JNC-TN1200 2001-007, 45 Pages, 2002/03
no abstracts in English
*; *; *; *
JNC-TJ8400 2000-005, 71 Pages, 2000/05
In this research, simulations with some parameters which characterize ground water flow and the reliability evaluation for the expansion of the calculation method of groundwater flow were carried out by using the radionuclide transport computations in nearfield heterogeneous porous media. Concretely contents are follows: (1)With the series of calculation method for three-dimensional saturated/unsaturated groundwater flow and one-dimensional radionuclide transport, the computational analyses with the parameters used in JNC report in 2000 was carried out and the influence of the different input flux was evaluated. (2)The examination of the application for the different ways of inverse laplace transformation which is used in one-dimensional radionuclide transport analysis code "MATRICS" was carried out. (3)The examination of the application of multi-element "MATRICS" (m-MATRICS) for radionuclide transport computations in nearfield heterogeneous porous media was carried out. (4)The series of calculation methods from three-dimensional saturated/unsaturated ground water flow simulation code to one-dimensional radionuclide transport simulation code was integrated.
WILLIAM S.DERSHO*; *
JNC-TJ8440 2000-001, 408 Pages, 2000/02
*; *; Okutsu, Kazuo*; Yamamoto, Takuya*; Amemiya, Kiyoshi*
JNC-TJ8400 2000-022, 303 Pages, 2000/02
This report gives supplementary information and discussions on issues of the high-level waste geological disposal study. The following subjects are discussed ; (1)Evaluation of the effects of coefficient of lateral pressure to the specifications of disposal facilities (2)Functional development of remote operational machinery (3)Arrangement of basic data on cost estimation for disposal (4)Understanding of engineering countermeasures to potential phenomena deep under the ground (5)Selection of construction technologies (6)Establishment of the disposal concept under the coasts. For the coefficient of lateral pressure equal to 2, the cross section of disposal drift, the disposal drift spacing, the waste package pitch in the disposal drift and the specification of supporting system are designed. They are compared with those for the case of coefficient of lateral pressure equal to 1. In the case of coefficient of lateral pressure equal to 2, total length of drifts is 1.5 times, and total excavation volume is 1.8 times larger than later case. For the sealing, transportation and emplacement equipment for waste, technology of the fundamental function, remote operation, accidental events and countermeasures are discussed. The plan for developments on those items is proposed. The item of the cost for the construction, operation, and backfilling are discussed. The surface facilities, and, worker arrangement plan are proposed. For the potential phenomena encountered deep under the ground, the countermeasures are investigated form the construction experience, and the future research subjects are discussed for the underground research laboratory. For the construction technologies, the experience of construction management for the tunnel is investigated, and, the research subjects are proposed. For the disposal concept under coasts, rock condition, design condition, construction management, and quality control are compared with the disposal concept under the ground. The ...
JNC-TJ8400 2000-003, 67 Pages, 2000/02
For the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, it is important to elucidate the effect of colloids on radionuclide migration, which are released with dissolution of cementitious materials composing engineered barricr. In the previous work, we identified and characterized the colloidal particles in the solutions contacting cement hydrates, OPC and low-alkaline cement paste, and observed the release of the colloid particle. In the present work, we performed same experiments as the last year to confirm the reproducibility of the colloid release. We studied the leaching behavior of the colloid when OPC and low-alkaline cement past contact water flow. Furthermore, the effect of an alumina particle was studied, which is used as a barrier material for colloid migration. The following conclusions were derived: (1)In the solution contacting cement paste, the small amount of particles, which are considered as CaCO or silicate colloids were observed. Thus, the reproducibility of the last work was confirmed. (2)The leaching of colloid in the solution was confirmed by water flow through the cement paste. The concentration of particle was as low as 1010 mL. (3)Al0 powder, with the diameter of 200150m, was found to be effective to some extent as a barrier for a colloid migration from low-alkaline cement paste.
