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JAEA Reports

Development of technique for acquiring fracture void structure data for a single fracture and acquisition of hydraulic/mass transport properties in a fracture

Sato, Hisashi*; Sawada, Atsushi; Takayama, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2020-012, 37 Pages, 2020/11


In the safety assessment of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is important to fully understand the permeability and mass transport properties of actual fractures when setting parameters for permeability and mass transport properties of fractures. Permeability and mass transport properties of a fracture are affected by the void structure of the fracture. Therefore, it is necessary not only to conduct a hydraulic test but also to evaluate hydraulic properties based on the void structure of the fracture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a technique to acquire a three-dimensional void structure of a fracture from fracture surface shape data, and to obtain a dataset of three- dimensional void structure data and hydraulic data of the fracture. Specifically, we made a transparent replica sample of fracture and measure the fracture surface shape data in the exact coordinates. The three-dimensional void structure data was constituted from fracture surface shape data in the same coordinates. In addition, we conducted a permeability test and tracer test for the same sample to obtain a permeability and mass transport properties of the fracture. To assess the validity of the acquired data, we compared it with the apertures evaluated based on different methods. As a result, the average aperture from the fracture void structure was almost same as the average aperture acquired by different methods, from the above that the test result was validated.

Journal Articles

Improved Bayesian update method on flaw distributions reflecting non-destructive inspection result

Katsuyama, Jinya; Miyamoto, Yuhei*; Lu, K.; Mano, Akihiro; Li, Y.

Proceedings of ASME 2020 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2020) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2020/08

We have developed a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis code PASCAL4 for evaluating failure frequency of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). It is known that flaw distributions have an important role in failure frequency calculation in PFM analysis. Previously, we proposed likelihood function to obtain more realistic flaw distributions applicable for both case when flaws are detected and when there is no flaw indication as the inspection results based on Bayesian update methodology. Here, it can be applied to independently obtain posterior distributions of flaw depth and density. In this study, we improve the likelihood function to enable them to update flaw depth and density simultaneously. Based on the improved likelihood function, an example is presented in which flaw distributions are estimated by reflecting NDI results through Bayesian update and PFM analysis. The results indicate that the improved likelihood functions are useful for estimating flaw distributions.

Journal Articles

Crack growth evaluation for cracked stainless and carbon steel pipes under large seismic cyclic loading

Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.; Onizawa, Kunio

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 142(2), p.021906_1 - 021906_11, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Engineering, Mechanical)

Journal Articles

Influence of applied load on oxidation in the vicinity of crack tips of stainless steel under high temperature water

Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(9), p.240 - 247, 2019/09

In order to study environment assisted cracking mechanism of stainless steel under BWR primary coolant condition, effects of applied load on oxidation in the vicinity of crack tips of CT specimens were evaluated. Loaded CT specimens were immersed in an aqueous condition at 290$$^{circ}$$C as a simulated BWR coolant condition, and microstructural observation on oxide near the tips of pre-cracks was carried out. Oxide inner layers, which consisted of fine grain magnetite containing Fe and Cr were formed, and oxide outer layers consisting of large grains of Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ were observed to cover the inner layers. FEM analysis of stress and strain in the loaded CT specimen suggests that both of dislocations due to localized plastic deformation and elastic strain could play important roles to accelerate inner oxide formation in the vicinity of the crack tip of the specimens.

Journal Articles

Empirical equations of crack growth rates based on data fitting of neutron irradiated stainless steel under high temperature water simulating boiling water reactor core conditions

Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kuniki; Fukuya, Koji*; Fujii, Katsuhiko*

Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors (Internet), p.1345 - 1355, 2019/08

This paper describes empirical equation development of crack growth rates (CGR) in consideration of IASCC of neutron irradiated stainless steel to contribute to structural integrity assessment of BWR reactor internals. Empirical equations of CGR (da/dt) were developed based on a formula of da/dt = M$$times$$K$$^{n}$$, assuming that "M" and "n" tend to be saturated with increasing neutron fluence. To obtain the empirical equations for normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) of BWR, a data fitting with least square method was applied to the datasets consisting of F, K and CGR from post irradiation examinations of neutron irradiated stainless steel under simulated NWC and HWC conditions from open literature. As a result, calculated results by the equation for NWC showed good agreement with measured CGR data, meanwhile those for HWC did not. The above difference was seemed to be attributed that CGR data obtained under HWC conditions were scattered extensively.

