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Journal Articles

Distribution and fate of $$^{129}$$I in the seabed sediment off Fukushima

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Yuhi*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kuwabara, Jun; Nakanishi, Takahiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, p.208 - 218, 2018/12

 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

From August 2011 to October 2013, the concentration of iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) in the seabed sediment collected from 26 stations located within 160 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was estimated. The concentrations of $$^{129}$$I in seabed sediment off Fukushima in 2011 ranged between 0.02 and 0.45 mBq/kg. Although iodine is a biophilic element, the accident-derived radioiodine negligibly affects the benthic ecosystem. Until October 2013, a slightly increased activity of $$^{129}$$I in the surface sediment in the shelf-edge region (bottom depth: 200-400 m) was observed. The increase of the $$^{129}$$I concentrations in the shelf-edge sediments was affected by the (1) transport of $$^{129}$$I-bound particles from the land through rivers and (2) re-deposition of $$^{129}$$I desorbed from the contaminated coastal sediment to the shelf-edge sediments, which were considered to be dominant processes.

Journal Articles

$$delta^{13}$$C and $$delta^{15}$$N values of sediment-trap particles in the Japan and Yamato Basins and comparison with the core-top values in the East/Japan Sea

Khim, B.-K.*; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Park, K.-A.*; Noriki, Shinichiro*

Ocean Science Journal, 53(1), p.17 - 29, 2018/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:48.94(Marine & Freshwater Biology)

Distribution of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios ($$delta$$$$^{13}$$C, $$delta$$$$^{15}$$N) in sinking particles collected in four stations in the Japan Sea was summarized. The $$delta$$$$^{13}$$C and $$delta$$$$^{15}$$N values in the sinking particles showed a clear seasonal variation, which agreed well with the variation in the chlorophyll a concentration in the surface seawater and in the sinking flux of biogenic particles. In particular, during the highly productive season of phytoplankton, a remarkable isotopic fractionation of $$delta$$$$^{13}$$N was found in the sinking particles, and it was inferred that the fractionation indicates the degree of nitrogen uptake by diatoms in the surface layer. These results are helpful information for linking the phenomenon in the ocean surface and the isotopic information recorded in the seafloor.

Journal Articles

Factors controlling $$^{134}$$Cs activity concentrations in sediment collected off the coast of Fukushima Prefecture in 2013-2015

Fukuda, Miho*; Aono, Tatsuo*; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke*; Ishimaru, Takashi*; Kanda, Jota*; Nishikawa, Jun*; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi

Geochemical Journal, 52(2), p.201 - 209, 2018/00

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:52.17(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

To elucidate recent activity levels and the behavior of radiocesium in the coast off Fukushima Prefecture, lateral and vertical distributions of $$^{134}$$Cs in sediment were observed in 2013-2015 at 12 monitoring stations. At stations around the water depth of 100 m, relatively higher $$^{134}$$Cs activities were observed from surface sedimentary layer (0-3 cm). In these stations, sediments had high content of silt to clay particles and organic matter. The high $$^{134}$$Cs activities in the surface sediments were attributed to accumulation of highly mobile sediment particles. In October 2014, at some coastal stations, sharp peaks of $$^{134}$$Cs activities were observed in the subsurface (5-16 cm) sediments, whereas such broad peaks were not found in October 2015. These results suggest that the $$^{134}$$Cs activities in sediment had largely changed by lateral transport and re-sedimentation on the surface, as well as sediment mixing in the middle-layers.

Journal Articles

Challenges for enhancing Fukushima environmental resilience, 7; Behavior and abundance of radiocesium in the coastal area off Fukushima

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Machida, Masahiko

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 59(11), p.659 - 663, 2017/11

It is estimated that about 70% of radiocesium released to the environment by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was carried to the ocean. In addition to monitoring surveys by the government, oceanographic research by many institutions has revealed the distribution and behavior of the accident-derived radiocesium in the ocean. Numerical simulations are efficiently used in such oceanographic investigations, and further improvements are being made based on findings newly obtained after the accident. In this paper, we review the abundance and behavior of radiocesium in the coastal area of Fukushima, deepen the scientific understanding of the current situation of environmental restoration, and explain the issues to be addressed in the future.

