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論文

Atomic position and the chemical state of an active Sn dopant for Sn-doped $$beta$$-Ga$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$(001)

Tsai, Y. H.*; 小畠 雅明; 福田 竜生; 谷田 肇; 小林 徹; 山下 良之*

Applied Physics Letters, 124(11), p.112105_1 - 112105_5, 2024/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.00

Recently, gallium oxide (Ga$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) has attracted much attention as an ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor with a bandgap of about 5 eV. In order to control device properties, it is important to clarify the chemical state of dopants and doping sites. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were used to investigate the dopant sites and chemical states of Sn in Sn-doped $$beta$$-Ga$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$(001) samples. The results show that the chemical state of the Sn dopant is the Sn$$^{4+}$$ oxidation state and that the bond lengths around the Sn dopant atoms are longer due to the relaxation effect after Sn dopant insertion. Comparison of experimental and simulated XANES spectra indicates that the octahedral Ga substitution site in $$beta$$-Ga$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$(001) is the active site of the Sn dopant.

論文

Inelastic neutron scattering study of magnon excitation by ultrasound injection in yttrium iron garnet

社本 真一; 赤津 光洋*; Chang, L.-J.*; 根本 祐一*; 家田 淳一

Applied Physics Letters, 124(11), p.112402_1 - 112402_5, 2024/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.00

Y$$_3$$Fe$$_5$$O$$_{12}$$における超音波注入によるマグノン励起を非弾性中性子散乱によって研究した。その結果、縦波と横波の両方で超音波注入によりマグノン励起の非弾性中性子散乱強度が増強されることがわかった。

論文

${it In situ}$ neutron diffraction study on the deformation behavior of the plastic inorganic semiconductor Ag$$_{2}$$S

Wang, Y.*; Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Zhang, K.*; Zhang, Z. D.*; Li, B.*

Applied Physics Letters, 123(1), p.011903_1 - 011903_6, 2023/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:44.21(Physics, Applied)

Bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S is a plastic inorganic semiconductor at room temperature. It exhibits a compressive strain greater than 50%, which is highly different from brittle conventional counterparts, such as silicon. Here, we present the experimental investigation of the deformation behavior in a plastic inorganic semiconductor Ag$$_{2}$$S using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction during compressive deformation at room and elevated temperatures. At room temperature, the lattice strain partitioning among $$hkl$$-orientated grain families could be responsible for the significant work-hardening behavior in the bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S with a monoclinic structure. The rapid accumulation of lattice defects and remarkable development of the deformation texture suggest that dislocation slip promotes plasticity. At 453 K, a monoclinic phase transforms into a body-centered cubic phase. A stress plateau appears at $$sim$$-4.8 MPa, followed by a rehardening state. The deformation mode of bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S at the initial stage is likely attributable to the migration of silver ions, and as strain increases, it is closer to that of room temperature, leading to rehardening.

論文

Step unbunching phenomenon on 4H-SiC (0001) surface during hydrogen etching

榊原 涼太郎*; Bao, J.*; Yuhara, Keisuke*; 松田 啓太*; 寺澤 知潮; 楠 美智子*; 乗松 航*

Applied Physics Letters, 123(3), p.031603_1 - 031603_4, 2023/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:44.21(Physics, Applied)

ステップバンチング現象の逆であるステップアンバンチング現象について報告する。4H-SiC(0001)表面を高温でアニールすると、隣接するステップの運動の速度が異なるためにステップバンチングが生じ、数ナノメートル以上の高さのステップが生じる。本研究ではAr/H$$_{2}$$雰囲気中での水素エッチングによって得られたステップが、その後低温でアニールされると、より低い高さのステップに「アンバンチング」されることを見出した。この「束にならない」現象は、エネルギー論と動力学との間の競合の結果としてうまく説明できる。本発見は、水素エッチングによるSiCの表面平滑化のための別のアプローチを提供し、SiCパワーデバイスや二次元材料成長技術全般への応用に重要な洞察を与える可能性がある。

論文

Work function lowering of LaB$$_{6}$$ by monolayer hexagonal boron nitride coating for improved photo- and thermionic-cathodes

山口 尚登*; 遊佐 龍之介*; Wang, G.*; Pettes, M. T.*; Liu, F.*; 津田 泰孝; 吉越 章隆; 虻川 匡司*; Moody, N. A.*; 小川 修一*

Applied Physics Letters, 122(14), p.141901_1 - 141901_7, 2023/04

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:78.44(Physics, Applied)