Journal Articles

Crack growth prediction for cracked dissimilar metal weld joint in pipe under large seismic cyclic loading

Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 2018 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2018), 8 Pages, 2018/07

In order to assess the structure integrity of cracked pipes considering occurrence of large earthquakes, crack growth evaluation method for cracked pipes is important. In present study, evaluation method of crack growth by seismic loading was proposed for a dissimilar metal weld joint of nickel based alloy through experimental study using small specimens. Then, validation of the proposed method was performed through crack growth tests by using dissimilar metal weld pipe with circumferential through-wall crack. The predicted crack growth values were in good agreement with the experimental results and the applicability of the proposed method was confirmed.

Journal Articles

Fatigue crack growth for ferritic steel under negative stress ratio

Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Hasegawa, Kunio; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 2018 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2018), 6 Pages, 2018/07

Crack closure during fatigue crack growth is an important phenomenon for predicting fatigue crack growth amount. Much experimental data shows that fatigue cracks close at not only negative loads but also positive loads during a constant amplitude loading cycle. The Appendix A-4300 in the ASME Code Section XI provides two equations of fatigue crack growth rates expressed by stress intensity factor range for ferritic steels under negative stress ratio. One is the equation taking into account crack closure and the other does not consider the crack closure. The boundary of crack closure is classified by the magnitude of applied stress intensity factor range. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of the magnitude of stress intensity factor range on crack closure. Fatigue tests have been performed on ferritic steel in air environment at room and high temperatures. Crack closures were obtained as a parameter of stress ratio. It was found that crack closure occurs more small applied stress intensity factor range than the definition given by the Appendix A-4300.

Journal Articles

Numerical study on longitudinal distance effect on failure stress of non-aligned twin cracked pipe

Nguyen, T.-L.*; Lee, M.-W.*; Hasegawa, Kunio; Kim, Y.-J.*

Proceedings of 2018 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2018), 7 Pages, 2018/07

The effect of longitudinal distance H between non-aligned twin cracks is investigated using finite element damage analysis. It is shown that the failure bending stresses are raised by increasing longitudinal distance H for deep short cracks. On the contrary, shallow long cracks are unaffected by the distance H.

Journal Articles

Discrete fracture network model for faults distributed in Neogene massive siliceous mudstones

Hayano, Akira; Ishii, Eiichi

Shigen, Sozai Koenshu (Internet), 5(1), 9 Pages, 2018/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Reference curve of fatigue crack growth for ferritic steels under negative R ratio provided by ASME Code Section XI

Hasegawa, Kunio*; Mares, V.*; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 139(3), p.034501_1 - 034501_5, 2017/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:75.59(Engineering, Mechanical)

JAEA Reports

Guideline on a structural integrity assessment for reactor pressure vessel based on probabilistic fracture mechanics (Contract research)

Katsuyama, Jinya; Osakabe, Kazuya*; Uno, Shumpei; Li, Y.

JAEA-Research 2016-022, 40 Pages, 2017/02


For reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in the light water reactors, the fracture toughness decreases due to the neutron irradiation embrittlement with operating years. In Japan, to prevent RPVs from a nil-ductile fracture, deterministic fracture mechanics methods in accordance with the codes provided by the Japan Electric Association are performed for assessing the structural integrity of RPVs under the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events by taking the neutron irradiation embrittlement into account. On the other hand, in recent years, probabilistic methodologies for PTS evaluation are introduced into regulations in Europe and the United States. For example, in the United States, a PTS screening criterion related to the reference temperature derived by the probabilistic method is stipulated. If the screening criterion is not satisfied, it is approved to perform the evaluation based on the probabilistic method by calculating numerical index such as through-wall crack frequency (TWCF). To reach the objectives that persons who have knowledge on the fracture mechanics can carry out the PFM analyses and obtain TWCF for a domestic RPVs by referring to this report, we develop the guideline on a structural integrity assessment method based on PFM by reflecting the latest knowledge and expertise.