Journal Articles

Processes affecting long-term changes in $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in surface sediments off Fukushima

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi

Journal of Oceanography, 73(5), p.559 - 570, 2017/10

AA2016-0399.pdf:0.91MB

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:32.18(Oceanography)

Based on monitoring data from 71 stations off the coast of Fukushima, Miyagi and Ibaraki Prefectures, changing tendencies of $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in surface (0-10 cm) sediment are analyzed, and primary processes affecting the temporal changes are determined. In the coastal region (water depth $$<$$ 100m), between 2011 and 2015, concentrations of $$^{137}$$Cs in the surface sediment decreased at the rate of 27% per year in average. Such a remarkable temporal change in the $$^{137}$$Cs concentration of sedimentary radiocesium was not observed in the offshore regions. By applying observed data of vertical distribution of sedimentary $$^{137}$$Cs into a pulse input sediment mixing model, it was estimated that more than a half of the decreasing effect was explained by vertical mixing of $$^{137}$$Cs-bound surface sediment with less-contaminated sediment in the deeper layers.

Journal Articles

Preface "Radionuclides in coastal sediments after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant; Distribution, dynamics and fate"

Nagao, Seiya*; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kaeriyama, Hideki*

Journal of Oceanography, 73(5), P. 527, 2017/10

More than five years have passed since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and many investigations have been carried out in the marine environment. Regarding the radiocesium concentration in seabed sediment, from May 2011, monitoring survey is continuing mainly in the coastal areas of Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. However, due to its heterogeneity, the difficulty of observation, etc., the assessment of the influence of the accident-derived radionuclides on seabed sediments and the benthic ecosystem is delayed compared to other environmental investigations. As the Guest Editors, the authors set up a special section in "Journal of Oceanography", including four papers arguing about factors affecting the temporal change of the radiocesium concentrations in estuarine, coastal and offshore sediments. This preface shows the planning intention of the special issue, and also outlines the contents.

Journal Articles

Resuspension and lateral transport of seafloor sediment contaminated with artificial radionuclides derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Honda, Makio*; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 58(4), p.225 - 228, 2016/04

Transport processes of particulate radiocesium obtained from a three year time-series sediment trap experiments at a site 115 km southeast of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant off Fukushima are expounded. Results show a high fraction of lithogenic material in sinking particles, suggesting a lateral source of sediments. In particular, we found that accident-derived radiocesium associate with slope and shelf sediments were resuspended and transported laterally to the offshore regions in typhoon seasons in 2013. Continuous observation of such transport processes of particulate radiocesium near the seabed would be significant for better understanding of the fate of accident-derived radiocesium.

Journal Articles

Vertical and lateral transport of particulate radiocesium off Fukushima

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Sato, Yuhi; Narita, Hisashi*

Environmental Science & Technology, 48(21), p.12595 - 12602, 2014/11

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:45.16(Engineering, Environmental)

From August 2011 to July 2013, a sediment trap was deployed at 100 km east of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and sinking particles were collected. Sinking flux of $$^{137}$$Cs decreased over time with seasonal fluctuation. The $$^{137}$$Cs fluxes were mainly affected by two principal modes. One was a rapid sinking of radiocesium-bound particles (moderate mode). This mode was dominant especially in the early post-accident stage, and was presumed to establish the distribution of radiocesium in the offshore seabed. Another was the secondary transport of particles attributed to turbulence near the seabed and was observed in winter (turbulence mode). Although the latter process would not drastically change the distribution of sedimentary radiocesium, attention should be paid as this key process redistributing the accident-derived radiocesium may cumulatively affect the long-term distribution.