Ueda, Shinzo*; *; *; *
JNC-TJ8400 2000-002, 316 Pages, 2000/02
Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) have been setting migration parameters and developing its database for the 2nd Progress Report of HLW Geological Disposal (H12 Report). In this study, experimentswere carried out to certify the reliability of parameters and scenario, and examination was carried out to survey procedures of quality management. The main contents are as follows. (1)Data acquisition for certification of migration parameters. The effect of NH complex of Pd on distribution coefficients (Kd) of Pd on both bentonite and rocks, and the effect of sulfate and carbonate complexes of Am on Kds of Am on bentonite are investigated. Kds of Pd depended on NH concentration in aqueous. The dependence varied with pH. Effects of sulfate and carbonate complexes on Kds of Am were not remarkable. Apparent diffusivities of Cs in bentonite saturated by saline water were measured. It was confirmed that the apparent diffusivities of Cs in saline water were similar to those in pure water. (2)Evaluation of colloidal effect on nuclide migration. An evaluation of validity of analytical model (Hwang's model) for nuclide migration under existence of colloids and investigation of characterization of colloids in groundwater were carried out. As the results, it was indicated that the Hwang's model was appropriate, and it was found that samplingtechnique influenced concentration and size distribution of colloids. (3)Influence of organic substances on solubility. Solubility of Th was measured under the condition with humic acid and carbonate. It increased roughly in proportion to the concentration of humic acid. And it was remarkably high under the condition with carbonate. It was confirmed that Th solubility data set in H12 report was conservative, even though humic acid existed in groundwater. (4)Use of Mechanistic Models for Safety Assessment. The integrated sorption/diffusion model has been used to calculate K, D and D values ...
Savage, D.*; Arthur, R. C.*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu
JNC-TN8400 2000-003, 56 Pages, 2000/01
Geochemical as well as socio-economic issues associated with the selection of potential sites to host a high-level nuclear waste repository have received considerable attention in repository programs in Europe (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K.) and North America (Canada and the United States), The objective of the present study is to summarize this international experience with particular emphasis on geochemical properties that factor into the adopted site-selection strategies. Results indicate that the geochemical properties of a site play a subordinate role, at best, to other geotechnical properties in the international site-selection approaches. In countries where geochemical properties are acknowledged in the site-selection approach, requirements are stated qualitatively and tend to focus on associated impacts on the stability of the engineered barrier system and on radionuclide transport. Site geochemical properties that are likely to control the lomg-term stability of geochemical conditions and radionuclide migration behavior are unspecified, however. This non-prescriptive approach may be reasonable for purposes of screeing among potential sites, but a better understanding of site properties that are most important in controlling the long-term geochemical evolution of the site over a range of possible scenarios would enable the potential sites to be ranked in terms of their suitability to host a repository.
JNC-TN1400 2000-001, 371 Pages, 2000/01
no abstracts in English
; ; Ueda, Shinzo*; *
JNC-TN8430 99-011, 27 Pages, 1999/11
In radioactive waste disposal, compacted Na-bentonite has been proposed for a buffer material. However, Na-bentonite would change to Ca-bentonite in the long term period. The change of Na-bentonite to Ca-bentonite might cause the change in the data concerning with nuclides migration properties such as permeability, sorption and diffusion. In this study, effective diffusion coefficients of HTO, Cs, I and C in compacted Ca-bentonite which was changed from Na-bentonite, Kunigel V1, were obtained and were compared to published those of Kunigel V1. In addition, effective diffusion coefficients for compacted Ca-bentonite with syncetic sea system water, SW, were obtained in order to investigate effect of solution composition. The magnitude of effective diffusion coefficients in Ca-bentonite are arranged in smaller order as CsHTOIC. It is estimated that their effective diffusion coefficients are same those of Na-bentonite. About effect of solution composition, effective diffusion coefficients of HTO in 1.8g/cm dry density with SW were almost same values with distilled system water, DW. However, effective diffusion coefficients of HTO in lower density were smaller than values with DW. Regarding as effective diffusion coefficients of Cs in 1.8g/cm dry density, the effect of SW could not be observed as well as HTO. However, effective diffusion coefficients of I and C existing as an anion in pore water of bentonite increased by the reduction in the ion exclusion.
; Ijiri, Yuji; *; Watari, Shingo
JNC-TN8400 99-093, 58 Pages, 1999/11
This paper decribes the results of PA studies considering heterogeneous fracture characteristics, for the purpose of contributing for the performance assessment of the natural barrier system PA in H12 report (The second progress report on research and development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan). In this study, 3-D discrete fracture network mode1 (DFN) and 1-D multiple pathways model is applied for 100m scale of rock block. Although nuclide release rate calculated by DFN are widely distributed among the realizations, it is shown that several tens realizations are enough number to understand the stochastic characteristics of the nuclide release. From the data uncertainty analysis, there are no significant effects for the nuclide retardation in fracture geometry parameters such as fracture radius, density and etc. 1-D multiple pathways model is developed with focusing on the heterogeneity of the transmissivity, which has a large effect to the nuclide retardation effects. The nuclide release rate calculated by using 1-D multiple pathways model approximates to the results of DFN. This result also shows that the relatively large fractures/faults that connects disposal tunnel and downstream faults have an important role for performance assessment in natural barrier system.