単層BMをコートしたLaB$$_{6}$$の仕事関数の低減に関して報告する。hBNでコートされた領域は、非被覆あるいはグラフェンコートされたLaB$$_{6}$$(100)単結晶領域に比べて仕事関数が低下していることが、光電子顕微鏡(PEEM)および熱電子顕微鏡(TEEM)実験から分かった。グラフェンコートに比べてhBNコートされたLaB$$_{6}$$(100)では、非常に大きな仕事関数の低下が起きることが、DFT計算から定性的に分かった。計算に酸化層を考慮すると、計算と実験の間の整合性が改善された。放射光XPSによって、我々のLaB$$_{6}$$表面に酸化層が実在することを確認した。

論文

Magnetization switching process by dual spin-orbit torque in interlayer exchange-coupled systems

増田 啓人*; 山根 結太*; 関 剛斎*; Raab, K.*; 土肥 昂尭*; Modak, R.*; 内田 健一*; 家田 淳一; Kl$"a$ui, M.*; 高梨 弘毅

Applied Physics Letters, 122(16), p.162402_1 - 162402_7, 2023/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:44.21(Physics, Applied)

We report current-induced magnetization switching in Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt multilayers with different Ir layer thicknesses ($$t_mathrm{Ir}$$), where the perpendicularly magnetized Co layers are coupled ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically through an interlayer exchange coupling and are sandwiched by the Pt spin Hall layers. The domain structures formed during switching vary depending on the magnetization alignment, i.e., ferromagnetically coupled or antiferromagnetically coupled configuration. These results clarify the macroscopic picture of switching process for interlayer exchange-coupled systems. The local picture of the switching process is also examined by a numerical calculation based on a macrospin model, which reveals the switching dynamics triggered by dual spin-orbit torque for both antiferromagnetically and ferromagnetically coupled cases. The numerical calculation shows that the dual spin-orbit torque from the two Pt layers effectively acts on the two Co layers not only for the antiferromagnetically coupled case but also for the ferromagnetically coupled one. Our findings deepen the under- standing of the switching mechanism in a magnetic multilayer and provide an avenue to design spintronic devices with more efficient spin-orbit torque switching.

論文

Thermal stability of non-collinear antiferromagnetic Mn$$_3$$Sn nanodot

佐藤 佑磨*; 竹内 祐太郎*; 山根 結太*; Yoon, J.-Y.*; 金井 駿*; 家田 淳一; 大野 英男*; 深見 俊輔*

Applied Physics Letters, 122(12), p.122404_1 - 122404_5, 2023/03

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:66.71(Physics, Applied)

$$D0_{19}$$-Mn$$_3$$Sn, an antiferromagnet having a non-collinear spin structure in a kagome lattice, has attracted great attention owing to various intriguing properties such as large anomalous Hall effect. Stability of magnetic state against thermal fluctuation, characterized in general by the thermal stability factor $$Delta$$, has been well studied in ferromagnetic systems but not for antiferromagnets. Here we study $$Delta$$ of the antiferromagnetic Mn$$_3$$Sn nanodots as a function of their diameter $$D$$. To obtain $$Delta$$, we measure the switching probability as a function of pulse-field amplitude and analyze the results based on a model developed by accounting for two and six-fold magnetic anisotropies in the kagome plane. We observe no significant change in $$Delta$$ down to $$D = 300$$ nm below which it decreases with $$D$$. The obtained $$D$$ dependence is well explained by a single-domain and nucleation-mediated reversal models. These findings provide a basis to understand the thermal fluctuation and reversal mechanism of antiferromagnets for device application.

論文

Shapiro steps in charge-density-wave states driven by ultrasound

森 道康; 前川 禎通

Applied Physics Letters, 122(4), p.042202_1 - 042202_5, 2023/01

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:78.44(Physics, Applied)

We show that ultrasound can induce the Shapiro steps (SS) in the charge-density-wave (CDW) state. When ultrasound with frequency $$omega$$ and a dc voltage are applied, the SS occur at the current $$Ipropto nomega$$ with integer $$n$$. Even and odd multiples of SS are represented by two couplings between the CDW and ultrasound. Although an ac voltage bias with frequency $$omega$$ induces the SS at $$Ipropto nomega$$, the ultrasound bias enhances the odd multiples more strongly than the even ones. This is the difference between the ultrasound and the ac voltage. Since the SS cause abrupt peaks in the $$dV/dI$$, the extreme changes in the $$I-V$$ curve will be applied to a very sensitive ultrasound detector.

