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JAEA Reports

Tritium removal of heavy water system and helium system in FUGEN

Takiya, Hiroaki; Kadowaki, Haruhiko; Matsushima, Akira; Matsuo, Hidehiko; Ishiyama, Masahiro; Aratani, Kenta; Tezuka, Masashi

JAEA-Technology 2020-001, 76 Pages, 2020/05

JAEA-Technology-2020-001.pdf:6.06MB

Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) FUGEN was operated for about 25 years, and now has been proceeding decommissioning after the approval of the decommissioning plan in Feb. 2008. The reactor, heavy water system and helium system are contaminated by tritium because of neutron absorption of heavy water, which is a moderator. Before dismantling these facilities, it is necessary to remove tritium from them for not only reducing the amount of tritium released to surrounding environment and the risk of internal exposure by tritium but also ensuring the workability. In first phase of decommissioning (Heavy Water and Other system Decontamination Period), tritium decontamination of the reactor, heavy water system and helium system started in 2008 and completed in 2018. This report shows the results of tritium decontamination of the reactor, heavy water system and helium system.

Journal Articles

Status of decommissioning of FUGEN Decommissioning Engineering Center

Takiya, Hiroaki; Aratani, Kenta; Awatani, Yuto; Ishiyama, Masahiro; Tezuka, Masashi; Mizui, Hiroyuki

Dekomisshoningu Giho, (59), p.2 - 12, 2019/03

FUGEN Decommissioning Engineering Center received the approval of the decommissioning program in 2008, and we have been progressing the decommissioning. The first phase of decommissioning (Heavy Water and Other system Decontamination Period) finished in May 2018, and FUGEN has entered into the second phase of decommissioning (Reactor Periphery Facilities Dismantling Period). This report outlines the results obtained in the first phase of decommissioning of FUGEN.

Journal Articles

Additional information to report on site tour of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Suto, Toshiyuki

Genshiryoku, hoshasen Bukaiho (Internet), (19), P. 15, 2016/12

The Tritiated Water Task Force under METI's Committee on Countermeasures for Contaminated Water Treatment for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) reported that the option of post-dilution offshore release could dispose the tritiated water at a smallest cost in the shortest amount of time. The amount of tritium in the contaminated water at 1F was compared with ones released from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants as some help for grasping its level of magnitude.

Journal Articles

Report on site tour of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station

Suto, Toshiyuki

Gijutsushi, 28(11), p.8 - 11, 2016/11

Five years have passed since the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Nuclear and Radiation section of the Institute of Professional Engineers hosted a site tour of the plant to make themselves sure what is going on in it and to disseminate information about it. The conditions of landscape during traveling between the gathering place and the plant, each reactor, contaminated water treatment, site, and work environment improvement will be reported.

Journal Articles

Study on pretreatment methods using a rapid combustion apparatus for the analyses of Organically Bound Tritium (OBT) in environmental samples

Manabe, Sachi; Matsubara, Natsumi; Saegusa, Jun; Takeishi, Minoru

KEK Proceedings 2016-8, p.281 - 285, 2016/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Tritium decontamination of contaminated system with tritiated heavy water by drying treatment

Kadowaki, Haruhiko; Matsushima, Akira; Nakajima, Yoshiaki

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2016/06

Advanced thermal reactor "FUGEN" is a heavy water-moderated boiling light water-cooled pressure tube-type reactor. Because tritium had been generated in the heavy water during the reactor operation, the heavy water system and helium system were contaminated by tritium. The chemical form of the tritium was water molecule in FUGEN. Air-through drying and vacuum drying were applied to the system drying, and it was demonstrated that both methods were effective for drying treatment of heavy water in system. Helium system, low-contamination and non inclusion, could finish the vacuum drying rapidly. However, Heavy water purification system needed long period for drying treatment. The result showed that it needed long period to dry up if the objects include the adsorbent of water such as alumina pellet, resin and silica gel. But it can be accelerated by replacement absorbed heavy water to light water from the result of drying treatment of the rotary type dehumidifier.

Journal Articles

Hydrophobic platinum honeycomb catalyst to be used for tritium oxidation reactors

Iwai, Yasunori; Kubo, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Yusuke*; Noguchi, Hiroshi*; Edao, Yuki; Taniuchi, Junichi*

Fusion Science and Technology, 68(3), p.596 - 600, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have newly developed the hydrophobic platinum honeycomb catalysts applicable to tritium oxidation reactor since the honeycomb-shape catalyst can decrease the pressure drop. Two types of hydrophobic honeycomb catalyst have been test-manufactured. One is the hydrophobic platinum catalyst on a metal honeycomb. The other is the hydrophobic platinum catalyst on a ceramic honeycomb made of silicon carbide. The fine platinum particles around a few nanometers significantly improve the catalytic activity for the oxidation tritium at a tracer concentration. The hydrogen concentration in the gaseous feed slightly affects the overall reaction rate constant for hydrogen oxidation. Due to the competitive adsorption of hydrogen and water molecules on platinum surface, the overall reaction rate constant has the bottom value. The hydrogen concentration for the bottom value is 100 ppm under the dry feed gas. We have experimentally confirmed the activity of these honeycomb catalysts is as good as that of pellet-shape hydrophobic catalyst. The results support the hydrophobic honeycomb catalysts are applicable to tritium oxidation reactor.