Journal Articles

Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment in the Japan Sea; Distribution and transport processes of particulate radionuclides

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Amano, Hikaru; Ito, Toshimichi; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Suzuki, Takashi; Togawa, Orihiko; Chaykovskaya, E. L.*; Lishavskaya, T. S.*; Novichkov, V. P.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 91(3), p.128 - 145, 2006/00

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:65.52(Environmental Sciences)

Distributions of radionuclides ($$^{90}$$Sr, $$^{137}$$Cs and $$^{239+240}$$Pu) in seabed sediment in the Japan Sea were observed during 1998-2002. Observed inventories of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment ranged 0.1-86 Bq m$$^{-2}$$ for $$^{90}$$Sr, 23-379 Bq m$$^{-2}$$ for $$^{137}$$Cs and 0.1-86 Bq m$$^{-2}$$ for $$^{239+240}$$Pu. In the deep part ($$>$$ 2 km depth) of the western Japan Basin, $$^{239+240}$$Pu/$$^{137}$$Cs inventory ratios were larger than those in the central Yamato Basin although inventories of radionuclides were not different between basins. The higher $$^{239+240}$$Pu/$$^{137}$$Cs ratios in the western Japan Basin were derived by the production of Pu-enriched particle in the surface layer and effective sinking of particulate materials in this region. In the marginal Yamato Basin and the Ulleung Basin, both inventories and $$^{239+240}$$Pu/$$^{137}$$Cs ratios in sediment were larger than those in the central Yamato Basin. In the eastern/southern Japan Sea, it was suggested that the supply of particulate radionuclides by the TWC enhanced accumulation of radionuclides in this region.

Journal Articles

Fluxes and balance of $$^{210}$$Pb in the northwestern Japan Sea

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Baba, Masami*; Togawa, Orihiko; Karasev, E. V.*

Pacific Oceanography, 1(2), p.149 - 157, 2003/12

A sediment trap experiment and sediment coring were carried out in the northwestern Japan Sea (Sta MS), and lead-210 ($$^{210}$$Pb) and major components in settling particles were measured. By drawing up a balance of $$^{210}$$Pb in the water column, it was estimated that the cycle of $$^{210}$$Pb in the Sta MS was controlled by 3 processes, (1) removal and vertical transport of $$^{210}$$Pb from the surface layer by settling particles, (2) decomposition of particles in the deep layer, and (3) export by the deep current. Flux of $$^{210}$$Pb at 3 km depth was large in winter and spring. The large $$^{210}$$Pb flux in this season would be caused by the horizontal import of $$^{210}$$Pb -rich seawater from the coastal region to the bottom layer of Sta MS. It was suggested that seasonal variation of particulate $$^{210}$$Pb flux at the deep layer in the northwestern Japan Basin indicated the renewal of the deep water in this area.

Journal Articles

Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment in the Japan Sea

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Aramaki, Takafumi*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ito, Toshimichi; Togawa, Orihiko; Chaykovskaya, E. L.*; Dunaev, A. L.*; Karasev, E. V.*; Novichkov, V. P.*; et al.

Proceedings of International Symposium on Radioecology and Environmental Dosimetry, p.390 - 395, 2003/10

Seabed sediments were collected at 22 stations in the Japan Sea, and anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in order to understand distributions and accumulation processes of these materials. Averaged concentrations of $$^{137}$$Cs in sediment in the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin were 1.0 Bq/kg and 1.0 Bq/kg, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in mean $$^{137}$$Cs concentration between the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin, distributions of radionuclides in these 2 basins showed different features. In the Japan Basin, the spatial variation of concentration of radionuclides was smaller than that at the Yamato Basin. At most stations in the Yamato Basin, significant concentrations of radionuclides were not detected, but remarkable large activities were observed at several stations in the Yamato Basin. For all radionuclides, the highest concentration was observed in the southeastern margin of the Yamato Basin. These results would suggest that there were different accumulation processes of radionuclides between the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin.

JAEA Reports

None

PNC-TJ1309 98-001, 161 Pages, 1998/02

PNC-TJ1309-98-001.pdf:5.01MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

None

*

PNC-TJ1601 96-002, 74 Pages, 1996/03

PNC-TJ1601-96-002.pdf:3.16MB

None

JAEA Reports

None

; ; ; ; Isozaki, Tokuju;

PNC-TN8440 95-032, 458 Pages, 1995/09

PNC-TN8440-95-032.pdf:15.93MB

None

JAEA Reports

None

PNC-TJ1621 94-001, 111 Pages, 1994/03

PNC-TJ1621-94-001.pdf:3.27MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

None

PNC-TJ1621 93-001, 76 Pages, 1993/03

PNC-TJ1621-93-001.pdf:1.99MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

A Radioanalytical Method for Samarium-151 and Promethium-147in Environmental Samples