論文

Spin motive force induced by parametric excitation

星 幸治郎*; 日置 友智*; 齊藤 英治

Applied Physics Letters, 121(21), p.212404_1 - 212404_6, 2022/11

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:30.40(Physics, Applied)

Spin motive force generated by parametrically excited magnetization dynamics is numerically investigated. We calculate spin motive force in a permalloy disk under an ac magnetic field with twice the ferromagnetic resonance frequency parallel to the static magnetic field based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We found that large spin motive force originating from standing spin waves driven by parametric excitation appears in the system. The observed time dependence of the voltage shows a dc voltage with an ac component oscillating with twice of the resonance frequency. The estimated amplitude of the voltage due to the spin motive force is $$sim$$$$mu$$V. We also investigate spin motive force driven by different modes of standing spin waves. Our numerical results extend the way to generate spin motive force by making use of the magnetization dynamics with the steep spatial modulation created by nonlinear spin waves excitation, without a nonuniform magnetization structure such as a conventional magnetic domain wall and a vortex.

論文

Electrical properties and energy band alignment of SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated on N-polar GaN(000$$bar{1}$$) substrates

溝端 秀聡*; 冨ヶ原 一樹*; 野崎 幹人*; 小林 拓真*; 吉越 章隆; 細井 卓治*; 志村 考功*; 渡部 平司*

Applied Physics Letters, 121(6), p.062104_1 - 062104_6, 2022/08

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:14.73(Physics, Applied)

N極性GaN(000$$bar{1}$$)基板上に作製したSiO$$_{2}$$/GaN MOS構造の界面特性とエネルギーバンドアライメントを、電気測定と放射光X線光電子分光法を用いて調べた。さらに、得られた結果をGa極性GaN(0001)上のSiO$$_{2}$$/GaN MOS構造の特性と比較した。SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(000$$bar{1}$$)構造はGaN(0001)基板上に作製した構造よりも熱的に不安定であることがわかった。しかし、絶縁膜堆積後アニールの条件を最適化することにより、SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(000$$bar{1}$$)構造でも優れた電気特性が得られた。一方で、SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(000$$bar{1}$$)構造の伝導帯オフセットがSiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(0001)構造よりも小さく、これによるゲートリーク電流の増大が見られた。以上のことから、MOSデバイスの作製においてN極性GaN(000$$bar{1}$$)基板の利用には注意を要することを明らかにした。

論文

Perspectives on spintronics with surface acoustic waves

Puebla, J.*; Hwang, Y.*; 前川 禎通*; 大谷 義近*

Applied Physics Letters, 120(22), p.220502_1 - 220502_9, 2022/05

 被引用回数:20 パーセンタイル:93.70(Physics, Applied)

Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are elastic waves propagating on the surface of solids with the amplitude decaying into the solid. The well- established fabrication of compact SAW devices, together with well-defined resonance frequencies, places SAWs as an attractive route to manipulate the magnetization states in spintronics, all of which is made possible by the magnetostriction and magnetoelastic effects. Here, we review the basic characteristics of SAW devices and their interaction out-of-resonance and in-resonance with the magnetization in thin films. We describe our own recent results in this research field and closely related works and provide our perspectives moving forward.

論文

Observation of domain structure in non-collinear antiferromagnetic Mn$$_3$$Sn thin films by magneto-optical Kerr effect

内村 友宏*; Yoon, J.-Y.*; 佐藤 佑磨*; 竹内 祐太郎*; 金井 駿*; 武智 涼太*; 岸 桂輔*; 山根 結太*; DuttaGupta, S.*; 家田 淳一; et al.

Applied Physics Letters, 120(17), p.172405_1 - 172405_5, 2022/04

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:85.25(Physics, Applied)

We perform a hysteresis-loop measurement and domain imaging for $$(1100)$$-oriented $$D0_{19}$$-Mn$$_{3+x}$$Sn$$_{1-x}$$ $$(-0.11 le x le 0.14)$$ thin films using magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and compare it with the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) measurement. We obtain a large Kerr rotation angle of 10 mdeg., comparable with bulk single-crystal Mn$$_3$$Sn. The composition $$x$$ dependence of AHE and MOKE shows a similar trend, suggesting the same origin, i.e., the non-vanishing Berry curvature in the momentum space. Magnetic domain observation at the saturated state shows that x dependence of AHE and MOKE is explained by an amount of reversible area that crucially depends on the crystalline structure of the film. Furthermore, in-depth observation of the reversal process reveals that the reversal starts with nucleation of sub-micrometer-scale domains dispersed in the film, followed by a domain expansion, where the domain wall preferentially propagates along the $$[11bar{2}0]$$ direction. Our study provides a basic understanding of the spatial evolution of the reversal of chiral-spin structure in non-collinear antiferromagnetic thin films.

