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JAEA Reports

Basic policy for rational measures of radioactive waste processing and disposal; Results of studies for acceleration of waste processing

Nakagawa, Akinori; Oyokawa, Atsushi; Murakami, Masashi; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Okada, Shota; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2021-006, 186 Pages, 2021/06


Radioactive wastes generated from R&D activities have been stored in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In order to reduce the risk of taking long time to process legacy wastes, countermeasures for acceleration of waste processing and disposal were studied. Work analysis of waste processing showed bottleneck processes, such as evaluation of radioactivity concentration, segregation of hazardous and combustibles materials. Concerning evaluation of radioactivity concentration, a radiological characterization method using a scaling factor and a nondestructive gamma-ray measurement should be developed. The number of radionuclides that are to be selected for the safety assessment of the trench type disposal facility can decrease using artificial barriers. Hazardous materials, will be identified using records and nondestructive inspection. The waste identified as hazardous will be unpacked and segregated. Preliminary calculations of waste acceptance criteria of hazardous material concentrations were conducted based on environmental standards in groundwater. The total volume of the combustibles will be evaluated using nondestructive inspection. The waste that does not comply with the waste acceptance criteria should be mixed with low combustible material waste such as dismantling concrete waste in order to satisfy the waste acceptance criteria on a disposal facility average. It was estimated that segregation throughput of compressed waste should be increased about 5 times more than conventional method by applying the countermeasures. Further study and technology development will be conducted to realize the plan.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of radioactivity concentration corresponding to dose criterion for near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities, Volume 1

Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Abe, Daichi*; Okada, Shota; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-004, 79 Pages, 2021/05


JAEA has aims to carry out near surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities. Therefore, radioactivity concentration corresponding to dose criteria of near surface disposal for 220 nuclides in the waste were calculated for the purpose of discussion for radioactivity limits between trench and concrete vault disposal, and key nuclides related to them. We calculated the radioactivity concentrations with consideration of not only the exposure pathways used at calculation of the radioactivity concentration limits of waste packages for near surface disposal by Nuclear Safety Commission but also ones used at the concentration limits for intermediate depth disposal. We also assumed the capacities of the disposal facilities as 44,000 m$$^{3}$$ for pit disposal and 150,000 m$$^{3}$$ for trench disposal. The radioactivity concentrations calculated in this report is used as the reference values because the disposal site has not been decided yet. Addition to this, the radioactivity concentrations will be revised according to circumstances of development of disposal facilities and so on. In the future, we will decide the radioactivity and radioactive concentration of a waste package described in the license application documents based on the dose assessment taken into consideration the disposal site conditions.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary 3-dimensional analysis of groundwater flow in the surrounding environment of near surface disposal facility

Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Totsuka, Masayoshi; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2016-032, 117 Pages, 2017/02


JAEA has been planning to implement near surface disposal of low level waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities. JAEA plans to carry out 3d analysis of groundwater flow in geological model around the disposal site because of development of migration assessment modeling of radioactivity materials in the site. In the safety demonstration test in JAEA, 3d analysis of groundwater flow was carried out on 1999. The analysis was calculated by using the code "3D-SEEP". But it is necessary to improve the conditions of the model in the analysis. Therefore, we improved the geological model which had been developed carried out 3d analysis of groundwater flow by using the current 3D-SEEP for the specified disposal site in the future. From the result, we expect that 3d analysis of groundwater flow in the environment around the specified near surface disposal site will be able to be sufficiently conducted by developing an appropriate model for the disposal site.

JAEA Reports

Method and result for calculation of radioactivity concentration of radionuclide corresponding to dose criterion for near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities

Okada, Shota; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakai, Akihiro; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2015-016, 44 Pages, 2015/07


In this report, we calculated radioactivity concentration of radionuclides potentially contained in low level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities corresponding to dose criterion (10 $$mu$$Sv/y) for near surface disposal. 220 kinds of nuclides whose half-life are more than 30 days were selected. Radioactivity concentrations corresponding to dose criterion of 40 nuclides among 220 ones were calculated by using the representative model because the concentrations of 40 nuclides had not been calculated yet. Skyshine dose from each of 19 nuclides, whose radioactivity concentration were invalid values that are larger than the specific radioactivity of nuclides, during operation of disposal facility was calculated. These radioactivity concentrations can be used as criteria of categorization of LLW between trench type and concrete vault type disposal and of preliminary selection of important nuclides of these disposals in the generic conditions.