Journal Articles

Comparison of stress intensity factor solutions for surface cracks with high aspect ratio

Nagai, Masaki*; Lu, K.; Kamaya, Masayuki*

Nippon Kikai Gakkai M&M 2016 Zairyo Rikigaku Kanfarensu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.481 - 483, 2016/10

In nuclear power plants, a number of cracks attributed to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been detected in welds made with nickel alloy weld metals. One of the characteristics of these cracks is that crack aspect ratio $$a/l$$ is greater than 0.5, where a is the crack depth and $$l$$ is the crack length. When a crack is detected in components of nuclear power plants during in-service inspection, flaw evaluation is conducted according to the requirement of codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants. Here, the stress intensity factor plays an important role for predicting crack growth behavior due to fatigue and/or SCC. Although several solutions of the stress intensity factor are already given in the JSME code, no solutions are available for the cracks with $$a/l >$$ 0.5. According to the current code, surface cracks with $$a/l >$$ 0.5 are characterized as semi-circular shape $$l = 2a$$. To evaluate these cracks in a rational manner, several solutions have been proposed for cracks with $$a/l >$$ 0.5. In this paper, comprehensive comparison was made between solutions for cracks $$a/l >$$ 0.5, and benchmark analysis on SCC crack growth was performed.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of fractures in a rock as flow paths around tunnel using ground penetrating radar

Masumoto, Kazuhiko*; Takeuchi, Ryuji

Oyo Chishitsu, 57(4), p.154 - 161, 2016/10

Fractures developing around the tunnel during the excavation result in issues related not only to the mechanical stability of the rock cavern, but also to the groundwater flow paths. In order to estimate the possibility of application of the GPR (Ground Penetration Radar) to estimate the fractures as low paths, the authors conducted the GPR survey along the side wall of 500 m access tunnel of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory of JAEA. The results of the profile measurements indicated that water-conductiong fractures were detected as a reflected waves using GPR survay. Furthermore, as the results of fixed-point measurements during the injection of the saline water, it could be indicated to estimate the flow paths of saline water in the fractures, in a non-destructive way, based on spectral analysis in the reflected waveforms of GPR.

Journal Articles

Stress intensity factor solutions for subsurface flaws in plates subjected to polynomial stress distributions

Lu, K.; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.; Iwamatsu, Fuminori*

Proceedings of 2016 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2016) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2016/07

Stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions for subsurface flaws near the free surface in plates were numerically investigated based on the finite element analyses. The flaws with aspect ratios $$a/l$$ = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, the normalized ratios $$a/d$$ = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 and $$d/t$$ = 0.01 and 0.1 were taken into account, where a is the half flaw depth, l is the flaw length, $$d$$ is the distance from the center of the subsurface flaw to the nearest free surface and t is the wall thickness. Fourth-order polynomial stress distributions in the thickness direction were considered. In addition, probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses were also performed and some example solutions obtained in this work were used to evaluate the conditional probability of failure of a reactor pressure vessel under a pressurized thermal shock event. The results indicated that the numerical SIF solutions calculated in this study are effective in engineering applications.

Journal Articles

Gigacycle fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless steels used for mercury target vessels

Naoe, Takashi; Xiong, Z.; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 468, p.331 - 338, 2016/01


 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:13.05(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Mercury enclosure vessel of the JSNS made of an austenitic stainless steel suffers radiation damage in the proton and neutron environment. In addition to the radiation damage, the vessel suffers the cyclic impact loading caused from the pressure waves. The JSNS target vessel suffers higher than 2$$times$$10$$^8$$ cyclic loading. Furthermore, strain rate of the beam window portion of the target vessel reaches to 50s$$^{-1}$$ at the maximum, which is much higher than the conventional fatigues. Very high cycle fatigue strengths up to 10$$^9$$ cycles for solution annealed (SA) and 10% cold-worked 316L (CW) were investigated through the ultrasonic fatigue test. The result showed that the fatigue strengths of SA and CW tested in high-strain rate were higher than that of the conventional fatigue. On the other hand, the fatigue failure occurred regardless of material and temperature in the very high-cycle region ($$10^7 sim 10^9$$ cycles) at the stress amplitude of below the conventional fatigue limit.

Journal Articles

Study on flaw-to-surface proximity rule for transforming subsurface flaws to surface flaws based on fatigue crack growth experiments

Hasegawa, Kunio; Li, Y.; Saito, Koichi*

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 137(4), p.041101_1 - 041101_7, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:75.28(Engineering, Mechanical)

If a subsurface flaw is located near a component surface, the subsurface flaw is transformed to a surface flaw in accordance with a flaw-to-surface proximity rule. The re-characterization process from subsurface to surface flaw is adopted in all fitness-for-service (FFS) codes. However, the concrete criteria of the re-characterizations are different among the FFS codes. Cyclic tensile experiment was conducted on a carbon steel flat plate with a subsurface flaw at ambient temperature. The objective of the paper is to compare the experiment and calculation of fatigue crack growth behavior for a subsurface flaw and the transformed surface flaw, and to describe the validity of the flaw-to-surface proximity rule defined by ASME Code Section XI, JSME S NA1 Code and other codes.

