Shimada, Kazumasa; Kai, Michiaki*
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 46(3), p.83 - 97, 2021/09
[Background] The lifetime risk of lung cancer incidence owing to radiation for non-smokers is overestimated because the average cancer baseline among a population including smokers is used. In recent years, the generalized multiplicative (GM) excess relative risk (ERR) model has been developed in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors to consider the joint effect of radiation and smoking. Based on this background, the issues of radiation risk assessment considering smoking will be discussed in this paper in 2 parts. [Materials and Methods] Part 1: We proposed a simple method of estimating the baseline risk for non-smokers using current smoking data. We performed sensitivity analysis on baseline risk estimation to discuss the birth cohort effects of birth year effect and smoking history. Part 2: We applied the GM ERR model for Japanese smokers to calculate lifetime attributable risk (LAR). We also performed a sensitivity analysis with other ERR models (e.g., simple additive (SA) ERR model). [Results] Part 1: The lifetime baseline risk (LBR) for non-smokers were 54% (44% - 60%) or males and 24% (18% - 29%) for females, which were lower than the LBRs for all adults including smokers. Part 2: When comparing the LAR between the SA ERR model and the GM ERR model, if the radiation dose was 200 mGy or less, the difference between these ERR models was within the standard deviation of the LAR owing to the uncertainty of the smoking information.
Chang, W.*; Koba, Yusuke*; Furuta, Takuya; Yonai, Shunsuke*; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Shinnosuke*; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 62(5), p.846 - 855, 2021/09
With the aim of developing a revaluation tool of treatment plan in carbon-ion radiotherapy using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, we propose two methods; one is dedicated to identify realistic-tissue materials from a CT image with satisfying the well-calibrated relationship between CT numbers and stopping power ratio (SPR) provided by TPS, and the other is to estimate dose to water considering the particle- and energy-dependent SPR between realistic tissue materials and water. We validated these proposed methods by computing depth dose distribution in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms composed of human tissue materials and water irradiated by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam with 8 cm SOBP using a MC simulation code PHITS and comparing with results of conventional treatment planning system (TPS). Our result suggested that use of water as a surrogate of real tissue materials, which is adopted in conventional TPS, is inadequate for dose estimation from secondary particles because their production rates cannot be scaled by SPR of the primary particle in water. We therefore concluded that the proposed methods can play important roles in the reevaluation of the treatment plans in carbon-ion radiotherapy.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Kanzaki, Norie; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 62(4), p.634 - 644, 2021/07
It is held that the skin dose from radon progeny is not negligibly small and that introducing cancer is a possible consequence under normal circumstances, while there are a number of uncertainties in terms of related parameters such as activity concentrations in air, target cells in skin, skin covering materials, and deposition velocities. Meanwhile, an interesting proposal emerged in that skin exposure to natural radon-rich thermal water as part of balneotherapy can produce an immune response to induce beneficial health effects. The goal of the present study was to obtain generic dose coefficients with a focus on the radon progeny deposited on the skin in air or water in relation to risk or therapeutic assessments. We thus first estimated the skin deposition velocities of radon progeny in the two media based on data from the latest human studies. Using the optimized velocities, skin dosimetry was then performed under different assumptions regarding alpha-emitting source position and target cell (i.e., basal cells or Langerhans cells). Furthermore, the impact of the radon progeny deposition on effective doses from all exposure pathways relating to "radon exposure" was assessed using various possible scenarios. It was found that in both exposure media, effective doses from radon progeny inhalation are one to four orders of magnitude higher than those from the other pathways. In addition, absorbed doses on the skin can be the highest among all pathways when the radon activity concentrations in water are two or more orders of magnitude higher than those in air.
Okuno, Hiroshi; Sato, Sohei; Kawakami, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tadao
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 46(2), p.66 - 79, 2021/06
The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was a typical one of the disastrous damages that induced evacuation of the residents around the NPS, which was triggered by the hugest earthquake and associated tsunami. This paper summarized early responses of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), especially of its Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) to the off-site emergencies associated with the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper addressed activities of emergency preparedness of the NEAT before 2011 in relevant to the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS, the situation of the NEAT on March 11, 2011, and its early responses to the related off-site emergencies including those caused by the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The paper also discussed issues associated with complex disasters.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Murakami, Shoichi*; Ishimori, Yuu; Horai, Sawako*
Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 61(2), p.207 - 213, 2020/03
Saito, Kimiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Ando, Masaki; Matsuda, Norihiro; Kinase, Sakae; Tsuda, Shuichi; Sato, Tetsuro*; Seki, Akiyuki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Wainwright-Murakami, Haruko*; et al.