論文

Fabrication of (Bi$$_2$$)$$_m$$(Bi$$_2$$Te$$_3$$)$$_n$$ superlattice films by Te desorption from a pristine Bi$$_2$$Te$$_3$$ film

日下 翔太郎*; 佐々木 泰祐*; 角田 一樹; 一ノ倉 聖*; 出田 真一郎*; 田中 清尚*; 宝野 和博*; 平原 徹*

Applied Physics Letters, 120(17), p.173102_1 - 173102_5, 2022/04

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:30.40(Physics, Applied)

We fabricated superlattice films composed of Bi$$_2$$ bilayers (BLs) and Bi$$_2$$Te$$_3$$ quintuple layers (QLs) by annealing pure Bi$$_2$$Te$$_3$$ films. It was found that Te desorbs from the QL to form the BL with an activation energy of 2.7 eV. Eventually two distinct stoichiometric phases were formed, Bi$$_1$$Te$$_1$$ (QL-BL-QL) and Bi$$_4$$Te$$_3$$ (QL-BL), as evidenced by scanning transmission emission microscopy measurements. The surface-state dispersion was measured with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and the topological nature of each sample is discussed. Our method offers a convenient and simple way to fabricate superlattice films with different topological properties.

論文

Determination of site occupancy of boron in 6H-SiC by multiple-wavelength neutron holography

林 好一*; Lederer, M.*; 福本 陽平*; 後藤 雅司*; 山本 裕太*; 八方 直久*; 原田 正英; 稲村 泰弘; 及川 健一; 大山 研司*; et al.

Applied Physics Letters, 120(13), p.132101_1 - 132101_6, 2022/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.00(Physics, Applied)

The local structure around boron doped in a 6H-type silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated using neutron holography. Three dimensional atomic images reconstructed from multiple-wavelength holograms revealed the boron substitution for both silicon and carbon. To determine the boron locations accurately, we calculated holograms with varying occupancies of six different sites and fitted the image intensities with those obtained from the experimental holograms by the steepest descent method. As a result, it was found that boron atoms were selectively located at the Si-C-cubic site layer. Furthermore, boundaries right above the boron locations were suggested from the absence of atomic images in the upper region of the reconstruction.

論文

Martensitic transformation in CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy at cryogenic temperature

Naeem, M.*; Zhou, H.*; He, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lan, S.*; Wu, Z.*; Zhu, Y.*; Wang, X.-L.*

Applied Physics Letters, 119(13), p.131901_1 - 131901_7, 2021/09

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:63.89(Physics, Applied)

We investigated the in situ deformation behavior of the CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy at a cryogenic temperature of 140 K and compared it with deformation at room temperature. The sample exhibited higher strength and larger ductility at the cryogenic temperature. The CrCoNi alloy remained single-phase face-centered cubic at room temperature, while deformation at 140 K resulted in a martensitic transformation to the hexagonal close-packed structure. The phase transformation, an additional deformation mechanism to stacking faults, twinning, and dis- location slip, resulted in a higher work hardening at cryogenic temperature. The study addresses the structure metastability in the CrCoNi alloy, which led to the formation of epsilon-martensite from the intrinsic stacking faults.

論文

Modifications in the nanoparticle-protein interactions for tuning the protein adsorption and controlling the stability of complexes

Kumar, S.*; Saha, D.*; 高田 慎一; Aswal, V. K.*; 瀬戸 秀紀

Applied Physics Letters, 118(15), p.153701_1 - 153701_7, 2021/04

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:49.05(Physics, Applied)

We report the pathways to suppress or enhance the protein adsorption on nanoparticles and thereby control the stability of the nanoparticle-protein complexes with the help of selective additives. This has been achieved by tuning the electrostatic interaction between the nanoparticles and proteins, in the presence of surfactant and multivalent counterions. The preferential binding of the proteins with the surfactant and multivalent ions induced charge reversibility of nanoparticles can lead to adsorption of an otherwise non-adsorbing protein and vice versa. The findings are demonstrated for anionic silica nanoparticles and two globular proteins [lysozyme (cationic) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) (anionic)] as model systems, in the presence of two ionic surfactants [anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)], and ZrCl$$_{4}$$ as multivalent salt.