Journal Articles

On the effects of fatigue precracking on the microstructure around precrack in 1TCT fracture toughness specimen of F82H-IEA

Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Naoyuki*; Sokolov, M. A.*; Klueh, R. L.*; Ando, Masami

Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending (DOE/ER-0313/35), p.58 - 60, 2004/04

1TCT fracture toughness specimens of F82H-IEA steel were fatigue precracked and sliced in specimen thickness wise for microstructure analysis around the precrack. The microstructure around the precrack was observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM samples around the crack front were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) processor. The fracture surfaces of tested 1TCT specimens were also observed. OM observation showed that the precrack penetration was straight in the beginning, and then tended to follow a prior austenite grain boundary and to branch into 2 to 3 directions at the terminal. SEM and OIM observations revealed that the both microstructures around the precracks and ahead of the precrack had turned into cell structure, which is the typical microstructure of fatigue-loaded F82H. TEM images and inverse pole figures obtained from the crack-front region confirmed this structure change.

Journal Articles

Study on deep groundwater flow

Kumata, Masahiro; Mukai, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Hiroshi*

JAERI-Conf 2001-015, p.80 - 81, 2001/12

Based on the groundwater scenario, prediction of the transport of radionuclides from waste disposal facilities requires an understanding of deep groundwater flow system. Capabilities offering by isotope techniques using environmental tracer enable one to estimate past and present behavior of groundwater system, and therefore establish a basis for future predictions. A study area was selected in Japan and hydrogeological study has been performed. On the other hand, fractures in the hard rock mass play an important role on groundwater flow at the depth. Basic study was performed for resistivity tomography, one of the useful techniques for the evaluation of rock fractures.

JAEA Reports

Water permeability test of rock specimen with natural fractures using high viscosity liquid


JNC-TN8430 2001-006, 72 Pages, 2001/10


We had been conducted to study hydraulic permeability along fracture intersection by NETBLOCK system using natural rock specimen. Since the permeability of this rock specimen fracture is high, it was suggest that turbulent flow might be occurred in available range of measurement system. In case of turbulent flow, estimated permeability and fracture aperture from test data tend to be low. Therefore we should achieve laminar flow. This study was used the high viscosity liquid instead of water, and test conditions which could attain laminar flow with the rock specimen was examined. The rock specimen is granite rock, has natural Y-type fractures intersection. A solution of Methyl-cellulose is used as high viscosity liquid. Due to the high viscosity liquid, hydraulic head could be measured in the wide range, and high viscosity liquid improved the accuracy of measurement. Laminar flow could be achieved in the rock specimen by the high viscosity liquid over 0.1wt%.

JAEA Reports

Study of uranium particle fuel fabrication with the external gelation process with the vibration dropping Method

Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Shoji, Shuichi*; *; Sato, Seiichi*; ; Endo, Hideo

JNC-TN8430 2001-005, 64 Pages, 2001/09


The external gelation process is one of the candidates of MOX particle fuel fabrication for advanced recycle system. It was necessary to perform preliminary fuel fabrication with uranium before starting MOX tests. As the result of the preliminary examination, Basics conditions of the fabrication were obtained: (1)Optimized uranyl nitrate solution and PVA solution, as raw materials were prepared. (2)The frequency of vibration and the amount of flow were obtained with optimized broth (mixture) in the vibration dropping process. (3)The influence of composition of broth and concentration of ammonia solution on gelation process was obtained. (4)Impurities after aging, washing and drying spHerical gel were surveyed, (5)The spherical gel were calcined to oxide particles and the particles were characterized by TG-DTA, therefore it is certain that outlook on the sintered particles as final products is very clear. On the top of that, there were no fatal technicalities of the external gelation process through material balance and a diameter dispersion of spherical gel and oxide particles. It is necessary to perform uranium examination to solve some new problems, for instant, surface crack of spherical gel. Although almost of all the preparations are completed and fabrication examination of MOX particles with vibration dropping equipment are ready for starting.

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