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 44(4), p.128 - 148, 2019/12
Saga, Ryo*; Matsuya, Yusuke; Takahashi, Rei*; Hasegawa, Kazuki*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Hosokawa, Yoichiro*
Journal of Radiation Research, 60(3), p.298 - 307, 2019/05
In radiotherapy, it is recognized that cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumor tissue shows radio-resistance. However, the relationship between content percentage of the CSCs and dose-response curve on cell survival remain unclear. In this study, we developed a stochastic model considering progeny cells and stem cells, and investigated the impact of stem cells on radio-sensitivity. From the flow-cytometric analysis (cell experiments), the content percentage of stem cells was 3.2% or less which agreed well with the model estimation from the cell survival curve. Based on the verification, it is suggested that cell survival in high-dose range is largely affected by the CSCs. In addition, regarding the sub-population of stem cells, the present model well reproduces the dose response on lethal lesions to DNA comparing with the conventional LQ model. This outcome indicates that the stem cells must be considered for describing the dose-response curve in wide dose range.
Takada, Kenta*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Kumada, Hiroaki*; Koketsu, Junichi*; Takei, Hideyuki*; Sakurai, Hideyuki*; Sakae, Takeji*
Journal of Radiation Research, 59(1), p.91 - 99, 2018/01
Evaluation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted dose is indispensable in the treatment planning of proton and carbon ion therapies. In this study, we validate the RBE-weighted dose calculated by microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) in tandem with the Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS for proton therapy using the full simulation geometry for the beam line of the Proton Medical Research Center at the University of Tsukuba. The physical dose and RBE-weighted dose on the central axis for a 155 MeV monoenergetic and spread-out Bragg peak beam of 60 mm width are evaluated by the method. The calculated results generally agree with the corresponding experimental data very well, though overestimations by approximately 3.2% and 15% at the maximum are observed for the physical and RBE-weighted doses, respectively. This research completes the computational microdosimetric approach based on a combination of PHITS and MKM for all types of radiotherapy that require RBE evaluations.
Etani, Reo*; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Taguchi, Takehito*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Journal of Radiation Research, 58(5), p.614 - 625, 2017/05
Radon therapy using radon (Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Be/m for 24 h or were provided with hot spring water for 2 weeks. The activity density of Rn ranged from 663 Bq/l (start point of supplying) to 100 Bq/l (end point of supplying).Mice were then orally administered ethanol at three concentrations. The ulcer index (UI), an indicator of mucosal injury, increased in response to the administration of ethanol; however, treatment with either radon inhalation or hot spring water inhibited the elevation in the UI due to ethanol. Although no significant differences in antioxidative enzymes were observed between the radon-treated groups and the non-treated control groups, lipid peroxide levels were significantly lower in the stomachs of mice pre-treated with radon or hot spring water. These results suggest that hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation inhibit ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury.
Itashiki, Yutaro*; Imabayashi, Yoichi*; Shigyo, Nobuhiro*; Uozumi, Yusuke*; Satoh, Daiki; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi*; Sanami, Toshiya*; Koba, Yusuke*; Matsufuji, Naruhiro*
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 41(4), p.344 - 349, 2016/12
Carbon ion therapy has achieved satisfactory results because of high curability and minimally invasiveness. However, patients have a risk to get a secondary cancer. In order to estimate the risk, it is essential to understand particle transportation and nuclear reactions in the patient's body. The particle transport Monte Carlo simulation code is a useful tool to understand them. Since the code validation for heavy ion incident reactions is not enough, the experimental data of the elementary reaction processes is needed. We measured neutron production double-differential cross-sections (DDXs) on a carbon bombarded with 430 MeV/nucleon carbon beam which is a possible candidate of future therapy beam. The experiment was performed at PH2 beam line of the HIMAC of National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The 430 MeV/nucleon carbon beam was irradiated on a 5 cm 5 cm 1 cm graphite target rotated 45 to the beam axis. The beam intensity was set to 10 particles / spill. A 0.5 mm thick NE102A plastic scintillator was placed to monitor the beam intensity. Neutrons produced in the target were measured with two sizes of NE213 liquid organic scintillators located at six angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. The 5.08 cm long one was used to obtain the neutron spectra from 1 MeV to 10 MeV and the 12.7 cm long one was used above 5 MeV. The 2 mm thick NE102A plastic scintillators to discriminate charged particles were set in front of the neutron detectors. The kinetic energies of neutrons were determined by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Background neutrons were estimated by a measurement with iron shadow bars between the target and each neutron detector. An electronic circuit for data acquisition consisted of NIM and CAMAC modules. The experimental data was compared with calculated results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation codes as PHITS. The PHITS code reproduced the experimental data well.
Nishino, Sho; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Ebata, Yoshiaki*; Yoshizawa, Michio
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 41(3), p.211 - 215, 2016/09
We developed the graphite-moderated neutron calibration fields using Am-Be sources at the Facility of Radiation Standard in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The neutron spectra of the fields were evaluated by Monte-Carlo calculation and measurements using the Bonner Multi-sphere Spectrometer. Reference values of fluence rates and dose equivalent rates of H(10) and H(10) were determined from neutron spectra by measurements. Currently, our fields are available for calibration or performance test of neutron measuring instruments.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Tschiersch, J.*
Journal of Radiation Research, 57(4), p.336 - 342, 2016/07
In general, the deposition of inhaled radon progeny on lung gives the largest dose when the dose evaluation is made for the so-called radon exposure. In this case, the dose from inhalation of radon itself is much lower than that from its progeny. Also, very little studies of the absorption of radon via skin have not been done so far. However, specific environments such as radon hot springs have the characteristics that radon concentration in water is significantly higher by a few orders than that in air. In the present study, a biokinetic model of radon into which its skin-absorption process was incorporated was developed to discuss the change in radon concentrations in tissues during and after bathing in thermal water. This derived dose was compared with other exposure routes from radon and its progeny.
