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論文

Quantitative analysis of microstructure evolution, stress partitioning and thermodynamics in the dynamic transformation of Fe-14Ni alloy

Li, L.*; 宮本 吾郎*; Zhang, Y.*; Li, M.*; 諸岡 聡; 及川 勝成*; 友田 陽*; 古原 忠*

Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 184, p.221 - 234, 2024/06

Dynamic transformation (DT) of austenite ($$gamma$$) to ferrite ($$alpha$$) in the hot deformation of various carbon steels was widely investigated. However, the nature of DT remains unclear due to the lack of quantitative analysis of stress partitioning between two phases and the uncertainty of local distribution of substitutional elements at the interface in multi-component carbon steels used in the previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, a binary Fe-Ni alloy with $$alpha$$+$$gamma$$ duplex microstructure in equilibrium was prepared and isothermally compressed in $$alpha$$+$$gamma$$ two-phase region to achieve quantitative analysis of microstructure evolution, stress partitioning and thermodynamics during DT. $$gamma$$ to $$alpha$$ DT during isothermal compression and $$alpha$$ to $$gamma$$ reverse transformation on isothermal annealing under unloaded condition after deformation were accompanied by Ni partitioning. The lattice strains during thermomechanical processing were obtained via in-situ neutron diffraction measurement, based on which the stress partitioning behavior between $$gamma$$ and $$alpha$$ was discussed by using the generalized Hooke's law. A thermodynamic framework for the isothermal deformation in solids was established based on the basic laws of thermodynamics, and it was shown that the total Helmholtz free energy change in the deformable material during the isothermal process should be smaller than the work done to the deformable material. Under the present thermodynamic framework, the microstructure evolution in the isothermal compression of Fe-14Ni alloy was well explained by considering the changes in chemical free energy, plastic and elastic energies and the work done to the material. In addition, the stabilization of the soft $$alpha$$ phase in Fe-14Ni alloy by deformation was rationalized since the $$gamma$$ to $$alpha$$ transformation decreased the total Helmholtz free energy by decreasing the elastic and dislocation energies.

論文

Crystal-liquid duality driven ultralow two-channel thermal conductivity in $$alpha$$-MgAgSb

Li, J.*; Li, X.*; Zhang, Y.*; Zhu, J.*; Zhao, E.*; 古府 麻衣子; 中島 健次; Avdeev, M.*; Liu, P.-F.*; Sui, J.*; et al.

Applied Physics Reviews (Internet), 11(1), p.011406_1 - 011406_8, 2024/03

The desire for intrinsically low lattice thermal conductivity ($$kappa_L$$) in thermoelectrics motivates numerous efforts on understanding the microscopic mechanisms of heat transport in solids. Here, based on theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that $$alpha$$-MgAgSb hosts low-energy localized phonon bands and avoided crossing of the rattler modes, which coincides with the inelastic neutron scattering result. Using the two-channel lattice dynamical approach, we find, besides the conventional contribution ($$sim$$70% at 300 K) from particlelike phonons propagating, the coherence contribution dominated by the wavelike tunneling of phonons accounts for $$sim$$30% of total $$kappa_L$$ at 300 K. By considering dual contributions, our calculated room-temperature $$kappa_L$$ of 0.64 Wm$$^{-1}$$K$$^{-1}$$ well agrees with the experimental value of 0.63 Wm$$^{-1}$$K$$^{-1}$$. More importantly, our computations give a nonstandard $$kappa_L propto T^{-0.61}$$ dependence, perfectly explaining the abnormal temperature-trend of $$sim T^{-0.57}$$ in experiment for $$alpha$$-MgAgSb. By molecular dynamics simulation, we reveal that the structure simultaneously has soft crystalline sublattices with the metavalent bonding and fluctuating liquid-like sublattices with thermally induced large amplitude vibrations. These diverse forms of chemical bonding arouse mixed part-crystal part-liquid state, scatter strongly heat-carrying phonons, and finally produce extremely low $$kappa_L$$. The fundamental research from this study will accelerate the design of ultralow-$$kappa_L$$ materials for energy-conversion applications.

