mesoscale structures, of approximately several Angstroms, employing static and quasi-elastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. Dynamic neutron scattering measurements were performed over an exchanged wave-vector range encompassing the pre-peak, indicative of the presence of H-bonding associates, and the main peak. The dynamics observed at the pre-peak is associated with the formation and disaggregation of the H-bonded associates and is measured to be at least one order of magnitude slower than the dynamics at the main peak, which is identified as the structural relaxation. The measurements indicate that the macroscopic shear viscosity has a similar temperature dependence as the dynamics of the H-bonded associates, which highlights the important role played by these structures, together with the structural relaxation, in defining the macroscopic rheological properties of the system. Importantly, the characteristic relaxation time at the pre-peak follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence whereas at the main peak it exhibits a non-Arrhenius behavior on approaching the supercooled state. The origin of this differing behavior is attributed to an increased structuring of the hydrophobic domains of 2-propanol accommodating a more and more encompassing H-bond network, and a consequent set in of dynamic cooperativity.

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