Journal Articles

Catalyst technology of Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo

Kubo, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Yusuke*; Iwai, Yasunori

JETI, 63(10), p.33 - 36, 2015/09

Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo provides a broad range of precious metals products and technologies. Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo and Japan Atomic Energy Agency have jointly developed a new method of manufacturing catalysts involving hydrophobic processing with an inorganic substance base. As a result, previous technological issues were able to be solved with the development of a catalyst that exhibited no performance degradation in response to radiation application of 530 kGy, a standard for radiation resistance, and maintenance of thermal stability at over 600$$^{circ}$$C, which is much higher than the 70$$^{circ}$$C temperature that is normally used. The application of this catalyst to the liquid phase catalytic exchange process is expected to overcome significant technological hurdles with regards to improving the reliability and efficiency of systems for collecting tritium from tritiated water. It is also anticipated that the hydrophobic platinum catalyst manufacturing technology used for this catalyst could be applied to a wide range of fields other than nuclear fusion research. It was verified that if applied to a hydro oxidation catalyst, hydrogen could be efficiently oxidized, even at room temperature. This catalyst can also contribute to improving safety at non-nuclear plants that use hydrogen in general by solving the aforementioned vulnerability issue.

Journal Articles

Development of hydrophobic platinum catalyst for the effective collection of tritium in fusion plants

Iwai, Yasunori; Kubo, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Yusuke*

Isotope News, (736), p.12 - 17, 2015/08

We have successfully developed a new hydrophobic platinum catalyst for collecting tritium at nuclear fusion reactors. Catalysts used to collect tritium are called hydrophobic precious metal catalysts. In Japan, hydrophobic precious metal catalysts manufactured from polymers have been used for heavy water refinement.However, this catalyst has issues related to embrittlement to radiation and thermal stability. These technological issues needed to be solved to allow for its application to nuclear fusion reactors requiring further enrichment from highly-concentrated tritiated water. We developed a new method of manufacturing catalysts involving hydrophobic processing with an inorganic substance base. As a result, previous technological issues were able to be solved with the development of a catalyst that exhibited no performance degradation in response to radiation application of 530kGy, a standard for radiation resistance, and maintenance of thermal stability at over 600$$^{circ}$$C, which is much higher than the 70$$^{circ}$$C temperature that is normally used. The catalyst created with this method was also confirmed to have achieved the world's highest exchange efficiency, equivalent to 1.3 times the previously most powerful efficiency. The application of this catalyst to the liquid phase catalytic exchange process is expected to overcome significant technological hurdles with regards to improving the reliability and efficiency of systems for collecting tritium from tritiated water.

Journal Articles

Successful development of a new catalyst for efficiently collecting tritium; A Breakthrough toward realization of fusion reactors

Iwai, Yasunori; Kubo, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Yusuke*

Kagaku, 70(5), p.35 - 40, 2015/05

We have successfully developed a new hydrophobic platinum catalyst for collecting tritium at nuclear fusion reactors. Catalysts used to collect tritium are called hydrophobic precious metal catalysts. In Japan, hydrophobic precious metal catalysts manufactured from polymers have been used for heavy water refinement. However, this catalyst has issues related to embrittlement to radiation and thermal stability. These technological issues needed to be solved to allow for its application to nuclear fusion reactors requiring further enrichment from highly-concentrated tritiated water. We developed a new method of manufacturing catalysts involving hydrophobic processing with an inorganic substance base. As a result, previous technological issues were able to be solved with the development of a catalyst that exhibited no performance degradation in response to radiation application of 530 kGy, a standard for radiation resistance, and maintenance of thermal stability at over 600$$^{circ}$$C, which is much higher than the 70$$^{circ}$$C temperature that is normally used. The catalyst created with this method was also confirmed to have achieved the world's highest exchange efficiency, equivalent to 1.3 times the previously most powerful efficiency. The application of this catalyst to the liquid phase catalytic exchange process is expected to overcome significant technological hurdles with regards to improving the reliability and efficiency of systems for collecting tritium from tritiated water.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of residual tritium in stainless steel irradiated at SINQ target 3

Kikuchi, Kenji; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Sumi; Saito, Shigeru; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 356(1-3), p.157 - 161, 2006/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:60.36(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A high-energy proton of 580MeV at SINQ target generates almost all constituents through spallation process with hydrogen and helium gases. For the SINQ target hydrogen and helium are generated to hundreds appm H and tens appm He, respectively. However, tritium gas production has not been yet reported. Evaluation of tritium gas generation in the specimens of target 3 was done by calculation. Results were compared with gamma spectrum measurement. Residual tritium measurement was carried by the thermal desorption method. It is found that a release of tritium began over 250$$^{circ}$$C and material included 4 MBq/g. The ratio of residual tritium to generated one is estimated to be less than 20%.