論文

Evaluation of edge domains in giant magnetoresistive junctions

Frost, W.*; 関 剛斎*; 窪田 崇秀*; Ramos, R.*; 齊藤 英治; 高梨 弘毅*; 廣畑 貴文*

Applied Physics Letters, 118(17), p.172405_1 - 172405_5, 2021/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:7.12(Physics, Applied)

We demonstrate that the spin-Seebeck effect can be used to estimate the volume of edge domains formed in a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) device. The thermal gradient induced by Joule heating can be harnessed by the addition of a ferromagnetically insulating channel of Fe$$_2$$O$$_3$$ on the sides of the GMR pillar. This generates a spin wave in Fe$$_2$$O$$_3$$, which couples with the free-layer edge magnetization and controls the reversal of the ferromagnetic layers in one direction only, increasing the current density from $$(1.1pm0.1)times10^7$$ A/cm$$^2$$ to $$(7.0pm0.5)times10^7$$ A/cm$$^2$$. By simple assumption, we estimate the effect of the edge domain on magnetization reversal to be $$10%-15%$$ by spin-transfer torque.

論文

Observation of quantum interference conductance fluctuations in metal rings with strong spin-orbit coupling

Ramos, R.*; 巻内 崇彦*; 吉川 貴史*; 大門 俊介*; 大柳 洸一*; 齊藤 英治

Applied Physics Letters, 117(24), p.242402_1 - 242402_5, 2020/12

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:5.22(Physics, Applied)

We investigated the magnetotransport properties of mesoscopic platinum nanostructures (wires and rings) with sub-100 nm lateral dimensions at very low temperatures. Despite the strong spin-orbit interaction in platinum, oscillation of the conductance as a function of the external magnetic field due to quantum interference effects was found to appear. The oscillation was decomposed into Aharonov-Bohm periodic oscillations and aperiodic fluctuations of the conductance due to a magnetic flux piercing the loop of the ring and the metal wires forming the nanostructures, respectively. We also investigated the magnetotransport under different bias currents to explore the interplay between electron phase coherence and spin accumulation effects in strong spin-orbit conductors.

論文

Structure of quasi-free-standing graphene on the SiC (0001) surface prepared by the rapid cooling method

角 達也*; 永井 和樹*; Bao, J.*; 寺澤 知潮; 乗松 航*; 楠 美智子*; 若林 裕助*

Applied Physics Letters, 117(14), p.143102_1 - 143102_5, 2020/10

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:25.35(Physics, Applied)

SiC(0001)表面上のエピタキシャルグラフェン試料の系統的な構造研究を、非接触手法である表面X線回折法によって行った。バッファ層のみ、1層グラフェン、多層グラフェンの試料では、バッファ層と表面Si原子間の距離は0.23nmであった。急速冷却法で作製した半自立グラフェン試料では、バッファ層は存在せず、半自立グラフェンと表面Si原子との間の距離は0.35nmであった。これは、水素インターカレートグラフェンの値よりもかなり短く、グラファイトの面間距離よりもわずかに長い。Si占有率はSiC表面から1nm以内では単一ではなく、Si原子の抜けが示唆された。Si占有率の深さプロファイルは試料依存性がほとんどなく、Si原子のランダムなホッピングに基づく単純な原子論モデルによって再現された。

論文

Concurrent magneto-optical imaging and magneto-transport readout of electrical switching of insulating antiferromagnetic thin films

Schreiber, F.*; Baldrati, L.*; Schmitt, C.*; Ramos, R.*; 齊藤 英治; Lebrun, R.*; Kl$"a$ui, M.*

Applied Physics Letters, 117(8), p.082401_1 - 082401_5, 2020/08

 被引用回数:25 パーセンタイル:83.20(Physics, Applied)

We demonstrate stable and reversible current induced switching of large-area ($$>$$100 $$mu$$m$$^2$$) antiferromagnetic domains in NiO/Pt by performing concurrent transport and magneto-optical imaging measurements in an adapted Kerr microscope. By correlating the magnetic images of the antiferromagnetic domain changes and magneto-transport signal response in these current-induced switching experiments, we disentangle magnetic and non-magnetic contributions to the transport signal. Our table-top approach establishes a robust procedure to subtract the non-magnetic contributions in the transport signal and extract the spin-Hall magnetoresistance response associated with the switching of the antiferromagnetic domains, enabling one to deduce details of the antiferromagnetic switching from simple transport measurements.

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