Ijiri, Yuji; ; *; Watari, Shingo; K.E.Web*; *; *
JNC-TN8400 99-092, 91 Pages, 1999/11
JNC has been developed the performance assessment approaches for both fractured rock and porous rock. An equivalent continuum model is incorporated for solving the radionuclide migration in porous rock, while a discrete fracture network model is incorporated for solving the radionuclide migration in fractured rock (see more detail in Sawada et al. ). This report describes the methodology, the data and the results of the performance assessment of porous rock. From the results of radionuclide migration analyses that were based on the hydrogeological properties obtained from the Neogene sedimentaly rock at the Tono mine, it was found that the release rate of selenium-79 and cesium-135 are dominant in porous rock. The sensitivity analyses using one-dimensional porous model revealed that hydraulic conductivity has more influences on the results than porosity does. In addition, it was found that smaller distribution coefficients of sandstone yield higher release rate than mudstone and tuff, and smaller distribution coefficients of saline water conditions yield higher release rate than fresh water conditions. The radionuclide migration in Neogene sedimentaly rock, where flow in rock matrix as well as in fractures are significant, was evaluated by superposing the results of porous model and fracture model. Since fracture model tends to yield more conservative results than porous model, it is obvious that the performance of Neogene sedimentary rock can be conservatively assessed by fracture model alone. The nuclide migration analyses performed in this report were based on the hydrogeological properties obtained at the depth between 20 meters and 200 meters frrom the ground surface. Therefore, it should be noted that the release rate at the depth of a future repository in Neogene sedimentary rock, 500 m, will be smaller than that shown in this report due to peemeability decrease from 200 m to 500 m.
Ijiri, Yuji; ;
JNC-TN8400 99-091, 69 Pages, 1999/11
It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the charactelistics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified.
; ; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Kunihiko*;
JNC-TN8400 99-087, 41 Pages, 1999/11
Corrosion of the carbon steel overpack leads to a volume expansion since the specific gravity of corrosion products is smaller than carbon steel. The buffer material is compressed due to the corrosive swelling, reducing its thickness and porosity. On the other hand, Buffer material may be extruded into fractures of the surrounding rock and this may lead to a deterioration of the planned functions of the buffer, including retardation of nuclides migration and colloid filtration. In this study, the sensitivity analyses for the effect of volume expansion and intrusion of the buffer material on nuclide migration in the engineering barrier system are carried out. The sensitivity analyses were performed on the decrease in the thickness of the buffer material in the radial direction caused by the corrosive swelling, and the change in the porosity and dry density of the buffer caused by both compaction due to corrosive swelling and intrusion of buffer material. As results, it was found the maximum release rates of relatively shorter half-life nuclides from the outside of the buffer material decreased for taking into account of a volume expansion due to overpack corrosion. On the other hand, the maximum release rates increased when the intrusion of buffer material was also taking into account. It was, however, the maximum release rates of longer half-life nuclides, such as Cs-137 and Np-237, were insensitive to the change of buffer material thickness, and porosity and dry density of buffer.
Ashida, Takashi; ; Sato, Haruo; ; Kitamura, Akira;
JNC-TN8400 99-083, 63 Pages, 1999/11
Studies on the chemical and migration behaviour of radionuclides were carried out in the Quantitative Assessment Radionuclide Migration Experimental Facility (QUALITY)for assuring the relaiability and for improving the propriety of data concerning nuclide migration used in the Second Progress Report for the geoloical disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Five studies for solubility, sorption and diffusion concerning nuclide migration were carried out. The overview of each study and the result is as follows: (1)Study on Effect of Carbonate on Np Solubility. Solubilities of Np(IV) were measured as functions of pH and carbonate concentration under reducing conditions. The obtained data could be well described by considering two hydroxo-carbonate complexes, and those stability constants were estimated and compared with the literature data. Consequently, the data obtained in this study were similar to the literature data. (2)Study on Effect of Carbonate on Np Sorption on Bentonite. Distribution coefficients (Kd) of Np(IV) on smectite were measured as a function of carbonate concentration. The obtained Kd values were approximately constant over the carbonate concentration (total carbon concentration 0.04-0.15M). The results of desorption tests by 1M KCl and HCl at the end of sorption experiments showed two different desorption behaviour; Np(IV) was well removed by HCl for the experiments in low carbonate concentration and by KCl for those in high carbonate concentration. (3)Distribution Coefficient Measurements for Cs, Pb and Cm on Rocks. Distribution Coefficients for Cs, Pb and Cm on Japanese major rocks (basalt, mudstone, sandstone, granodiorite and tuff) were measured as a function of ionic strength. The obtained Kd values were either the same orders or higher compared with data used to both fresh and saline groundwater systems in the Second Progress Report. This indicates that the Kd data used in the Second Progress Report are either proper or conservative. ...