論文

The BCC $$rightarrow$$ FCC hierarchical martensite transformation under dynamic impact in FeMnAlNiTi alloy

Li, C.*; Fang, W.*; Yu, H. Y.*; Peng, T.*; Yao, Z. T.*; Liu, W. G.*; Zhang, X.*; 徐 平光; Yin, F.*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 892, p.146096_1 - 146096_11, 2024/02

The quasi-static superelastic responses and hierarchical martensite transformation from body-centered cubic (BCC) to face-centered cubic (FCC) under dynamic impact in Fe$$_{42}$$Mn$$_{34}$$Al$$_{15}$$Ni$$_{7.5}$$Ti$$_{1.5}$$ alloys were investigated. Polycrystalline and oligocrystalline alloys were produced through solution heat treatment and cyclic heat treatment processes, respectively. The results show the volume fraction of residual martensite for oligocrystalline alloys is lower, which exhibits better superelastic responses compared with polycrystalline alloys. Dynamic impact tests indicate that, despite the weakening of the grain boundary strengthening effect, the ultimate strength of the oligocrystalline alloys closely matches that of the polycrystalline alloys under dynamic impact. The martensite transformation of the FeMnAlNiTi alloy is characterized as hierarchical under dynamic impact, and increasing strain rates and grain sizes can enhance the BCC $$rightarrow$$ FCC martensite transformation, resulting in higher martensite phase fractions for oligocrystalline alloys. The increase in ultimate strength is attributed to the dynamic Hall-Petch effect introduced by more martensite phase interfaces under dynamic impact.

論文

Probing deformation behavior of a refractory high-entropy alloy using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction

Zhou, Y.*; Song, W.*; Zhang, F.*; Wu, Y.*; Lei, Z.*; Jiao, M.*; Zhang, X.*; Dong, J.*; Zhang, Y.*; Yang, M.*; et al.

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 971, p.172635_1 - 172635_7, 2024/01

The grain orientation-dependent lattice strain evolution of a (TiZrHfNb)$$_{98}$$$$N_2$$ refractory high-entropy alloy (HEA) during tensile loading has been investigated using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction. The equivalent strain-hardening rate of each of the primary $$<hkl>$$-oriented grain families was found to be relatively low, manifesting the macroscopically weak work-hardening ability of such a body-centered cubic (BCC)-structured HEA. This finding is indicative of a dislocation planar slip mode that is confined in a few single-slip planes and leads to in-plane softening by high pile-up stresses.

論文

Principal preferred orientation evaluation of steel materials using time-of-flight neutron diffraction

徐 平光; Zhang, S.-Y.*; Harjo, S.; Vogel, S. C.*; 友田 陽*

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 8(1), p.7_1 - 7_13, 2024/01

Comprehensive information about the ${it in situ}$ microstructure and crystal structure evolution during the preparation/production processes of various materials is in great demand in order to precisely control the microstructure morphology and the preferred orientation characteristics for the excellent strength-ductility-toughness balance of advanced engineering materials. ${it In situ}$ isothermal annealing experiments of cold rolled 17Ni-0.2C (mass %) martensitic steel sheets were carried out by using the TAKUMI and ENGIN-X time-of-flight neutron diffractometers, respectively. The inverse pole figures based on full-profile refinement were extracted to roughly evaluate the preferred orientation features along three principal sample directions of investigated steel sheets using the General Structure Analysis System (GSAS) software with built-in generalized spherical harmonic functions. The consistent rolling direction (RD) inverse pole figures from TAKUMI and ENGIN-X have confirmed that the time-of-flight neutron diffraction has high repeatability and statistical reliability, revealing that the principal preferred orientation evaluation of steel materials is available through 90$$^{circ}$$ TD $$rightarrow$$ ND (transverse direction $$rightarrow$$ normal direction) rotation of the investigated specimen on the sample stage during two neutron diffraction experiments. Moreover, these RD, TD and ND inverse pole figures before and after in situ experiments were compared with the corresponding inverse pole figures recalculated respectively from the MUSASI-L complete pole figure measurement and the HIPPO in situ microstructure evaluation. The similar orientation distribution characteristics suggested that the principal preferred orientation evaluation method can be applied to in situ microstructure evolution of bulk orthorhombic materials and spatially resolved principal preferred orientation mappings of large engineering structure parts.