Journal Articles

Sorption and migration of neptunium in porous sedimentary materials

Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Nakayama, Shinichi

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2005/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Suppression effect of natural barrier for the radionuclide migration under the practice environment

Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Matsumoto, Junko; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo; Bamba, Tsunetaka; Fujine, Sachio

Genshiryoku eye, 49(2), p.76 - 79, 2003/02

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

The Geological characteristics during the quaternary period around Japanese Islands

Hagiwara, Shigeru*; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi

JAERI-Review 2002-024, 203 Pages, 2002/11


Radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope facilities and nuclear research facilities should be disposed of in the surface of the earth, the shallow underground,the adequate depth and the deep undergruond according to radioactivity concentration, and should be managed during several hundreds years. For the selection of disposal site, it is necessary to survey the beginning of earth scientific phenomena observed in the Japanese Islands at present and to reconnoiter the prospective features. This report reviewed on the genesis and classification of sediments, earth scientific phenomena observed in the Japanese Islands and the feature of each place(10 districts) concerning to the Quaternary period in the newest geological time unit.

Journal Articles

Estimates of parameter and scenario uncertainties in shallow-land disposal of uranium wastes using deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment models

Takeda, Seiji; Kanno, Mitsuhiro; Minase, Naofumi; Kimura, Hideo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 39(8), p.929 - 937, 2002/08

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Activation energy of diffusivities for deuterated water in compacted sodium-bentonite; Through-diffusion experiment and molecular dynamics simulation

Suzuki, Satoru; Sato, Haruo; Ishidera, Takamitsu; Fujii, Naoki*; Kawamura, Katsuyuki*

JNC TN8400 2001-031, 44 Pages, 2002/05


In order to quantify effect of temperature on diffusivity of deuterated water (HDO) in compacted sodium-bentonite, through-diffusion experiments were conducted at elevated tempemture from 298 to 333 K. Kunipia F (Na-montmorillonite content $$>$$ 98 wt. %; Kunimine Industly Co.) was compacted to a dry density of 0.9 and l.35 Mg/m$$^{3}$$. Since smectite flakes were perpendicularly oriented to a direction of compaction, anisotropy of diffusivity was investigated parallel and normal to the preferred orientation of smectite. Effective diffusion coeficient D$$_{e}$$ of HDO was larger for a diffusional direction parallel to the preferred orientation than normal to that for both dry densities. These results well agreed to the previously reported ones for tritiated water. Activation energies of D$$_{e}$$ in compacted bentonite increased with increasing dry density in the range of 19 - 25 kJ/mol which was slightly larger than that in bulk water (18 kJ/mol). This relationship can be considered to be due to both the pore structure development and high activation energy of water (18-23 kJ/mol) in the vicinity of smectite surface (within 2 nm) on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations.

JAEA Reports

Development of the flow-through diffusion system and improvements of the experimental methods

Suzuki, Satoru; Sato, Haruo

JNC TN8410 2001-028, 36 Pages, 2002/03


For a safety assessment of the high-level radioactive waste disposal, effective diffusion coefficients (D$$_{e}$$) of radionuclides in bentonite have been accumulated by the through-diffusion method. It has been found recently that experimental results on D$$_{e}$$s for several cations (cesium and strontium) by the fairly standard experimental method in JNC differ from those previously reported in several papers. Discrepancy can be considered to be due to different design of diffusion cell and system. In order to confirm influences of the experimental design on cation diffusivities in bentonite, a flow-through diffusion system was developed and several diffusion experiments were conducted.As a result, magnitude of D$$_{e}$$ and its salinity dependence were relatively different between the standard and flow-through diffusion system. Since the latter system can control boundary conditions of the experiment more strictly than the standard method, we can conclude that the flow-through diffusion system provide correct results. In addition, we apply this flow-through diffusion system to a modification of controlling boundary condition during the experiment and to the diffusion experiment under controlled temperature.