Oda, Chie; Ikeda, Takao*; Shibata, Masahiro
JNC-TN8400 99-073, 112 Pages, 1999/11
In the safety assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), distribution coefficients (Kd) and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides are used to estimate the migration of radionuclides in a near-field of repository. Sn is one of the important nuclides for the safety assessment in Japan and its behavior under reopsitory conditions has not been understood. This report provides the experimental informations for the sorption of Sn on bentonite, tuff and granodiorite, and the diffusion of Sn in a compacted bentonite. The Kd values of Sn on bentonite, tuff and granodiorite were determined by the batch-type sorption experiments as l010[ml/g], 1010[ml/g] and 10 10[ml/g], respectively. The sequential extraction experiments for adsorbed Sn on bentonite were also performed to investigate its desorption behavior. These experimental results indicated that the mechanisms of sorprion onto bentonite were dominated by the sorption reactions on smectite and pyrite and consisted of reversible and irreversible sorption on solid and stable fixation in solid. On the other hands, the apparent diffusion coefficients (Da) in compacted bentonite were measured by the diffusion experiments as 10[m/sec] and l0 [m/sec] for dry densities of 0.4[g/cm] and 1.0[g/cm], respectively. Moreover, the Kd values in compacted bentonite were calculated according to the relationship with the measured Da values, and the solubilities in the porewaters of compacted bentonite were calculated by use of the calculated Kd and the obtained diffusion plofiles. It is found that the derived solubilities almost agreed with the solubiliies of amorphis SnO reported by Amaya et al. (1997), however, the derived Kd values were lower than that measured from the batch-type sorption experiments.
*; *; Ueda, Shinzo*; Shibata, Masahiro
JNC-TN8400 99-069, 41 Pages, 1999/11
As a part of the evaluation for the sorption phenomena of nuclides in compacted bentonite, apparent diffusivities for uranium, neptunium and technetium that are redox-sensitive elements, were measured under reducing conditions. Bentonite used was a sodium bentonite, Kunigel V1. Apparent diffusivities were measured by using in-diffusion method (concentration profile method), under the conditions with varying dry densities of compacted bentonite and sorts of the solution used for water saturation of bentonite in diffusion experiments. As a result of the measurements, following ranges of values for apparent diffusivities were acquired. ...
Tanai, Kenji; Sato, Haruo; *; *
JNC-TN8400 99-045, 108 Pages, 1999/11
In the anaerobic environment in the deep underground water, carbon-steel overpack corrodes and generates molecular hydrogen. It is conceivable that this hydrogen either dissolves into the porewater of the buffer and migrates through the buffer. If the rate of aqueous diffusion of hydlogen is too low compared to the rate of hydrogen generation, the concentration of hydrogen at the overpack surface will increase until a solubility limit is attained and a free hydrogen gas phase forms. It is possible that the pressure in this accumulating gas phase will increase, affecting the stability of the buffer or the surrounding rock mass. There is also a concern of possible effects on nuclide migration, as it is also conceivable that the flow of gas could push out radionuclide-bearing porewater in the buffer when it floes through the buffer. As such, experimental and analytical study must be carried out on such phenomenon to evaluate such potential phenomena. (1)Diffusion experiment of dissolved hydrogen. According to the test result concerning the effective diffusion coefficient of the dissolved hydrogen in buffer material, the effective diffusion coefficient of reference buffer material (70wt% bentonite + 30wt% sand mixture, dry density 1.6Mg m) ranges from 10 m s to 10 ms. The value of the effective diffusion coefficient measured for a dry density of 1.8 Mg m is slightly smaller than the value in that for a dry density 1.6 Mg m. And the effective diffusion coefficient at 60C tends to have slightly larger value than that at 25C. Test results from the foreign countries show the diffusion coefficient in the range between 10 ms to 10ms. Basically, these test results reported here are in the same range as these other results. (2)Gas permeability. Studies of the gas permeabinty of buffer material have been carried out by Pusch et al., Volckaert ...