論文

Tetrahedral triple-Q magnetic ordering and large spontaneous Hall conductivity in the metallic triangular antiferromagnet Co$$_{1/3}$$TaS$$_{2}$$

Park, P.*; Cho, W.*; Kim, C.*; An, Y.*; Kang, Y.-G.*; Avdeev, M.*; Sibille, R.*; 飯田 一樹*; 梶本 亮一; Lee, K. H.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 14, p.8346_1 - 8346_9, 2023/12

The triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF) has been the standard paradigm of frustrated magnetism for several decades. The most common magnetic ordering in insulating TLAFs is the 120$$^{circ}$$ structure. However, a new triple-$$mathbf{Q}$$ chiral ordering can emerge in metallic TLAFs, representing the short wavelength limit of magnetic skyrmion crystals. We report the metallic TLAF Co$$_{1/3}$$TaS$$_{2}$$ as the first example of tetrahedral triple-$$mathbf{Q}$$ magnetic ordering with the associated topological Hall effect (non-zero $$sigma_{xy}(mathbf{H}=0)$$). We also present a theoretical framework that describes the emergence of this magnetic ground state, which is further supported by the electronic structure measured by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Additionally, our measurements of the inelastic neutron scattering cross section are consistent with the calculated dynamical structure factor of the tetrahedral triple-$$mathbf{Q}$$ state.

論文

Direct observation of topological magnon polarons in a multiferroic material

Bao, S.*; Gu, Z.-L.*; Shangguan, Y.*; Huang, Z.*; Liao, J.*; Zhao, X.*; Zhang, B.*; Dong, Z.-Y.*; Wang, W.*; 梶本 亮一; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 14, p.6093_1 - 6093_9, 2023/09

Magnon polarons are novel elementary excitations possessing hybrid magnonic and phononic signatures, and are responsible for many exotic spintronic and magnonic phenomena. Despite long-term sustained experimental efforts in chasing for magnon polarons, direct spectroscopic evidence of their existence is hardly observed. Here, we report the direct observation of magnon polarons using neutron spectroscopy on a multiferroic Fe$$_{2}$$Mo$$_{3}$$O$$_{8}$$ possessing strong magnon-phonon coupling. Specifically, below the magnetic ordering temperature, a gap opens at the nominal intersection of the original magnon and phonon bands, leading to two separated magnon-polaron bands. Each of the bands undergoes mixing, interconverting and reversing between its magnonic and phononic components. We attribute the formation of magnon polarons to the strong magnon-phonon coupling induced by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Intriguingly, we find that the band-inverted magnon polarons are topologically nontrivial. These results uncover exotic elementary excitations arising from the magnon-phonon coupling, and offer a new route to topological states by considering hybridizations between different types of fundamental excitations.

論文

A Predicted CRISPR-mediated symbiosis between uncultivated archaea

Esser, S. P.*; Rahlff, J.*; Zhao, W.*; Predl, M.*; Plewka, J.*; Sures, K.*; Wimmer, F.*; Lee, J.*; Adam, P. S.*; McGonigle, J.*; et al.

Nature Microbiology (Internet), 8(9), p.1619 - 1633, 2023/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:68.07

CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotic cells from viruses, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Capitalizing on multi-omics approaches, we show here that the CRISPR-Cas systems of uncultivated archaea also play an integral role in mitigating potentially detrimental interactions with episymbionts. A comprehensive analysis of CRISPR-Cas-based infection histories revealed that uncultivated deep-subsurface archaeal primary-producers defend themselves from archaeal episymbionts of the DPANN superphylum of archaea, some of which are known to fuse their membranes with their host. We show that host cells counter these attacks by deploying one of two CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-B and type III-A) to target and disrupt essential genes in the episymbiont. However, genome-scale modeling of metabolic interactions between two deep subsurface host-symbiont systems revealed that host cells also benefit from the symbionts via metabolic complementation. We speculate that populations of these uncultivated archaeal episymbionts are currently transitioning from a parasitic lifestyle to one of mutualism, as must have occurred in countless mutualistic systems known today. By expanding our analysis to thousands of archaeal genomes, we conclude that CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance to archaeal episymbiosis evolved independently in various archaeal lineages and may be a wide-spread evolutionary phenomenon.