Journal Articles

Operation scenarios and requirements for fuel processing in future fusion reactor facilities; Hydrogen isotope separation as a key process for fuel recycle and safety

Ohira, Shigeru; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 43(4), p.354 - 360, 2006/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In this paper, expected operation scenarios for ITER and future fusion reactors from a viewpoint of an integrated isotope processing in a future D-T fusion rector are provided with comparisons of requirements for system design attributed to the operation scenarios, safety requirements, etc. Most of the basic requirements for fuel process of a D-T fusion reactor facility common are the same, but the design requirements coming from the individual operation scenarios of ITER and future demo reactors will differ. The system design requirements of the tritium plant taking care of various operations of ITER and a demo reactor are examined and compared. Due to the increase of tritium concentration in the coolant of a demo reactor by tritium permeation in the structural material of the in-vessel components operated at a temperature higher than that of ITER detritiation of coolant will be getting more important. Some important key parameters related to hydrogen isotope processing in future fusion reactors will be discussed.

Journal Articles

Tritium release from bulk of carbon-based tiles used in JT-60U

Takeishi, Toshiharu*; Katayama, Kazunari*; Nishikawa, Masabumi*; Masaki, Kei; Miya, Naoyuki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 349(3), p.327 - 338, 2006/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:55.07(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Vapor species evolved from Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ heated at high temperature under various conditions

Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Yasumoto, Masaru*; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Kimio; Nishimura, Hidetoshi*; Suzuki, Akihiro*; Terai, Takayuki*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.555 - 559, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:29.45(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of contact strength of Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ pebbles with different diameters

Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoru*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(8-14), p.1065 - 1069, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:42.16(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Distinctive radiation durability of an ion exchange membrane in the SPE water electrolyzer for the ITER water detritiation system

Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Nishi, Masataka; Yagi, Toshiaki; Tamada, Masao

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.815 - 820, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:27.2(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Solid-polymer-electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis is attractive in electrolytic process of water detritiation system (WDS) in fusion reactors because it can electrolyze liquid waste directly, but radioactive durability of its ion exchange membrane is a key point. Radioactive durability of Nafion, a typical commercial ion exchange membrane, was experimentally investigated using Co-60 irradiation facility and electron beam irradiation facility at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI. Nafion is composed of PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) main chain. However the degradation of its mechanical strength by irradiation was significantly distinguished from that of PTFE and no serious damage was observed for its ion exchange capacity up to 530 kGy, the requirement of ITER. Atmospheric effects such as soaking and oxygen on degrading behaviors were discussed from the viewpoint of radical reaction mechanism. Dependencies of operating temperature and radioactive source are also demonstrated in detail.

Journal Articles

Study on tritium accountancy in fusion DEMO plant at JAERI

Nishi, Masataka; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; DEMO Plant Design Team

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.745 - 751, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:28 Percentile:10.76(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The fusion DEMO plant is under designing at JAERI as a fusion machine following ITER, and it is designed with long-term steady operation and tritium breeding blanket in which more tritium is produced than consumption. Therefore, proper tritium accountancy control concept should be discussed and developed for its safety and operation. From the viewpoint of regulation for the radioisotopes, at first, it will be suitable to divide facilities of the fusion DEMO plant into three accountancy control blocks, that is, (1) the contaminated waste management facility, (2) the long term tritium storage facility, and (3) the fuel processing plant. In each block, tritium amount of receipt and delivery should be carefully accounted. The fuel processing plant involves tritium production in the blanket, therefore proper accounting method for produced tritium should be established. Furthermore, dynamic accountancy is indispensable to the fuel processing plant to monitor tritium inventory distribution for safety and optimum system control in addition to the accountancy under regulation.

Journal Articles

A Design study for tritium recovery system from cooling water of a fusion power plant

Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Iwai, Yasunori; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Nishi, Masataka

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.797 - 802, 2006/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Monitoring of tritium in diluted gases by detecting bremsstrahlung X-rays

Shu, Wataru; Matsuyama, Masao*; Suzuki, Takumi; Nishi, Masataka

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.803 - 808, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:42.16(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In this work, the counting rate of bremsstrahlung X-rays was measured against the tritium partial pressure in two mixed gases diluted with helium or hydrogen. Subsequently, the counting rate was also measured against total pressure for T$$_{2}$$-He mixture at a constant tritium partial pressure of 93 Pa or 1.3 kPa. For both mixtures, the counting rate of bremsstrahlung X-rays decreased linearly with the decreasing tritium partial pressure when the total pressure is smaller than about 10 kPa. At higher pressures, the deviation from the linear relationship appeared due to absorption of beta-particles in the gas phase, and this can be decreased by some commercially available arrangements. On the other hand, the counting rate of bremsstrahlung X-rays depended only upon the tritium partial pressure when absorption of beta-particles in the gas phase is negligibly small. The results obtained show that this method of tritium monitoring is very promising for the fuel processing system of fusion reactors, especially for tritium recovery system of breeding blankets.

Journal Articles

Case study on tritium inventory in the fusion DEMO plant at JAERI

Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakurai, Shinji; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Enoeda, Mikio; Tobita, Kenji; DEMO Plant Design Team

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(8-14), p.1339 - 1345, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:38 Percentile:6.61(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

649 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)