JNC-TN8400 99-064, 22 Pages, 1999/10
Four kinds of diffusion experiments; (1)through-diffusion(T-D) experiments for compaction direction dependency, (2)in-diffusion(I-D) experiments for composition dependency of silica sand in bentonite, (3)I-D experiments for initial bentonite gain size dependency, and (4)I-D experiments for the restoration property of an artificial single fracture in compacted bentonite, were carried out using tritiated water which is a non-sorbing nuclide to evaluate the effect of pore structural factors for eompacted bentonite on diffudion. For(1), effective diffusivities (De) in Na-bentonites, Kunigel-V1 and Kunipia-F were measured for 1.0 and 1.5 Mgm. For(2), apparent diffusivities (Da) in Kunigel-V1 were measured for 0.8, 1.4 and 1.8 Mgm with silica sand of 30 and 50 wt%. For(3), Da values for 0.8, 1.4 and 1.8 Mgm were measured for a granulated Na-bentonite, OT-9607 which grain-size distribution is in a rang between 0.1 and 5 mm. For (4), Da values in Kunigel-V1 which a single fracture was artificially reproduced and was immersed in distilled water for 7 or 28 days for the restoration of the fracture, were measured for 1.8 Mgm. Although De values in Kunigel-V1 were approximately the same for both compacted directions over the density, De values for perpendicular direction to compacted direction were higher than those for the same direction as compacted direction in Kunipia-F. For composition dependency of silica sand in bentonite, no significant effect of the mixure of silica sand in bentonite on Da was found. For initial bentonite grain size dependency, Da values obtained for OT-960 were approximately the same as those for Kunigel-V1 and no effect of initial grain size of bentonite on diffusion was found. For the restoration property of a single fracture in compacted bentonite, no restoration period dependency on Da was found. Based on this, it may be said that diffusion of nuclides in compacted bentonite, ...
JNC-TN8400 99-061, 9 Pages, 1999/10
The porosities and dry densities for rock samples sampled from a fractured zone (fracture type C: composed of intact ganodiorite, altered ganodiorite and fracture fillings) at the Kamaishi mine were obtained by a water saturation (intrusion) method as input parameters for nuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Consequently, the average porosity, 8.60.43%、 was higher than those of fracture fillings, altered garnodiorite and intact ganodiorite composing fracture type B with a single fracture taken from the Kamaishi mine so far. While, the average dry density, 2.430.0089 Mgm, was lower than those of rocks composing the fracture type B. Based on this, it is predicted that radionuclides are the easiest to migrate in the fracture zone.
JNC-TN8400 99-060, 12 Pages, 1999/10
Apparent diffusion coefficients(Da) of Cs(Cs), Ni(Ni) and Se(SeO) in a Na-bentonite (Kunigel-V1) were measured for a dry density of 1.8 Mgm with silica sand of 30 wt% at room temperature by in-diffusion method to evaluate the effect of the mixture of silica sand on Da in bentonite. The experiments for Cs and Ni were carried out under aerobic condition, but those for Se which is redox sensitive were carried out in an Ar glove-box (O concentration 0.1 ppm). Consequently, no significant effect of silica sand mixture to the bentonite on Da values of Cs and Se was found, and the obtained Da values were approximately the same as those in the system without silica sand reported so far. On the other hand, Da values of Ni in bentonite with silica sand were 2 orders of magnitude lower than those in bentonite without silica sand obtained to date. The Da values of Ni reported so far were obtained using stable isotopic tracer and a tracer solution with fairly high Ni concentration compared with concentration used in this study was introduced. Additionally, it is known that distribution coefficient (Kd) of Ni on Na-montmorillonite which is the major constituent clay mineral of Kunigel-V1 decreases with increasing Ni concentration. Based on this, the abrupt decrease in Da values of Ni for bentonite with silica sand is considered to be due to the difference of sorption caused by the difference of Ni concentration in the porewater of bentonite.