論文

${it In situ}$ neutron diffraction study on the deformation behavior of the plastic inorganic semiconductor Ag$$_{2}$$S

Wang, Y.*; Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Zhang, K.*; Zhang, Z. D.*; Li, B.*

Applied Physics Letters, 123(1), p.011903_1 - 011903_6, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0

Bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S is a plastic inorganic semiconductor at room temperature. It exhibits a compressive strain greater than 50%, which is highly different from brittle conventional counterparts, such as silicon. Here, we present the experimental investigation of the deformation behavior in a plastic inorganic semiconductor Ag$$_{2}$$S using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction during compressive deformation at room and elevated temperatures. At room temperature, the lattice strain partitioning among $$hkl$$-orientated grain families could be responsible for the significant work-hardening behavior in the bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S with a monoclinic structure. The rapid accumulation of lattice defects and remarkable development of the deformation texture suggest that dislocation slip promotes plasticity. At 453 K, a monoclinic phase transforms into a body-centered cubic phase. A stress plateau appears at $$sim$$-4.8 MPa, followed by a rehardening state. The deformation mode of bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S at the initial stage is likely attributable to the migration of silver ions, and as strain increases, it is closer to that of room temperature, leading to rehardening.

論文

Pressure engineering of van der Waals compound RhI$$_3$$; Bandgap narrowing, metallization, and remarkable enhancement of photoelectric activity

Fang, Y.*; Kong, L.*; Wang, R.*; Zhang, Z.*; Li, Z.*; Wu, Y.*; Bu, K.*; Liu, X.*; Yan, S.*; 服部 高典; et al.

Materials Today Physics (Internet), 34, p.101083_1 - 101083_7, 2023/05

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

層状ファンデルワールスハライドは、外部圧力に対して特に敏感であるため、目的とする性質を持つ構造にチューンすることが可能となる。一方で、圧力に非常に敏感であるという特性は、同時に目的とする機能の実現に有害な相転移や格子歪みを引き起こす可能性があるためその操作は依然として困難である。この研究では、層状RhI$$_3$$結晶が持つ極めて弱い層間結合と高い機能可変性を観察した。5GPaという適度な圧力をかけると圧力誘起相転移が起こり、積層構造に変化が現れた。驚くべきことに、この相転移は、圧力に対してほぼ直線的なバンドギャップ減少という傾向に影響を与えなかった。また、より高い圧力では、1.3eVの赤方偏移というかなり大きな調整幅を伴う金属相が観測された。さらに、RhI$$_3$$のキャリア濃度は30GPaで4桁増加し、光電流は7.8GPaで5桁増加することが確認された。これらの結果は、ファンデルワールスハライドの層状構造という特異な特徴を生かした探索、調整、理解のための新たな機会を創出し、原子レベルの薄さを持つマテリアルバイデザインに基づく将来のデバイスとして有望である。

論文

A Large-scale particle-based simulation of heat and mass transfer behavior in EAGLE ID1 in-pile test

Zhang, T.*; Yao, Y.*; 守田 幸路*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; 今泉 悠也; 神山 健司

Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2023/05

The in-pile EAGLE ID1 test was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency to demonstrate the effectiveness of the fuel assembly with an internal duct structure during a core disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. In this study, a new computational fluid dynamics code based on the fully Lagrangian particle method was developed for the purpose of clarifying the failure mechanism of the inner duct wall of FAIDUS. The three-dimensional simulation of the ID1 test was performed to analyze a series of thermal hydraulic behaviors leading up to duct wall failure for a computational domain that included six fuel pins. The simulations reasonably reproduced the heat transfer characteristics observed in the test, showing that the local contact of liquid steel with high thermal conductivity with the duct wall greatly enhances the heat transfer from the nuclear heating fuel to the duct wall. The results support the validity of the conclusions of our analytical study regarding the molten pool-to-duct wall heat transfer mechanism that caused the thermal failure of the duct wall.