JAEA Reports

The Arrangement of the seismic design method of the underground facility

Tanai, Kenji; Horita, M.*; *; Goke, Mitsuo*

JNC TN8410 2001-026, 116 Pages, 2002/03


Earthquake resistance for the underground structure is higher than the ground structure. Therefore, the case of examining the earthquake resistance of underground structure was little. However, it carries out the research on the aseismic designing method of underground structure, since the tunnel was struck by Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, and it has obtained a much knowledge. However, an object of the most study was behavior at earthquake of the comparatively shallow underground structure in the alluvial plain board, and it not carry out the examination on behavior at earthquake of underground structure in the deep rock mass. In the meantime, underground disposal facility of the high level radioactive waste constructs in the deep underground, and it carries out the operation in these tunnels. In addition, it has made almost the general process of including from the construction start to the backfilling to be about 60 years (Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute, 1999). During these periods, it is necessary to also consider the earthquake resistance as underground structure from the viewpoint of the safety of facilities. Then, it extracted future problem as one of the improvement of the basis information for the decision of the safety standard and guideline of the country on earthquake-resistant design of the underground disposal facility, while it carried out investigation and arrangement of earthquake-resistant design cases, guidelines and analysis method on existing underground structure, etc.. And, the research item for the earthquake resistance assessment of underground structure as case study of the underground research laboratory.

JAEA Reports


Sato, Haruo

JNC TN1200 2001-007, 45 Pages, 2002/03


no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Safety assessment of uranium waste disposal

Kimura, Hideo

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu, 8(2), p.103 - 114, 2002/03

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Dataset of the relationship between unconfined compressive strength and tensile strength of rock mass

Sugita, Yutaka; Yui, Mikazu

JNC TN8450 2001-007, 16 Pages, 2002/02


This report summary the dataset of the relationship between unconfined compressive strength and tensile strength of the rock mass described in supporting report 2; repository design and engineering technology of second progress report (H12 report) on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan.

JAEA Reports

The Planning of future research program of underground laboratories in overseas

*; Tanai, Kenji; *

JNC TN8420 2001-007, 86 Pages, 2002/02


The objectives of this study is to identify the research issues, which are to be conducted in the future underground research laboratory, about operation and logistics systems for the planning of future research and development program. The research programs and experiments,etc. were investigated for the geological disposal projects in overseas sedimentary rocks and coastal geological environments aiming to reflect in the future underground research facility plan in Japan. In the investigation, information on the engineered-barrier performance, design and construction of underground facilities, tunnel support, transportation and emplacement, and backfilling technology, etc. were collected. Based on these informations, the purpose, the content, and the result of each investigations and tests were arranged. The strategy and the aim in the entire underground research facility, and the flow of investigations and tests, etc. were also arranged from the purpose, the relations and the sequence of each investigation and experiment, and the usage of results, etc.

JAEA Reports

A study on long term stability of bentonite; The preliminary study on the bentonite stability in the groundwater influenced by cementitious material

*; Mihara, Morihiro;

JNC TN8430 2001-007, 56 Pages, 2002/01


In the geological disposal concept of radioactive wastes, a kind of clay with sorption ability and low permeability, called bentonite, is envisaged as an engineered barrier system in the geological repository. Also, the cemetitious material is envisaged as the backfill material in the vaults and the structure material of the vaults. The groundwater in contact with the cementitious material will promote hyperalkaline conditions in the repository environment and these conditions will affect the performance of the bentonite. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the interaction between the cementitious material and the bentonite for the evaluation of long term stability of the disposal system. In this study, for the identification and the investigation of the secondary minerals, the batch immersion experiments of the powder bentonite were carried out using synthetic cement leachates (pH=7, 12.5, 14) at 200$$^{circ}$$C. As the results, it was confirmed that Na as exchangeable cations in the bentonite can exchange relatively easily with Ca in the solution from the experiment results. And the ratio of cation exchange was estimated to be about 25% based on the amount of exchangeable cations Ca$$^{2+}$$ between layers. Furthermore, it was concretely shown that the generation of analcime might be affected by the Na concentration from results of the solution analyses and a stability analysis of analcime using the chemical equilibrium model, in addition to the pH in the solution.