Sumiya, Shuichi; Hayashi, Naomi; ; Narita, Osamu

PNC-TN8430 91-001, 45 Pages, 1990/12

PNC-TN8430-91-001.pdf:0.85MB

A radioanalytical method for low level samarium-151(Sm-151) and promethium-147(Pm-147) in environmental samples has been studied for the environmental assessment around nuclear facilities. In this study, we use the separation method with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine Sm-151 and Pm-147 in environmental samples such as sea sediments and marine organisms. Samarium-151 and Pm-147 in environmental samples are coprecipitated with other lanthanoids after adding neodymium(Nd). These nuclides are purified by anion exchange methods in methanol-mineral acid media. After the purification, Sm-151 and Pm-147 are separated with HPLC in lactic acid-sodium hydroxide media, and determined with liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The Nd is determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) to correct chemical recoveries of these nuclides. The detection limits for Sm-151 and Pm-147 in this method are about 0.01Bq/sample.

Oral presentation

Sinking fluxes of radiocesium off Fukushima

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Yuhi; Suzuki, Takashi; Narita, Hisashi*

no journal, , 

A sediment trap experiment was conducted between August 2011 and July 2013 and sinking particles were collected at 100 km east of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Sinking flux of $$^{137}$$Cs was the highest in September 2011 (98 mBq/m$$^{2}$$/day), and decreased over time with seasonal fluctuation. The sinking fluxes of particulate radiocesium were controlled by two modes. One was a rapid sinking of radiocesium-bound particles (summer mode). This mode was dominant especially in the early post-accident stage, and was presumed to establish the distribution of radiocesium in the offshore seabed. Another was the secondary transport of particles attributed to turbulence near the seabed and was observed in winter (winter mode). Although the latter process would not change the distribution of sedimentary radiocesium drastically, attention should be paid as a key process redistributing the accident-derived radiocesium over a long duration.

Oral presentation

Lateral transport of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-derived particulate radiocesium to semi-pelagic ocean off Fukushima

Buesseler, K. O.*; German, C. R.*; Honda, Makio*; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Black, E. E.*; Kawakami, Hajime*; Manganini, S. M.*; Pike, S.*

no journal, , 

A three year time-series of particle fluxes is presented from sediment traps deployed at 500 and 1000 m at a site 115 km southeast of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Results show a high fraction of lithogenic material in sinking particles, suggesting a lateral source of sediments. From $$^{137}$$Cs/$$^{210}$$Pb ratio in sinking particles, it was inferred that accident-derived radiocesium associate with slope and shelf sediments were resuspended and transported laterally to the offshore regions in winter and typhoon seasons. Continuous observation of such transport processes of particulate radiocesium near the seabed would be significant for better understanding of the fate of accident-derived radiocesium.

Oral presentation

Transport processes of particulate materials near the seabed off Fukushima inferred from $$^{129}$$I/$$^{137}$$Cs ratio in sediment

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Yuhi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kuwabara, Jun

no journal, , 

Transport processes of radionuclides derived from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) near the seabed are inferred from relationship between $$^{129}$$I and $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in seabed sediment collected from August 2011 to January 2013 at totally 24 stations. $$^{129}$$I and $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in the sediment surface (0$$sim$$1 cm layer) were 0.04$$sim$$0.45 mBq/kg and 12$$sim$$230 Bq/kg, respectively. The $$^{129}$$I/$$^{137}$$Cs ratio generally increased with time and the increasing tendency was remarkable in the shelf break region (bottom depth: 200$$sim$$400 m). These results indicate that (1) particles with higher $$^{129}$$I and $$^{137}$$Cs ratio settled to the bottom layer after 2012, and (2) such "recently settled" particles were accumulated in the shelf break region. The $$^{129}$$I/$$^{137}$$Cs in seabed sediment would be a helpful indicator to trace the fate of particulate radionuclides from coast to the open ocean.

27 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)