論文

Elastic properties of nuclear pasta in a fully three-dimensional geometry

Xia, C.-J.*; 丸山 敏毅; 安武 伸俊*; 巽 敏隆*; Zhang, Y.-X.*

Physics Letters B, 839, p.137769_1 - 137769_5, 2023/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:74.05(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Realistic estimations on the elastic properties of neutron star matter are carried out with a large strain ($$varepsilon$$ $$_sim^{<}$$ 0.5) in the framework of relativistic-mean-field model with Thomas-Fermi approximation, where various crystalline configurations are considered in a fully three-dimensional geometry with reflection symmetry. Our calculation confirms the validity of assuming Coulomb crystals for the droplet phase above neutron drip density, which nonetheless does not work at large densities since the elastic constants are found to be decreasing after reaching their peaks. Similarly, the analytic formulae derived in the incompressible liquid-drop model give excellent description for the rod phase at small densities, which overestimates the elastic constants at larger densities. For slabs, due to the negligence on the variations of their thicknesses, the analytic formulae from liquid-drop model agree qualitatively but not quantitatively with our numerical estimations. By fitting to the numerical results, these analytic formulae are improved by introducing dampening factors. The impacts of nuclear symmetry energy are examined adopting two parameter sets, corresponding to the slope of symmetry energy L = 41.34 and 89.39 MeV. Even with the uncertainties caused by the anisotropy in polycrystallines, the elastic properties of neutron star matter obtained with L = 41.34 and 89.39 MeV are distinctively different, results in detectable differences in various neutron star activities.

論文

Corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior of a structurally gradient steel for high-speed railway axles

Ao, N.*; Zhang, H.*; Xu, H. H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Liu, D.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.; Kang, Q. H.*; Kang, G. Z.*

Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 281, p.109166_1 - 109166_14, 2023/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:82.21(Mechanics)

Considering the complex service environments that high-speed railway axles are subjected to, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a structurally gradient axle steel with different pre-crack depths both in air and corrosive medium was investigated at a frequency of 5 Hz. The results indicated that in the high $$Delta$$$$K$$ region, FCG rate was dramatically accelerated by corrosion, but the gap narrows as $$Delta$$$$K$$ decreased. The accelerated corrosion FCG rate was a comprehensive result of the acceleration effect of the anodic dissolution, hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity and the retardation effect of corrosion-induced crack-tip blunting. Despite the fact that the corrosion resistance gradually decreased as the pre-crack depth increased, the FCG rate in the corrosive medium gradually decreased. This was because fatigue loading played a more important role than corrosion in accelerating the corrosion FCG rate.

論文

Tensile overload-induced texture effects on the fatigue resistance of a CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy

Lam, T.-N.*; Chin, H.-H.*; Zhang, X.*; Feng, R.*; Wang, H.*; Chiang, C.-Y.*; Lee, S. Y.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Liaw, P. K.*; et al.

Acta Materialia, 245, p.118585_1 - 118585_9, 2023/02

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:62.4(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The present study investigates the crystallographic-texture effects on the improved fatigue resistance in the CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) with the full-size geometry of the ASTM Standards E647-99. We exploited X-ray nano-diffraction mapping to characterize the crystal-deformation levels ahead of the crack tip after stress unloading under both constant- and tensile overloaded-fatigue conditions. The crack-tip blunting-induced much higher deformation level was concentrated surrounding the crack-tip which delays the fatigue-crack growth immediately after a tensile overload. The predominant deformation texture orientation in the Paris regime was investigated, using electron backscatter diffraction and orientation distribution function analyses. The twinning formation-driven shear deformation gave rise to the development of the Goss-type texture within the plastic deformation regime under a tensile-overloaded-fatigue condition, which was attributed to enhance the crack deflection and thus the tensile induced crack-growth-retardation period in the CoCrFeMnNi HEA.