JAEA Reports

The Sorption database of radionuclides for cementitious materials

Kato, Hiroshige*; Mine, Tatsuya*; Mihara, Morihiro; Oi, Takao; Honda, Akira

JNC TN8400 2001-029, 63 Pages, 2002/01


Cementitious materials will be used for the TRU waste repository as a component of engineered barrier system. The distribution coefficients which represent the retardation of radionuclides migration for the cementitious materials would be one of the important parameter for the safety assessment. The much information of radionuclide sorption onto the cementitious materials has been accumulated through the study in the world. Therefore it is necessary to compile the information and Kd of the radionuclides reported in previous studies. In this report, the Kd of the important radionuclides, such as C, Ni, Se, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Sn, I, Cs, Sm, Pb, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, for the cementitious materials were compiled as the Sorption Database (SDB). For radionuclides to be sensitive to the redox potential, e.g. Se, Tc, Pa, U, Pu and Np, some Kds measured under the controlled atmosphere had been reported, and few Kds measured under the controlled redox potential had been reported. For Se, Mo, Sm, Cm and Ac, the distribution coefficients had not been reported, therefore distribution coefficients of Se and Mo for OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) pastes were measured by batch sorption experiments and these data were added into the SDB.

JAEA Reports

A Research program for numerical experiments on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and chemical processes

Ito, Akira; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu

JNC TN8400 2001-028, 38 Pages, 2002/01


In a repository for high-level radioactive waste, coupled thermo -hydro -mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes will ocurr, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of groundwater, swelling pressure generation and chemical evolution of the buffer material and porewater chemistry. In this program, numerical experiment system for the coupled THMC processes will be developed in order to predict the long-term performance of the near-field (engineered barrier and host rock) for various geological environments. The simulation code development has been started in FY 2001 and three development steps are planned, because (1)development will be continued for some years, (2)feasibility of numerical experiment have to be confirmed by using existing tools. This report presents the following items of the simulation code development for the coupled THMC processes. (1)First step of the simulation code development (2)Mass transport passways in compacted bentonite (3)Parallelization of the simulation code

JAEA Reports

A Consideration of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

Sasaki, Noriaki

JNC TN8420 2001-006, 56 Pages, 2001/12


Geologic disposal cannot be implemented based only on the consensus of the engaged technical community, and needs the wide social agreement and confidence for it. This is now a common understanding in many countries. Under this kind of recognition, the concept of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioadive wastes has been rapidly interested inrecent years and has being discussed in several European countries. For example, EC has cooperated the concerted action on the retrievability of long-lived radioactive waste with the joining of nine countries, and the expert group on disposal concepts for radioactive waste (EKRA) set up by the Swiss government has presented its findings on the new concept of the long-lived radioactive waste management considering the retrievability. The OECD/NEA has also discussed on this issue and published the documents. There are some countries where the legislation requires the retrievability. This paper briefly summarizes the important findings and recommendations on the concept of retrievability, as the results of review of some interesting documents from European countries, for the purpose of reflecting to the research and development of geologic disposal in Japan.

JAEA Reports

Theoretical background and user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation in porous rock


JNC TN8400 2001-027, 131 Pages, 2001/11


In order to document a basic manual about input data, output data, execution of computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation in heterogeneous porous rock, we investigated the theoretical background about geostastical computer codes and the user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport which calculates water flow in three dimension, the path of moving radionuclide, and one dimensional radionuclide migration. In this report, based on above investigation we describe the geostastical background about simulating heterogeneous permeability field. And we describe construction of files, input and output data, a example of calculating of the programs which simulates heterogeneous permeability field, and calculates groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Therefore, we can document a manual by investigating the theoretical background about geostastical computer codes and the user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation. And we can model heterogeneous porous rock and analyze groundwater flow and radionuclide transport by utilizing the information from this report.

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