Nakamura, Takemi; Sakasai, Kaoru; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takamiya, Koichi*; Kumada, Hiroaki*
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 41(2), p.105 - 109, 2016/06
no abstracts in English
Etani, Reo*; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Journal of Radiation Research, 57(3), p.250 - 257, 2016/06
Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice. After mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks, they were administrated PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it.
Fukunaga, Hisanori*; Yokoya, Akinari
Journal of Radiation Research, 57(1), p.98 - 100, 2016/01
Sato, Katsutoshi*; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Shimokawa, Takashi*; Imai, Takashi*; Teshima, Teruki*; Nishimura, Hiroaki*; Kando, Masaki
Journal of Radiation Research, 56(4), p.633 - 638, 2015/07
While X-ray laser is expected to be widely applied to biomedical studies, this has not been achieved to date and its biological effects such as DNA damage have not been evaluated. As a first step for its biological application, we developed a culture cell irradiation system using laser-plasma soft X-ray laser and investigated whether the soft X-ray laser is able to induce the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in living cells or not. The human adenocarcimona cell line A549 was irradiated with the soft X-ray laser at a photon energy of 89 eV and then the repair focus formation of the DSBs was assessed by immunofluorescence staining with anti-phosphorylated DNA-PKcs antibody. As a result, the phosphorylated DNA-PKcs foci were clearly identified even with just a single shot of the soft X-ray laser. In this study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time that soft X-ray laser at 89 eV induced the DNA double strand breaks in living cells.
Horiguchi, Hironori*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Kumada, Hiroaki*; Yamamoto, Tetsuya*; Sakae, Takeji*
Journal of Radiation Research, 56(2), p.382 - 390, 2015/03
For evaluating the irradiation effect in tumors and surrounding normal tissues in BNCT, it is of great importance to estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for each dose component in the same framework. We have therefore established a new method for estimating the RBE of all BNCT dose components on the basis of the microdosimetric kinetic model. This method employs the probability densities of lineal energy, y, in a subcellular structure as the index for expressing RBE, which can be calculated using the microdosimetric function implemented in the particle transport simulation code PHITS. The accuracy of this method was tested by comparing the calculated RBE values with corresponding measured data in a water phantom irradiated with an epithermal neutron beam. The calculation technique developed in this study will be useful for biological dose estimation in the treatment planning of BNCT.
Tsuda, Shuichi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Takada, Masashi*
Journal of Radiation Research, 56(1), p.197 - 204, 2015/01
Radial dependence of lineal energy distribution, yf(y), have been experimentally evaluated for a 0.72 micrometer site in tissue using 290 MeV/u carbon and 500 MeV/u iron ion beams using a wall-less tissue equivalent proportional counter. The yf(y) distributions and dose-mean of y, are compared with the calculation by a track structure simulation code TRACION and a microdosimetric function of the PHITS code. The values of the measured agree with those of the calculation within 20% but differences in the shape of yf(y) were found in the case of the iron ion irradiation. The result indicates that further improvement of the calculation model for yf(y) distribution in PHITS is needed in terms of the analytical function that reproduce energy deposition by delta rays, in the case that primary ions have LET more than a few hundred keV/micrometer.
Hata, Kuniki; Urushibara, Ayumi*; Yamashita, Shinichi*; Lin, M.*; Muroya, Yusa*; Shikazono, Naoya; Yokoya, Akinari; Fu, H.*; Katsumura, Yosuke*
Journal of Radiation Research, 56(1), p.59 - 66, 2015/01
Murata, Kazutoshi*; Noda, Shinei*; Oike, Takahiro*; Takahashi, Akihisa*; Yoshida, Yukari*; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki*; Ono, Tatsuya*; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Takeo*; et al.
Journal of Radiation Research, 55(4), p.658 - 664, 2014/07
The effect of carbon ion irradiation on cell motility through the Rho signaling pathway in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was studied. At 48 h after irradiation, the cell motility of A549 cells became significantly greater, and the formation of protrusions significantly increased in cells irradiated with carbon ion. The observed increase in cell motility due to carbon ion irradiation was similar to that observed due to X-ray irradiation. Western-blot analysis showed that carbon ion irradiation increased P-MLC2-S19 expression compared with in unirradiated controls, while total MLC2 expression was unchanged. Exposure to a non-toxic concentration of Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, reduced the expression of P-MLC2-S19 after C-ion irradiation, resulting in a significant reduction in migration. These data suggest that carbon irradiation increases cell motility in A549 cells via the Rho signaling pathway and that ROCK inhibition reduces that effect.