論文

Grain refinement in titanium prevents low temperature oxygen embrittlement

Chong, Y.*; Gholizadeh, R.*; 都留 智仁; Zhang, R.*; 井上 耕治*; Gao, W.*; Godfrey, A.*; 光原 昌寿*; Morris, J. W. Jr.*; Minor, A. M.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 14, p.404_1 - 404_11, 2023/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:92.54

チタンは格子間酸素によって脆化する。特に極低温では顕著な脆化挙動を示すため、チタンやその合金の製造において酸素含有量を厳しく管理する必要がある。この問題を解決するために、我々は結晶粒の微細化という構造戦略を提案した。77Kで非常に脆い粗粒の組織と比較して、Ti-0.3wt.%Oの超微細粒(UFG)組織(粒径$$sim$$2.0$$mu$$m)は、UFG組織特有の超高降伏強度を維持したまま均一延びを1桁上昇させることに成功した。UFG Ti-0.3wt.%Oにおけるこの特異な強度-延性相乗効果は、粒界凝集エネルギー向上に寄与する希薄な酸素の粒界偏析と優れたひずみ硬化能に寄与する$$<c+a>$$転位の活性化の複合効果によって達成された。この方法は、低温での高強度Ti-O合金の応用の可能性を高めるだけでなく、格子間固溶硬化による延性の低下を生じる他の合金系にも適用できる可能性がある。

論文

Hybridized propagation of spin waves and surface acoustic waves in a multiferroic-ferromagnetic heterostructure

Chen, J.*; 山本 慧; Zhang, J.*; Ma, J.*; Wang, H.*; Sun, Y.*; Chen, M.*; Ma, J.*; Liu, S.*; Gao, P.*; et al.

Physical Review Applied (Internet), 19(2), p.024046_1 - 024046_9, 2023/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:94.06(Physics, Applied)

Coherent coupling in magnon based hybrid system has many potential applications in quantum information processing. Magnons can propagate in magnetically ordered materials without any motion of electrons, offering a unique method to build low-power-consumption devices and information channels free of heat dissipation. In this article, we demonstrate the coherent propagation of hybridized modes between spin waves and Love surface acoustic waves in a multiferroic BiFeO$$_{3}$$ and ferromagnetic La$$_{0.67}$$Sr$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ based heterostructure. The magneto-elastic coupling enables a giant enhancement of strength of the hybridized mode by a factor of 26 compared to that of the pure spin waves. A short wavelength down to 250 nm is demonstrated for the hybridized mode, which is desirable for nanoscale acousto-magnonic applications. Our combined experimental and theoretical analyses represent an important step towards the coherent control in hybrid magnonics, which may inspire the study of magnon-phonon hybrid systems for coherent information processing and manipulation.

論文

Fatigue crack non-propagation behavior of a gradient steel structure from induction hardened railway axles

Zhang, H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Ao, N.*; Zhang, J. W.*; Li, H.*; Zhou, L.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.

International Journal of Fatigue, 166, p.107296_1 - 107296_11, 2023/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:84.8(Engineering, Mechanical)

Abnormal damages in railway axles can lead to a significant hazard to running safety and reliability. To this end, a surface treatment was selected to effectively inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. In this study, a single edge notch bending fatigue test campaign with artificial notches was conducted to elucidate the fatigue crack non-propagation behavior in railway S38C axles subjected to an induction hardening process. The fatigue cracking behavior in the gradient structure was revealed by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and fractography. The microhardness distribution was measured using a Vickers tester. The obtained results show that the microhardness of the strengthening layer is nearly triple that of the matrix. Owing to the gradient microstructures and hardness, as well as compressive residual stress, the fatigue long crack propagates faster once it passes through the hardened zone (approximately 2.0 mm in the radial depth). Thereafter, local retarding (including deflection, branching, and blunting) of the long crack occurs because of the relatively coarse ferrite and pearlite in the transition region and matrix. Totally, this fatigue cracking resistance is reasonably believed to be due to the gradient microstructure and residual stress. These findings help to tailor a suitable detection strategy for maximum defects or cracks in railway axles.

論文

Experimental evidence for the significance of optical phonons in thermal transport of tin monosulfide

Wu, P.*; 村井 直樹; Li, T.*; 梶本 亮一; 中村 充孝; 古府 麻衣子; 中島 健次; Xia, K.*; Peng, K.*; Zhang, Y.*; et al.

New Journal of Physics (Internet), 25(1), p.013032_1 - 013032_11, 2023/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The understanding of the lattice dynamics is essential for engineering the thermal transport properties in quantum materials. Based on the canonical point of view, acoustic phonons are believed to be the principal thermal carriers in heat flow. Here, in this work, optical phonons are elucidated to play a pivotal role in determining the lattice thermal conductivity in thermoelectric material SnS by using the state-of-the-art inelastic neutron scattering technique combined with first-principles calculations. Additionally, in contrast to acoustic phonons, optical phonons are observed to exhibit pronounced softening and broadening with temperature. Our observations not only shed light on the significance of the optical phonons in thermal transport but also provide a vital clue to suppress the propagation of optical phonons to optimize the thermoelectric performance of SnS.

論文

Heat-induced structural changes in magnesium alloys AZ91 and AZ31 investigated by in situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction

Liu, X. J.*; 徐 平光; 城 鮎美*; Zhang, S. Y.*; 菖蒲 敬久; 行武 栄太郎*; 秋田 貢一*; Zolotoyabko, E.*; Liss, K.-D.*

Journal of Materials Science, 57(46), p.21446 - 21459, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:17.92(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In situ time/temperature-resolved synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction is applied to study heat-mediated structural changes and phase transformations in rolled sheets of AZ91 and AZ31 magnesium alloys. Azimuthal diffraction intensities along the Debye-Scherrer rings (AT-plots) are used to obtain information on grain recovery and recrystallization temperatures as well as temperature-assisted grain rotations. The azimuthally integrated diffraction intensities, plotted as functions of the scattering vector (QT-plots), provide vital data on the temperature-dependent lattice parameters of the Mg/Al matrix and intermetallic precipitates, as well as on the evolution of the precipitates' volume fraction. It was found that in AZ31, the main precipitates are of the AlMn type, which is rather stable in the investigated temperature range (up to 773 K). In contrast, in AZ91, the major intermetallic precipitates, Al$$_{12}$$Mg$$_{17}$$, undergo complete dissolution above 600 K. It is caused by the enhanced diffusion of Al into the Mg/Al matrix, which according to the Al-Mg phase diagram, can adopt more Al at elevated temperatures. This diffusion is revealed by the proportional diminishing of the matrix lattice parameter (chemical strain), allowing us to quantify the Al content in the matrix. Fast temperature-dependent manipulation with intermetallic content in the Mg/Al alloy can, in principle, be used for controlling its mechanical properties.

論文

Ten years of warming increased plant-derived carbon accumulation in an East Asian monsoon forest

Zhang, J.*; Kuang, L.*; Mou, Z.*; 近藤 俊明*; 小嵐 淳; 安藤 麻里子; Li, Y.*; Tang, X.*; Wang, Y.-P.*; Pe$~n$uelas, J.*; et al.

Plant and Soil, 481(1-2), p.349 - 365, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:26.86(Agronomy)

Soil warming effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and stabilization are highly variable, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, concentration, stability (dissolved, particle and mineral-associated SOC), and source (plant-derived and microbial-derived) of SOC, soil microbial community composition, and enzyme activities were studied in a 10-year soil warming field experiment in an East Asian monsoon forest. The results showed that 10-year soil warming significantly enhanced SOC in the top 0-10 cm soil. The increased SOC induced by warming was mainly derived from plants with lignin markers, accompanied by a decrease in microbial-derived SOC. This highlights an urgent need for a better understanding of how the contrasting effects of plant- and microbial-derived C mediate the response of the SOC pool to warming across different biomes.

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